Making Connections: “Los Aguacates” and Article 2 of the UDHR | EL Education Curriculum

You are here

ELA G5:M1:U2:L5

Making Connections: “Los Aguacates” and Article 2 of the UDHR

You are here:

These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RL.5.5: Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
  • RI.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can describe how pages 179-198 of Esperanza Rising contribute to the overall structure of the story. (RL.5.1, RL.5.5)
  • I can quote accurately from Esperanza Rising and the UDHR to answer questions about "Los Aguacates." (RL.5.1, RI.5.1)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Making Connections between "Los Aguacates" and the UDHR (RL.5.1, RI.5.1)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

B. Engaging the Reader: "Los Aguacates" of Esperanza Rising (20 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Making Connections between the UDHR and "Los Aguacates" (10 minutes)

B. Answering Questions about "Los Aguacates" (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Connecting Esperanza Rising, the UDHR, and the Present: A Life Like Mine (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students read the next chapter of Esperanza Rising, "Los Aguacates," and they analyze how the chapter fits into the overall structure of the text (RL.5.1, RL.5.5). They then make connections between this chapter and the UDHR, looking for evidence of threats to human rights, before analyzing parts of the chapter in more detail to answer questions about the text (RL.5.1, RI.5.1).
  • The content of this chapter has a significant focus on discrimination, which is why students read it more closely to answer questions. Students are given the opportunity to share stories about discrimination after answering the questions. To finish the lesson on a positive note, students hear a read-aloud of pages of A Life Like Mine that are focused on identify in order to celebrate diversity and identity. 
  • Although the lesson is written for "Los Aguacates" to be a teacher read-aloud, this can be organized in different ways to meet the needs of your students. For example, students could read this in pairs or triads, taking turns to read, with a teacher-led smaller group of students who need additional support.
  • Many of the articles of the UDHR could be applied to each chapter. Students may make other suggestions than those recorded on How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (example, for teacher reference).
  • In this lesson, the habit of character focus is on working to become an ethical person. The characteristics that students practice are respect, empathy, and compassion as volunteers share out personal reflections on what happened in Esperanza Rising.
  • Students practice their fluency in this lesson by following along and reading silently in their heads as the teacher reads aloud "Los Aguacates" during Opening B, and pages 100-103 of A Life Like Mine during Closing and Assessment A.
  • The research reading that students complete for homework will help build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to human rights. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In Unit 1, students closely read Article 2 of the UDHR. This lesson, as well as the questions students answer about this chapter of the text, build on this foundation.
  • Continue to use Goal 1 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support with rereading Esperanza Rising to answer questions about the text. Consider grouping students who will need additional support with this in one group to receive teacher support.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review question sheets as students are working on them and use common issues as teaching points during the whole group share-out.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist as students read Esperanza Rising in Opening B.  See the Tools page.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Phonics and Word Recognition Checklist (Grade 5) as students read Esperanza Rising in Opening B.  See the Tools page.
  • Collect student homework: Character Reaction Paragraph: Esperanza or Mama, and Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Las Ciruelas." Refer to Character Reaction Paragraph: Mama (example, for teacher reference), Character Reaction Paragraph: Esperanza (example, for teacher reference), and Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Las Ciruelas" (example, for teacher reference) as necessary (see supporting materials).

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will read the next chapter in Esperanza Rising, "Los Esparragos," and continue the work from Lessons 1 and 3 on analyzing character reactions.

In Advance

  • Strategically pair students for work during this lesson, with at least one strong reader.
  • Prepare technology necessary to play "Don't Discriminate" in Work Time B (see Technology and Multimedia). Note that students already saw this video in Unit 1.
  • Review:
    • Making Connections between "Los Aguacates" and the UDHR questions and the corresponding text to identify in advance any students who may be particularly sensitive to these issues.
    • Pages of A Life Like Mine to identify in advance students who may be particularly sensitive to the issues discussed.
    • Thumb-O-Meter protocol. See Classroom Protocols.
  • Post: Learning targets and applicable anchor charts.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time B: Students complete their note-catchers in a word-processing document--for example, a Google Doc--using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software such as Dictation.io.
  • Work Time B: Video: "Don't Discriminate." Youth for Human Rights. Web. Accessed Apr. 20, 2016.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.B.6, 5.I.B.8, and 5.II.A.1

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by providing a respectful and safe space for students to reflect on the sensitive events in Esperanza Rising, to answer questions and make connections between the events in the chapter and the UDHR, to discuss how those events fit into the overall structure of the story, and to share personal experiences of discrimination as they feel led.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to complete the Making Connections between "Los Aguacates" and the UDHR sheet in the amount of time allotted and without teacher guidance. See the Meeting Students' Needs column for specific support suggestions.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Invite a student to paraphrase the key points of pages 179-198 of Esperanza Rising and Article 2 in more comprehensible language for students who need heavier support.
  • During the Mini Language Dive in Opening B, challenge students to generate questions about the sentence in Esperanza Rising before asking the prepared questions. Example: "What questions can we ask about this sentence? Let's see if we can answer them together."
  • Encourage students to add to the graphic organizer they began in Unit 1 to track (and illustrate) the main events in pages 179-198 of Esperanza Rising against the structure of the story. Invite them to explain this graphic organizer to students who need heavier support.

For heavier support:

  • During the reading of Esperanza Rising, stop often to check for comprehension. Dictate key sentences for students to recite so that they practice using verbal language. Encourage students to act out and sketch key sentences.
  • Transform the investigation of the How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart into a kinesthetic activity. Copy the new cells of the anchor chart onto separate cards or sticky notes. Students can paste the cards into the correct location on the anchor chart.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Throughout this unit, students incorporate what they are reading into their writing. Consider ways to facilitate increased comprehension by repeatedly offering opportunities for students to access prior knowledge and review previous material.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): For some students, it may be overwhelming to comprehend the entire text and make connections between the UDHR and "Los Aguacates." Consider decreasing the complexity of the task by pre-highlighting key portions of the text for students to focus on.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): In the basic structure of this lesson, students share out experiences with discrimination if they feel comfortable. This is a great way to make the struggle for human rights relevant and interesting to students. Consider making the UDHR even more relevant to students (or if they do not have personal experience with discrimination) by engaging in critical discussions about current 

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • defy (L)

Materials

  • Esperanza Rising (from Unit 1, Lesson 2; one per student)
  • Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2)
  • Experiences with Threats against Human Rights anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2; added to during Opening B)
  • Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2; added to during Opening B; see supporting materials)
  • Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Vocabulary logs (from Unit 1, Lesson 3; one per student)
  • Simplified version of the UDHR (from Unit 1, Lesson 4; one per student)
  • How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 4; added to during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Sticky notes (three per student)
  • Quoting Accurately from the Text handout (from Unit 1, Lesson 5; one per student and one to display)
  • Making Connections between "Los Aguacates" and the UDHR (one per student and one to display)
  • Making Connections between "Los Aguacates" and the UDHR (example, for teacher reference)
  • Article 2 of the UDHR (from Unit 1, Lesson 5; see Close Reading Note-catcher: Article 2 of the UDHR)
  • "Don't Discriminate" (from Unit 1, Lesson 8; video; play in entirety; see Teaching Notes)
  • A Life Like Mine (from Unit 1, Lesson 7; one for teacher read-aloud)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Move students into pairs and invite them to label themselves A and B.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can describe how pages 179-198 of Esperanza Rising contribute to the overall structure of the story."

"I can quote accurately from Esperanza Rising and the UDHR to answer questions about 'Los Aguacates.'"

  • Remind students that they have seen the first learning target many times in Unit 1 and in this unit.
  • Ask students to turn and talk to their partner, and cold call students to share out:

"Based on these learning targets, what do you think you will be doing in this lesson?" (reading a new chapter of Esperanza Rising, and quoting accurately to answer questions about it while making connections to the UDHR)

  • Help students generalize skills across lessons by asking the students to share out one strategy they learned about reaching these learning targets from Unit 1. (MMR)
  • Provide differentiated mentors by purposefully pre-selecting student partnerships. You may need to coach the mentors to engage with their partner and share their thought process. This can be done during questioning as you circulate the room. (MMAE)

B. Engaging the Reader: "Los Aguacates" of Esperanza Rising (20 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their copies of Esperanza Rising and to turn to page 179, "Los Aguacates."
  • Begin by pointing out the title of this chapter and select volunteers to share:

"What does Los Aguacates mean in English? How do you know?" (avocados: it says so underneath "Los Aguacates")

  • Add Las Aguacates to the Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart.
  • Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads as you read aloud pages 179-198, adding words to the Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart as they come up. Invite Spanish speakers to provide the translation and record the Spanish on the anchor chart.
  • Remind students that the novel is set during the 1920s and 1930s, which was a long time ago. Point out that on page 188, the author uses the word Negroes, which is a word people used back then to refer to African Americans. Explain that today that word is considered offensive.
  • After reading, invite students to reflect on the following question by thinking, writing, or drawing. Students must be silent when they do this, though:

"What did this part of the story make you think about?"

  • After 3 minutes, refocus whole group.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and remind them of the habit of character recorded: respect.
  • Invite volunteers to share out. Do not force anyone to share ideas with the group, but provide those who desire it with the chance to voice their reflections.
  • As students share out, capture any threats against human rights that students share on the Experiences with Threats against Human Rights anchor chart.
  • Focus students on the Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart. Ask students to turn and talk to their partner, and cold call students to share out:

"What is the gist of this chapter?" (Mama has pneumonia, and Miguel and Esperanza take a trip to the market, taking a detour on the way back to take Marta back to the strikers camp.)

"Looking at the key, where do you think this part of the story fits into the structure? Why?" (rising action; there is still no turning point for Esperanza. In fact, things are getting worse, as her mother is becoming more ill)

  • Add this to the anchor chart. Refer to Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Invite students to share any new words, adding any unfamiliar words to their vocabulary logs. Add any new words to the academic word wall and domain-specific word wall, and invite students to add translations in native languages.
  • Tell students they are now going to use the Thumb-O-Meter protocol to reflect on their progress toward the first learning target. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lesson 4 and review as necessary. Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the Thumb-O-Meter protocol using the first learning target. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: Before reading, invite students to summarize the first ten chapters of Esperanza Rising in 1 minute or less (with feedback) and then again in 30 seconds or less with a partner. (MMR, MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of chunks from a key sentence of this chapter of Esperanza Rising. Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Example:
    • "Place your finger on the sentence: He is getting rich on other people's bad manners." Read the sentence aloud as students follow along.
    • "What is the gist of this sentence?" (Responses will vary.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk He. Who is he? How do you know?" (Mr. Yakota. The previous sentence tells us.) "How do Esperanza and Miguel know him?" (He owns the Japanese market they like to shop at.) 
    • "Why do Esperanza and Miguel like to shop at Mr Yakota's store? What, in the text, makes you think so?" (Earlier in text, it says that Mr. Yakota is kind to them, stocks many things they need, and treats them like people.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk other people's bad manners. What is manners in our home languages?" (modales in Spanish.) Invite all students to repeat the translation in a home language other than their own.
    • "What does manners mean? You can use your dictionaries." (the way we behave with other people)
    • "What does this chunk tell us about the other people's manners? "Who are the other people Miguel refers to in this chunk? How do you know?" (They are other store owners who discriminate against Mexicans. They do not have good manners. Earlier in the paragraph, Miguel says that at other markets, they get stared at and get called "dirty greasers.")
    • "What do you think Miguel means when he says that Mr. Yakota is getting rich on other people's bad manners?" (Because other store owners treat them badly, they drive miles out of their way to shop at Mr. Yakota's store. There, they are treated like people, and because they shop there, Mr. Yakota makes money from their business.)
    • "What connection can you make between your understanding of this sentence and your understanding of human rights?" (Mr. Yakota does not discriminate against Mexicans like the other store owners do. He treats them like people, even though they are different from him.)
    • For ELLs: Ask:
    • "What are the series of conflicts and crises in this chapter leading toward climax? What do you think will happen next?" (Esperanza finds out Mama has pneumonia; Miguel and Esperanza have to drive miles out of their way to shop at a market where they are treated fairly; they give Marta and her mother a ride back to the striker's camp; Esperanza is surprised at how bad the living conditions are at the camp.)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Making Connections between the UDHR and "Los Aguacates" (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their simplified version of the UDHR.
  • Post the following question and tell students they are going to have 5 minutes to work with their partner to look over the simplified UDHR text and "Los Aguacates" in Esperanza Rising and answer this question:

"Which human rights have been threatened in 'Los Aguacates'?"

  • Focus students on the How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart.
  • Tell students that when they find instances of this, they need to record the number of the article that it goes against on a sticky note and stick it in their book to remind them.
  • Distribute sticky notes.
  • After 5 minutes, refocus the whole group. Invite students to retrieve their Quoting Accurately from the Text handout and quickly review it.
  • Cold call students to share out. Encourage students to provide you with accurate quotes from the text, and mark those quotes using quotation marks. As students share out, capture their responses on the anchor chart. Refer to How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • For ELLs: To provide heavier support, when a learning target requires students to make connections between Esperanza Rising and the UDHR, display a note that symbolizes the learning target and say the learning target. Example:
    • "Los Aguacates" <-> Articles 2, 3, and 25
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Consider minimizing the complexity of the task by marking key sections of the chapter and asking students why these sections illustrate threats to human rights. (MMR, MMAE)

B. Answering Questions about "Los Aguacates" (20 minutes)

  • Tell students that they are going to dig into some of the issues presented in this chapter a little more now.
  • Remind them that this novel is set in the 1920s and 1930s, so many years ago, and provides a window into how things were then. Explain that some of the issues discussed in this chapter are still present today, and that they will discuss those issues after answering the questions.
  • Distribute and display Making Connections between "Los Aguacates" and the UDHR.
  • Tell students they are going to work with their partner to answer these questions. Read the questions aloud for the whole group.
  • Invite students to begin. Circulate to support them in answering the questions, reminding them to refer to their Quoting Accurately from the Text handout to ensure they are citing evidence from the text to support their answers.
  • With 5 minutes remaining in Work Time B, refocus whole group.
  • Go through each of the questions and use total participation techniques to select students to share out. Refer to Making Connections between "Los Aguacates" and the UDHR (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Remind students that some of these issues are still relevant today, and that people today are still discriminated against for many reasons, including the color of their skin, where they are from, the language they speak, the religion they practice, and/or if they have a disability.
  • Display Article 2 of the UDHR. Invite students to follow along, chorally reading with you as you read it aloud.
  • Tell students you are now going to play "Don't Discriminate." Remind them that they viewed this video in Unit 1. This time, as they watch it, they should consider how this connects to what they read in Esperanza Rising in this lesson.
  • Invite students who would like to share personal stories about discrimination with the whole group. Focus students on the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and remind them of the habits of character recorded--respect, empathy, and compassion--before inviting volunteers to share their ideas aloud. Do not force anyone to share ideas with the group, but provide those who desire it with the chance to voice their reflections.
  • As students share out, capture any threats against human rights students share on the Experiences with Threats against Human Rights anchor chart.
  • Reinforce the message that the UDHR is a set of guidelines that help us treat one another respectfully and help all of us live safe and happy lives.
  • Tell students they are now going to use the Thumb-O-Meter protocol to reflect on their progress toward the second learning target. Remind them that they used this protocol earlier in the lesson and review as necessary. Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the Thumb-O-Meter protocol using the second learning target. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • For ELLs: Before writing, invite pairs to discuss and respond to the questions orally.
  • For ELLs: To provide heavier support, consider highlighting relevant information on the How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart and encourage students to refer to the chart when answering the questions.
  • For ELLs: Consider continuing with home language groups from Unit 1 and inviting students to watch the video in one of the many home languages provided at the Youth for Human Rights website.
  • Provide differentiated mentors by purposefully pre-selecting student partnerships. You may need to coach the mentors to engage with their partner and share their thought process. This can be done during questioning as you circulate the room. (MMAE)
  • Offer choice with the graphic organizer by providing a template that includes lines within the boxes to help support fine motor skills. (MMR, MME)
  • In additional to having students share out experiences, consider making the UDHR relevant to students by engaging in critical discussions about current events such as police violence and the Black Lives Matter Movement, the Syrian refugee crisis, etc. (MME)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Connecting Esperanza Rising, the UDHR, and the Present: A Life Like Mine (5 minutes)

  • Refocus whole group.
  • Show students the cover of A Life Like Mine. Remind them that this book is based on a set of rights, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that were written especially for children called The Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • Display page 100. Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads as you read aloud pages 100-103.
  • Point out that page 100 says that every child has the right to an identity. Based on what they read, select a volunteer to share what they think identity means. Clarify and write the word and definition on the board (who someone is; someone's name, where they are from, their beliefs, traditions, nationality, etc.) Add this word to the Domain-Specific Word Wall and invite students to add translations in home languages.
  • Offer examples from pages 104-111 of A Life Like Mine of ways children around the world celebrate their identity. Invite volunteers to share an aspect of their identity they are proud of or celebrate at home or in their country of origin.
  • Invite students to Think-Pair-Share, leaving adequate time for each partner to think, to ask each other the question, and share:

"What connections can you make between what we just read in this book and the events in Esperanza Rising?" (Your identity is something to be proud of and to be celebrated, while in Esperanza Rising people were treated badly because of where they came from.)

  • If productive, cue students to expand the conversation by giving an example:

"Can you give an example?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Guide students through the Thumb-O-Meter protocol to self-assess how well they showed respect, empathy, and compassion in this lesson.
  • Some students may need more scaffolded questions in order to participate in the Think-Pair-Share activity. For example, "What is the gist/main idea of this excerpt from A Life Like Mine?" and "How are Esperanza and her family treated based on their Mexican identity?" (MMR)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)

Get updates about our new K-5 curriculum as new materials and tools debut.

Sign Up