Setting Purpose: From Engagement Text to Decodables | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:S1:C2:L9

Setting Purpose: From Engagement Text to Decodables

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Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can retell the events from the story "Pat's Mess."
  • Opening B (optional): Using evidence from the text, I can answer questions about the story "Pat's Mess."
  • Work Time A: I can read high-frequency words and words that "don't play fair." (RF.1.3)
    • I can read first-grade words that "don't play fair" in isolation.
    • I can decode regularly spelled one-syllable words by mapping graphemes to phonemes.
  • Work Time B: I can read the decodable text "Pat's Mess." (RF.1.3)
    • I can decode regularly spelled one-syllable words by mapping graphemes to phonemes.
    • I can read words with an "-s" ending.
    • I can read first-grade words that "don't play fair" in text.
    • I can read and understand grade-level texts.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during Work Time. Determine whether they can independently find a given letter or word, decode VC and CVC, and identify familiar sounds in or automatically read high-frequency words.



1. Opening (3-5 minutes)

A. Introducing Engagement Text Read-aloud: "Pat's Mess"

B. Introducing Comprehension Conversation (optional)

2. Work Time (10-15 minutes)

A. Introducing High-Frequency Words: "a," "an," "can," "has," "is," "the," "this"

B. Introducing Decodable Reader: Partner Search and Read

3. Closing and Assessment (2 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Comprehension Conversation questions (if different from those suggested in Opening B)
    • High-Frequency Word Cards (see supporting Materials)
    • Interactive Word Wall (one for display)
    • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)
  • Pre-determine partnerships for retelling during Opening A and Work Time B.


Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, decode, high-frequency, noun, plural, proficient, skills (L)
  • cooking tools, disaster, tornado (T)


  • Enlarged Decodable Reader: "Pat's Mess" (one to display)
  • Engagement Text: "Pat's Mess" (one for teacher read-aloud)
  • Movable letters (magnetic letters, Letter Cards in a pocket chart, or other letters that can be displayed and moved; one each for teacher modeling: letters in "a," "an," "can," "has," "is," "the," "this")
  • High-Frequency Word Cards (new; teacher-created; seven)
  • Interactive Word Wall (new; teacher-created; see Teaching Notes)
  • Decodable Reader: "Pat's Mess" (one per student)
  • Highlighters (one per student and one for teacher)
  • Highlighter tape (optional; for the teacher to use to highlight the Decodable Reader)
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)


OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Introducing Engagement Text Read-aloud: "Pat's Mess"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Gather round together, together, together. It's time to hear a story, a story, a story. It's time to hear a story and say what you've learned."

  • Display the Enlarged Decodable Reader: "Pat's Mess."
  • Introduce a read-aloud of the Engagement Text: "Pat's Mess":

1. Teacher says: "Listen carefully as I read today's story, 'Pat's Mess.' You will hear words in the story that we learned in our last lesson. After I am finished reading, you will retell the story to a partner and answer some questions about it."

2. Teacher reads the story aloud once or twice, slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption, pointing to the accompanying illustration card for each section.

3. Students turn to a partner and retell the story in their own words.

  • For students who may need additional support retelling the story: Consider providing a copy of the Decodable Reader to those students. The illustrations in the reader will show the sequence of the story, and students can simply retell the details based on what they see in the illustrations.

B. Introducing Comprehension Conversation (optional)

  • Ask the following suggested (or similar) comprehension questions for "Pat's Mess":
    • Recall:

"If Patricia is her name, why do they call her Pat?" (because Patricia is too hard for her to say)

"What were some of the things Pat did while Grandma was making lunch in the kitchen?" (using pots and pans as hats and drums; letting an ant play on her hand)

    • Vocabulary and Language:

"In the story, the author wrote, 'Yesterday, while Grandma was making lunch in the kitchen, she let Pat play with some of the cooking tools.' What are cooking tools?" (make connections to the word "tool" and the purpose of tools)

"In the sentence right after that, the author wrote, 'Pat loved the long spoons and spatulas.' So if I'm not exactly sure what a spatula is, I know it must be a what?" (cooking tool) "Let's listen to the two sentences again to hear how that worked."

"Grandma says that Pat is like a tornado. What is a tornado?" (A tornado is wind that spins around very fast. It destroys things and makes a mess when it touches the ground.)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Introducing High-Frequency Words: "a," "an," "can," "has," "is," "the," "this"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to learn high-frequency words together, it's time to learn about words readers and writers use a lot."

  • Introduce the High-Frequency Words instructional practice:

1. Teacher builds the word with movable letters: "can."

2. Teacher invites students to decode together, sliding each letter down and making the sound while students "pull" the letters down from the air.

3. Teacher uses the word in a sentence: "I can see a bird in the sky."

4. Student volunteer(s) use the word in a sentence.

5. Teacher says: "This is a high-frequency word. That means we see it a lot in reading and use it a lot in writing. If we know a lot of these words, it will make reading and writing much easier."

6. Student volunteers share a sentence using the word "this."

7. Teacher says: "This word 'plays fair' because it can be easily decoded." Teacher models by saying each sound and blending it together.

8. Teacher places the High-Frequency Word Card on the Interactive Word Wall.

9. Teacher removes the "c."

10. Students decode the new word: "an."

11. Teacher identifies another high-frequency word: "the." Teacher says: "This word isn't like 'can' and 'an.' This word doesn't play fair."

12. Teacher uses the word in a sentence: "The girl is a fast runner."

13. Students turn to an elbow partner and each partner uses the word in a sentence. Teacher supports as needed.

14. Teacher pronounces the word: "the." Teacher says each sound in the word, emphasizing the beginning sound. Teacher says: "The beginning sound of the word is /th/. The word begins with 'th,' which makes the /th/ sound. The beginning of the word plays fair. So, we are able to easily decode part of the word."

15. Teacher pronounces the word again, emphasizing the ending sound. Teacher says: "The last letter of the word is 'e,' but I hear the /u/ phoneme (sound) when I say the word. That means this part of the word doesn't play fair; it's not easily decodable."

16. Teacher says: "When parts of a word don't play fair, there are letter-sound connections we know and can use to help us figure it out. That way, when we see it again, we will remember it and be able to read it, even though it isn't easily decodable."

17. Teacher repeats one of the sentences from steps 12-13. Teacher says: "You can also use information from the sentence to help you figure out how to read a word."

18. Repeat steps 1-5 with remaining regularly spelled words ("a," "this") and steps 11-15 for remaining irregularly spelled and difficult-to-decode words ("has," "is").

  • Remind students that "s" is pronounced with the/z/ phoneme (sound) when reading the words "has" and "is."
  • Consider providing ELLs and students who may need additional support with picture cards of nouns in "Pat's Mess" to support comprehension.
  • For ELLs: Although a definition is provided for "high frequency," consider clarifying and restating, as the term is likely unfamiliar to many students, particularly ELLs. Example: "When something is frequent, it happens all the time, again and again. So high (motion with hand above head) frequency means something happens again and again. Low (motion with hand to the floor) frequency is when something almost never happens. So high-frequency words are words that we see again and again."

B. Introducing Decodable Reader: Partner Search and Read

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now you will read a story, a story, a story. Now you will read a story with words that you know."

  • Introduce the Decodable Reader: Partner Search and Read instructional practice:

1. Teacher displays the Enlarged Decodable Reader: "Pat's Mess."

2. Teacher says: "This book is based on the Engagement Text: 'Pat's Mess.' But this book is filled with words that YOU can read! There are decodable words, and there are some words that don't play fair, like 'the' and 'is.'"

3. Teacher draws attention to words on the Interactive Word Wall.

4. Teacher distributes the Decodable Reader: "Pat's Mess" and highlighters to each student.

5. Teacher says: "Before you read the book with your partner, we are going to be detectives. We are going to look for some of the high-frequency words. Remember, some of these words 'don't play fair,' which means they are not easily decodable."

6. Teacher models with the Enlarged Decodable Reader: "Pat's Mess." Teacher thinks aloud as he or she notices one of the high-frequency words. Teacher highlights it with a highlighter or highlighter tape. Model again as needed.

7. Partners search for high-frequency words in the Decodable Reader: "Pat's Mess" together and highlight in their own book.

8. Teacher circulates to support students in finding words, focusing especially on those words that "don't play fair."

9. Teacher says: "Now you are ready to read the Decodable Reader with your partner. Some of the words in the story will be familiar because you have learned them in previous lessons. And some of the words you will see for the first time, but don't worry: Each of the words that you will see for the first time includes only phonemes (sounds) that you have learned. So, you just need to say the sound that goes with each of the letters you see in the word, then blend them together to read the word."

10. Teacher models with one new high-frequency word from "Pat's Mess": "Pat." Note: Students have seen the common noun "pat" in previous lessons, but not the proper name "Pat." All other words were introduced in previous lessons.

11. Students read "Pat's Mess" with a partner. Partners may take turns (by page or whole text), read in unison, or both.

  • Students reading in the Pre-Alphabetic or early Partial Alphabetic phase will also benefit from searching for familiar graphemes and phonemes from the current or past cycles.
  • If readers in the Pre-Alphabetic or Partial Alphabetic phase need additional support to find the high-frequency words, consider allowing a reader in the Full or Consolidated Alphabetic phase to help them. Or consider asking them to find the beginning letter of the word instead of the whole word.
  • As an extension for readers in the Late Full Alphabetic or Consolidated Alphabetic phase, consider providing a whiteboard. Direct students to write a word that begins with the letter being searched or a sentence with the high-frequency word being searched.
  • For students who need additional support with words that "don't play fair," direct them to the Interactive Word Wall or have them read the rest of the sentence and think about which high-frequency word would make sense in the blank.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners keep track of and reflect on their own learning. Point out that they are doing this each time they consider how what they did today helps them to become more proficient readers.
  • Invite students to reflect and share with a partner (or whole group). Ask:

"What did you do today that is helping you become a more proficient reader?" (Responses will vary. Example: "I matched sounds to letters to blend sounds together to make a word.")

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • "When I heard a word, I knew it was a _____."
    • "When I see an 's' on the end of the word, I know _____."
    • "When my partner _____, I _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with students in the Pre-Alphabetic, Partial Alphabetic, and Full Alphabetic groups. Students in the Consolidated Alphabetic group do not work with the teacher today.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work Guidance document for more details (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual).


  • Because students in the Pre-Alphabetic phase are still working on letter identification and phonological awareness, small group instruction should be aimed at building that knowledge and skills.
  • Use the Assessment Conversion chart to determine appropriate Kindergarten lessons and Activity Bank ideas to use in daily small group instruction (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • The Decodable Reader from the whole group lesson can be used during this time as a resource:
  • Example:
    • Teacher identifies a grapheme or phoneme (from the current cycle or based on the needs of the group). Students look for grapheme. Student identifies the grapheme, makes the sound, and possibly practices proper formation (skywriting or whiteboard).

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Students in the early-to-middle Partial Alphabetic phase may need to spend more time with each short vowel than the whole group lessons provide. Those working within the middle-t0-late PA phase may be comfortable using the phonemes introduced in this cycle. If so, small group work may include extended practice of work time.
  • Suggestions for working with students at the early-to-middle PA phase:
    • Use the Decodable Reader from the current cycle and Cycle 1 to solidify the short "a" by having students locate words with that sound.
    • Prepare short decodable sentences with /a/. Example: Pat had a fan. Dan is a man. Dan has a cat. The cat ran at the man.
    • Cut up the decodable sentences and reconstruct.
    • Cut up words from the decodable sentences, separating the onset from the rime. This supports visual analysis of VC chunks (rime). Identifying the correct onset supports decoding of CVC words. Example: The c/at r/an at the m/an.
  • Related Activity Bank suggestions:
    • An Activity Bank activity from the Vowels (V) category

Full Alphabetic:

  • Students in the Full Alphabetic phase have successfully mapped graphemes to phonemes, including consonant digraphs, and initial and final consonant clusters in single-syllable short- and long-vowel words.
  • Check in with Accountable Independent Reading.
  • Follow up with Word Lists and exit tickets. Analyze words that were more challenging and why.
  • Extend the work with the Decodable Reader to focus on initial and final clusters and single-syllable CVCe words. Consider adding a page to the decodable text that includes more complex clusters (use the Word List from Lesson 6 as a guide) and two-syllable decodable words.
  • Lead a chaining lesson using more complex initial and final clusters (use the Word List from Lesson 6 as a guide).

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