Metaphors in Esperanza Rising: “Las Papas” | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M1:U2:L4

Metaphors in Esperanza Rising: “Las Papas”

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RL.5.2: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
  • RL.5.5: Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
  • RI.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • L.5.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • L.5.4a: Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • L.5.4b: Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
  • L.5.4c: Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • L.5.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.5.5a: Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can describe how pages 158-178 of Esperanza Rising contribute to the overall structure of the story. (RL.5.1, RL.5.5)
  • I can interpret metaphors in "Las Papas." (RL.5.1, RL.5.2, L.5.5a)
  • I can identify themes in Esperanza Rising. (RL.5.1, RL.5.2)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Connections between Esperanza Rising and articles of the UDHR on sticky notes
  • Metaphors Note-catcher: Abuelita's Blanket (RL.5.1, RL.5.2, L.5.5a)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

B. Engaging the Reader: "Las Papas" of Esperanza Rising (20 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Making Connections between the UDHR and "Las Papas" (10 minutes)

B. Interpreting Metaphors in "Las Papas" (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Whole Group Share (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Complete Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Las Papas" in your Unit 2 Homework.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • This lesson follows a similar arc to Lesson 2. Students read the next chapter of Esperanza Rising, "Las Papas," and they analyze how the chapter fits into the overall structure of the text (RL.5.1, RL.5.5). They then make connections between this chapter and the UDHR, looking for evidence of threats to human rights (RI.5.1).
  • Students then interpret metaphors about Abuelita's blanket across the novel in expert triads (RL.5.1, L.5.5a). They use their interpretation of the metaphors to identify themes (RL.5.2).
  • Although the lesson is written for "Las Papas" to be a teacher read-aloud, this can be organized in different ways to meet the needs of your students. For example, students could read this in pairs or triads, taking turns to read, with a teacher-led smaller group of students who need additional support.
  • Many of the articles of the UDHR could be applied to each chapter. Students may make other suggestions than those recorded on How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (example, for teacher reference).
  • In this lesson, the habit of character focus is on working to become an ethical person. The characteristic that students practice is respect as volunteers share out personal reflections on what happened in Esperanza Rising.
  • Students practice their fluency in this lesson by following along and reading silently in their heads as the teacher reads aloud "Las Papas" during Opening B.
  • The research reading that students complete for homework will help build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to human rights. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In Lesson 2, students read a chapter of Esperanza Rising and made connections to the UDHR before interpreting the metaphors in that chapter, just as they will in this lesson with the next chapter, "Las Papas."
  • Continue to use Goal 1 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support reading the text to interpret the metaphors. Consider grouping students who will need additional support with this in one group to receive teacher support.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review student note-catchers as students work to identify common issues. Use these common issues as teaching points in the whole group share-out.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist as students read Esperanza Rising in Opening B.  See the Tools page.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Phonics and Word Recognition Checklist (Grade 5) as students read Esperanza Rising in Opening B.  See the Tools page.
  • Collect homework from Lesson 2: Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Las Almendras." Refer to Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Las Almendras" (example, for teacher reference) as necessary (see supporting materials).

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will read the next chapter in Esperanza Rising, "Los Aguacates," and make connections between this chapter and the UDHR.

In Advance

  • Strategically group students into triads, with at least one strong reader per triad.
  • Review:
    • Metaphors Note-catcher: Abuelita's Blanket (example, for teacher reference) to familiarize yourself with what students will be required to do in the lesson.
    • Thumb-O-Meter protocol. See Classroom Protocols.
  • Post: Learning targets and applicable anchor charts.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time B: Students complete their note-catchers in a word-processing document--for example, a Google Doc--using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software such as Dictation.io.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.B.6, 5.I.B.8, 5.1.C.12, 5.II.A.1, and 5.II.A.2

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to discuss how a chapter in Esperanza Rising fits into the overall structure of the story; make connections between the events in the chapter and the simplified version of the UDHR; and analyze how a metaphor, which runs throughout the story, contributes to a theme in the book.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to analyze the meaning of the metaphors about Abuelita's blanket and how they come together to convey an overall theme. Assure students that they will have many opportunities during this unit to interpret metaphors and think about theme. See the Meeting Students' Needs column for additional suggestions.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Invite a student to paraphrase the key points of pages 158-178 of Esperanza Rising in more comprehensible language for students who need heavier support.
  • Encourage students to add to the graphic organizer they began in Unit 1 to track (and illustrate) the main events in pages 158-178 of Esperanza Rising against the structure of the story. Invite them to explain this graphic organizer to students who need heavier support.
  • During the Mini Language Dive in Opening B, challenge students to generate questions about the sentence in Esperanza Rising before asking the prepared questions. Example: "What questions can we ask about this sentence? Let's see if we can answer them together."

For heavier support:

  • Buy or ask for large paint chips from a local hardware or paint store, or print them online. Write the words theme, message, and lesson, each one on a different shade of the paint chip. Place them on the wall during Opening A and discuss the shades of meaning in relation to metaphors in Esperanza Rising.
  • During the reading of Esperanza Rising, stop often to check for comprehension. Dictate key sentences for students to recite so that they practice using verbal language. Encourage students to act out and sketch key sentences.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Throughout this unit, students incorporate what they are reading into their writing. Consider ways to facilitate increased comprehension by repeatedly offering opportunities for students to access prior knowledge and review previous material.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): Some students may find it overwhelming to analyze metaphors. Provide scaffolded practice for students who may need additional support with generating the theme. Also consider having students provide evidence for themes that their classmates generate.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Many students are more engaged when they are given choices. Consider providing multiple versions of the note-catcher with lines to help support students' fine motor skills. This way, students can make decisions regarding what is best for their own learning.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • metaphor, interpret, theme (L)

Materials

  • Esperanza Rising (from Unit 1, Lesson 2; one per student)
  • Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2)
  • Experiences with Threats against Human Rights anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2; added to during Opening B)
  • Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2; added to during Opening B; see supporting materials)
  • Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Simplified version of the UDHR (from Unit 1, Lesson 4; one per student)
  • How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 4; added to during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Sticky notes (three per student)
  • Quoting Accurately from the Text handout (from Unit 1, Lesson 5; one per student and one to display)
  • Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Metaphors Note-catcher: Abuelita's Blanket (one per student and one to display)
  • Metaphors Note-catcher: Abuelita's Blanket (example, for teacher reference)
  • Strategies to Answer Selected Response Questions anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 5)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Move students into triads and invite them to label themselves A, B, and C.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can describe how pages 158-178 of Esperanza Rising contribute to the overall structure of the story."

"I can interpret metaphors in 'Las Papas.'"

"I can identify themes in Esperanza Rising."

  • Remind students that they saw the first and second learning targets in Lesson 2 and remind them of what a metaphor is and what interpret means.
  • Focus students on the third learning target and underline the word theme.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their triad and select volunteers to share out:

"What is a theme?" (A theme is an idea that the author wants you to understand from reading a story, like a main idea in an informative text. It is often a message or a lesson that the author wants you to be able to take away to apply to your own life.)

  • Record theme on the Academic Word Wall and invite students to add translations in home languages in different colors.
  • Tell students that in this lesson they will be reading "Las Papas," the next chapter of Esperanza Rising. They will analyze how the chapter fits into the overall structure of the story, make connections with the UDHR, and interpret metaphors in order to identify themes.
  • For ELLs: Ask: "What is the difference between the words interpret, interpreter, and interpretation?" (Interpret is a verb, or an action word, that means to explain or figure out the meaning of something. Interpreter is a noun that means someone who explains something. Interpretation is a noun that means the way something is explained or understood.)
  • Help students generalize skills across lessons by asking them to share out one strategy they learned about reaching these learning targets from Lesson 2. (MMR)

B. Engaging the Reader: "Las Papas" of Esperanza Rising (20 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their copies of Esperanza Rising and to turn to page 158, "Las Papas."
  • Begin by pointing out the title of this chapter and select volunteers to share:

"What does 'Las Papas' mean in English? How do you know?" (potatoes: it says so underneath "Las Papas")

  • Add Las Papas to the Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart.
  • Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads as you read aloud pages 158-178, adding words to the Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart as they come up. Invite Spanish speakers to provide the translation and record the Spanish on the anchor chart.
  • After reading, invite students to reflect on the following question by thinking, writing, or drawing. Students must be silent when they do this, though:

"What did this part of the story make you think about?"

  • After 3 minutes, refocus whole group.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and remind them of the habit of character recorded: respect.
  • Invite volunteers to share out. Do not force anyone to share ideas with the group, but provide those who desire it with the chance to voice their reflections.
  • As students share out, capture any threats against human rights that students share on the Experiences with Threats against Human Rights anchor chart.
  • Focus students on the Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart. Ask them to turn and talk to their triad, and cold call students to share out:

"What is the gist of this chapter?" (Mama goes into hospital, and Esperanza begins to work to pay the medical bills.)

"Looking at the key, where do you think this part of the story fits into the structure? Why?" (rising action; there still hasn't been a turning point yet, and now that Mama is in the hospital we know that something else is going to happen to change the direction of the story)

  • Add this to the anchor chart. Refer to Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Direct students' attention to the first learning target:

"I can describe how pages 158-178 of Esperanza Rising contribute to the overall structure of the story."

  • Tell students they are now going to use the Thumb-O-Meter protocol to reflect on their progress toward this learning target. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lesson 1 and review as necessary. Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the Thumb-O-Meter protocol using the first learning target. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: Before reading, invite students to summarize the first nine chapters of Esperanza Rising in 1 minute or less (with feedback) and then again in 30 seconds or less with a partner. (MMR, MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of chunks from a key sentence of this chapter of Esperanza Rising. Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Example:
    • "Place your finger on the sentence: Each night she went to bed, she put the growing blanket back over Mama, covering her in hopeful color." Read the sentence aloud as students follow along.
    • "What is the gist of this sentence?" (Responses will vary.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk Each night she went to bed. Who is she? How do you know?" (Esperanza. The sentence before this one tells us.)
    • "Place your finger on Each night. What does this chunk tell us?" (It tells us that what the author describes in this sentence happened every night.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk she put the growing blanket back over Mama. What does this chunk tell us?" (Esperanza laid the blanket over Mama.) "What does the author mean by growing blanket?" (Esperanza is working on it, just as Abuelita asked her to, so it is getting bigger.)
    • "Why is Esperanza putting the growing blanket over Mama?" (Because Mama is sick in bed.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk covering her in hopeful color. Why do you think the author says that she covered her in hopeful color? What, in the text, makes you think so?" (Responses will vary, but may include: The blanket had a lot of color in it. The sentence before this one says that women from the camp brought Esperanza yarn and she didn't care if the colors didn't match. Mama was sick, and the text says she was pale. Esperanza hoped the blanket would help Mama get better.)
    • "What do you think the gist of this sentence is now?" (Every night Esperanza covered Mama with the colorful blanket hoping it would help her get better.)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Making Connections between the UDHR and "Las Papas" (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their simplified version of the UDHR.
  • Post the following question and tell students they are going to have 5 minutes to work with their triad to look over the simplified UDHR text and "Las Papas" in Esperanza Rising and answer this question:

"Which human rights have been threatened in 'Las Papas'?"

  • Focus students on the How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart.
  • Tell students that when they find instances of this, they need to record the number of the article that it goes against on a sticky note and stick it in their book to remind them.
  • Distribute sticky notes.
  • After 5 minutes, refocus the whole group. Invite students to retrieve their Quoting Accurately from the Text handout and quickly review it.
  • Cold call students to share out. Encourage them to provide you with accurate quotes from the text, and mark those quotes using quotation marks. As students share out, capture their responses on the anchor chart. Refer to How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: Consider minimizing the complexity of this task by marking key sections of the chapter and asking students why these sections illustrate threats to human rights. (MMR, MMAE)

B. Interpreting Metaphors in "Las Papas" (20 minutes)

  • Refocus students on the learning targets and read the last two aloud:

"I can interpret metaphors in 'Las Papas.'"

"I can identify themes in Esperanza Rising."

  • Remind students that authors use figurative language to paint a picture that allows them to show, not tell, their ideas.
  • Focus students on the Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart and remind them of the metaphors they interpreted in Lesson 2.
  • Display page 159. Invite students to follow along, chorally reading with you as you reread aloud page 159 from "Esperanza ran to her ..." to "... Mama would not die" on page 161.
  • Tell students that today they will practice working with another metaphor that runs throughout the book: Abuelita's blanket.
  • Tell students that because this metaphor runs throughout the book, it suggests themes, ideas that the author wants us to take away.
  • Tell students that they will be working in triads, with different triads looking at a different excerpt in the book when Abuelita's blanket is used as a metaphor and interpreting what it means.
  • Distribute and display the Metaphors Note-catcher: Abuelita's Blanket.
  • Ensure students understand that each of the metaphors on the note-catcher is from a different point in the story about Abuelita's blanket.
  • Work through the first metaphor (Ex.) on the note-catcher as a whole group to model how to complete the note-catcher. Remind students that her hopes and wishes are not literally stitched in, which is why we describe this as figurative language. Refer to Metaphors Note-catcher: Abuelita's Blanket (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Assign each triad one of the rows on the note-catcher to work on (1-3). Assign them as equally as possible.
  • Invite students to find the excerpt in their text and to work together to complete their row of the note-catcher.
  • Circulate to support students in completing their row of the note-catcher.
  • After 12 minutes, refocus whole group. Tell students that they are now going to get into new triads with students who worked on the other metaphors. Explain that they will do this silently by holding up the number of fingers of the metaphor they worked on and moving quietly and safely to sit with two students holding the other numbers. Each triad should have a student who worked on rows 1, 2, and 3.
  • Invite students to silently get into new triads.
  • Allocate 2 minutes for each person in the triad to share, beginning with 3, then 2, then 1, and invite students to update their note-catchers based on what they learn as they listen to the students in their new triads.
  • For ELLs: Continue to invite students to share examples of metaphors and their meanings in their home languages and to add them to the chart started in Lesson 2.
  • For ELLs: Consider working closely with a group of students who need heavier support to discuss and fill in the note-catcher for one metaphor on the Metaphors Note-catcher: Abuelita's Blanket. To prepare for sharing in triads, invite students to orally describe the meaning of the metaphor in 30 seconds or less. Have them share out and give them feedback on their language use.
  • To activate students' prior knowledge, review figurative language by providing examples of metaphors with corresponding images that have the figurative and literal meaning. Have students verbally explain the meaning of the metaphor. (MMR)
  • For students who may need additional support with fine motor skills: Offer choice with the graphic organizer by providing a template that includes lines within the boxes. (MMR, MME)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Whole Group Share (5 minutes)

  • Refocus whole group.
  • Using total participation techniques, select students to share whole group to help you fill in the Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart. Refer to Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • If productive, cue students to clarify the conversation by confirming what they mean:

"So, do you mean _____?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Focus students on the selected response question at the bottom of their note-catcher. Remind students of the Strategies to Answer Selected Response Questions anchor chart. Read the question and the possible answers aloud and invite students to work in pairs to underline the best answers. Ensure students understand that because the word answers is plural, they will underline multiple options to answer this question.

"Abuelita's blanket is woven throughout the story. What themes does this metaphor convey? Underline the best answers.

  • Tell students they are now going to use the Thumb-O-Meter protocol to reflect on their progress toward the second and third learning targets. Remind them that they used this protocol earlier in the lesson and review as necessary. Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the Thumb-O-Meter protocol using the second learning target. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • Repeat this process with the third learning target and for students to self-assess how well they showed respect in this lesson.
  • For ELLs: Display and repeat the statement and question: "Abuelita's blanket is woven throughout the story. What themes does this metaphor convey?" Rephrase the statement and question: "Abuelita's blanket is a metaphor throughout the story. What did the author want this metaphor to make us think about?"
  • For students who may need additional support: Even if they cannot generate a theme independently, ask them to repeat or explain a classmate's answer in reflection. (MMR, MMAE)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Complete Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Las Papas" in your Unit 2 Homework.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs: For heavier support, consider providing key quotes from the chapter for students to use when completing Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Las Papas."
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)

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