Chaining | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:S1:C2:L8

Chaining

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Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can segment and blend CVC words with the phonemes (sounds): /p/, /a/, /n/, /m/, /v/, /th/.(RF.1.2)
    • I can say a three-phoneme word and segment (break apart) into individual phonemes (sounds) in order.
    • I can blend three phonemes to form a spoken word.
  • Opening B: I can write the graphemes (letters) that match the phonemes (sounds): "p," "a," "n," "m," "v," "th." (RF.K.3, L.K.2)
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the consonant sounds I hear.
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the short vowel sounds I hear.
    • I can look at each consonant and say its sound.
  • Work Time: I can read and spell VC and CVC words with the phonemes (sounds): /p/, /a/, /n/, /m/, /v/, /th/, /s/, /z/. (RF.1.3, L.1.2)
    • I can decode regularly spelled one-syllable words by mapping graphemes and phonemes.
    • I can read words with an "-s" ending.
    • I can identify the sound that corresponds to "th."
    • I can use what I know about common spelling patterns to correctly spell words with those common patterns.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during work with whiteboards.
    • Determine whether they can blend CVC short vowel words using the patterns for the cycle.
    • Also determine whether they can spell CVC and VC words from memory.

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (3-5 minutes)

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: Review /p/, /a/, /n/; Introduce /m/, /v/, /th/

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: Review "p," "a," "n"; Introduce "m," "v," "th"

2. Work Time (10-15 minutes)

A. Chaining: Decoding: /p/, /a/, /n/, /m/, /v/, /th/, /s/

B. Chaining: Encoding /p/, /a/, /th/, /z/ (as "s"), /m/, /n/, /v/ ("an," "van," "pans," "man," "path")

3. Closing and Assessment (2 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Letter Formation chart with visuals (see Lesson 6 supporting Materials)
    • Short "a" anchor chart (see supporting Materials)
    • Diagraph anchor chart (see supporting Materials)
    • Snapshot Assessment (optional)
  • Gather Materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, decode, proficient (L)

Materials

  • Short "a" anchor chart (begun in Lesson 6; added to in Opening A; see supporting Materials from Lesson 6)
  • Letter Formation chart (see Lesson 6 supporting Materials)
  • "th" Digraph anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Opening B; see supporting Materials)
  • Whiteboards (or sheet protectors with white cardboard inside; one per student or for partners)
  • Whiteboard markers (one per student)
  • Whiteboard erasers (or tissues, socks, etc.; one per student)
  • Movable letters (magnetic letters, Letter Cards in a pocket chart, or other letters that can be displayed and moved; one each for teacher modeling: letters in an, van, pans, man, path; from Lesson 6)
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)
  • Materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: Review /p/, /a/, /n/; Introduce /v/, /m/, /th/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Sit down and come together, together, together. Sit down and come together, together, right now. It's time to make three sounds and blend them together. Let's listen to each sound now, and blend them to make a word."

  • Begin the Phonemic Blending and Segmentation instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "We will make words using sounds that we know. Listen carefully while I do the first one."

2. Teacher says the phonemes (sounds) in the first word--"an" (/a/ /n/)--using the thumb-tapping technique (spread index, middle, and ring fingers, touching each with the thumb for each phoneme, beginning with the index finger; run the thumb under all three fingers to blend together).

3. Teacher says: "When I blend the sounds together, they make the word 'an.'" Teacher runs a thumb under all three fingers to model blending the phonemes to make the word.

4. Students repeat the thumb-tapping technique, pronouncing each phoneme: /a/ /n/.

5. Students run a thumb under all three fingers to blend the word: "an."

6. Teacher directs students' attention to the Short "a" anchor chart. Teacher writes "an" on the anchor chart, underlining the "a" to indicate where we hear the /a/ sound in the word.

7. Teacher says the phonemes in the next word: "van" (/v/ /a/ /n/).

8. Students use the thumb-tapping technique to pronounce each phoneme: /v/ /a/ /n/.

9. Teacher asks:

"What word do these three sounds make when blended together?" (van)

10. Repeat steps 5-7 for the remaining words: "man," "path."

  • For students who may have difficulty with the dexterity needed for the thumb task: Encourage them to tap the thumb on the opposite hand.
  • Consider facing the board while modeling and looking over a shoulder at students, so writing is modeled from left to right.
  • Consider facing the students when modeling how to "skywrite" and instructing them to mirror you.
  • Consider providing students who need it a mirror to observe the shape of their mouth and position of their tongue more closely as they articulate the /th/ sound.
  • For ELLs: Chinese, Hmong, and Vietnamese students may confuse the /a/ sound with the /e/ sound. Short a also does not exist in Spanish. Spend additional time on this vowel and contrast it with other vowels using picture cards. Example: "This is a pan, this is a pen, and this is a pin. Notice how those short vowels sound different and change the meaning of the words."

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: Review "p," "a," "n"; Introduce "m," "v," "th"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters and write them. Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters, let's go!"

  • Begin of the Writing the Letter to Match the Sound instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "You will write the letters that match each sound you hear. These letters will help us write words!"

2. Teacher says the word: "van."

3. Teacher pronounces the phonemes (sounds): /v/ /a/ /n/.

4. Students repeat: /v/ /a/ /n/.

5. Teacher repeats the phonemes, writing the grapheme (letter) for each phoneme as he or she says it and inviting students to repeat by "skywriting." Refer to the Letter Formation chart in the supporting Materials for the suggested formation of each letter:

      • Teacher says: /v/ and writes the grapheme: "v" on the board, explaining the motions of letter formation as it is written.
      • Students skywrite: "v."
      • Teacher says: /a/ and writes the grapheme: "a," explaining the motions of letter formation as it is written.
      • Students skywrite: "a."
      • Teacher says: /n/ and writes the grapheme: "n," explaining the motions of letter formation as it is written.
      • Students skywrite: "n."
      • Teacher and students pronounce the phonemes once more as they point to each grapheme (/v/ /a/ /n/), then blend them together to say the word: "van."
      • Teacher asks:

"What is a van?" (a large vehicle that carries people and things)

6. Repeat steps 2-5 for the remaining words: "man," "math," "path."

7. Teacher asks:

"What is the end sound in 'path' and 'math'?" (/th/)

8. Teacher says: "Right; 'th' is at the end of the word in both 'math' and 'path.' One sound is represented by two letters. This is called a digraph."

9. Teacher directs students' attention to the posted "th" Digraph anchor chart and reminds them of the "T" Meets "H" Digraph Story (see Learning Letters book).  Teacher writes "path" and "math" on the anchor chart, underlining the "th" to indicate where we hear the /th/ sound in both words.

10. Teacher says: "'Path' and 'math' are words that end with the /th/ digraph sound. We will continue to collect words that begin and end with this sound and add them to the chart throughout the year."

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Chaining: Decoding /p/, /a/, /n/, /m/, /v/, /th/,/s/, /z/ (as "s")

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to decode words using the letter-sound connections; now it's time to decode words; be careful, watch for a change."

  • Distribute whiteboards, whiteboard markers, and whiteboard erasers.
  • Begin the Decoding (reading) part of the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher shows the word with movable letters: "van."

2. Teacher points to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "van."

3. Students write the word on their whiteboards: "van." Emphasize proper letter formation. (Refer to the Letter Formation chart in Lesson 6 suggested formation of each letter.)

4. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "van."

5. Teacher removes the "v" and replaces it with an "m." Teacher asks:

"How has the word changed?" (The first letter is an "m" instead of a "v.")

6. Teacher asks:

"How has the word stayed the same?" ("-an" is the same)

7. Students erase the "v" and write an "m" in its place to form the new word: "man."

8. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "man."

9. Repeat steps 5-8 with the word "pan."

10. Teacher adds an "s" to the end of "pan." Teacher asks:

"How has the word changed?" (There are now four letters ("p," "a," "n," and "s") in the word; the end sound /z/ designates a plural to the noun "pan." It means more than one pan.)

11. Repeat steps 5-8 with the word "path," reminding students that the letters "t" and "h" together are a digraph. They make one sound.

12. Students add an "s" to form the new word: "paths."

13. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "paths."

14. Teacher guides students to read the entire list of words (as a group and/or individual volunteers).

  • Explain to students that "s" can be a voiced consonant /z/ and an unvoiced consonant /s/. The plural "s" makes one of two sounds, depending on the preceding letters.
  • Consider providing students with a sentence frame to understand the difference between a singular noun and a plural noun. Examples:
    • "I rode in one van" vs. "I rode in two vans."
    • "I took one path" vs. "I took two paths."
    • "I used one pan" vs. "I used two pans."
  • When decoding the word "paths," consider asking students to exaggerate the position and feel of the mouth when moving from /th/ to /s/ to more easily distinguish the seams between these sounds.

B. Chaining: Encoding /p/, /a/, /th/, /z/ (as "s"), /m/, /n/, / v/ ("an," "van," "man," "pans," "path")

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to spell the words, using letter-sound connections. Now it's time to spell the words; be careful, listen for the sounds."

  • Continue with the Chaining instructional practice, now focusing on the encoding portion:

1. Teacher says the first word: "an."

2. Students say: "an."

3. Teacher writes the letters that correspond to each sound on the board, emphasizing proper letter formation (refer to the Letter Formation chart in Lesson 6 for suggested formation of each letter): a-n.

4. Teacher covers the word: "an."

5. Students write the word on their whiteboards from memory: "an."

6. Teacher uncovers the word.

7. Students check their spelling.

8. Students erase their whiteboards.

9. Teacher says the next word: "van."

10. Students write the word on their boards from memory.

11. Teacher writes the word on the board.

12. Students check their spelling.

13. Repeat steps 9-12 with the remaining words: "man," "pans," and "path."

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners keep track of and reflect on their own learning. Point out that they are doing this each time they consider how what they did today helps them to become more proficient readers.
  • Invite students to reflect and share with a partner (or whole group). Ask:

"What did you do today that is helping you become a more proficient reader?" (Responses will vary. Example: "I matched sounds to letters to blend sounds together to make a word.")

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • "When I made the sounds for the word _____, I _____."
    • "When I wrote the letter _____, I _____."
    • "When I blended the sounds _____, I _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. Teacher may meet briefly with the Full and Consolidated groups to provide a weekly Word List and exit ticket or possibly set up a management system allowing these students to find the list and exit ticket and begin work independently.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work Guidance document for more details (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual).

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Because students in the Pre-Alphabetic phase are still working on letter identification and phonological awareness, small group instruction should be aimed at building that knowledge and skills.
  • Use the Assessment Conversion chart to determine appropriate Kindergarten lessons and Activity Bank ideas to use in daily small group instruction (see Assessment Overview and Resources).

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Continue to work on chaining and spelling from memory with short "a" words and all of the consonants introduced in this cycle. Start with VC until mastery using real and nonsense words (examples: "am," "ap"). Review any consonant sounds and letter formation that may not be automatic.
  • Related Activity Bank suggestions for use in either small group with teacher or independent work time:
    • An Activity Bank activity from the Decoding and Encoding category (DE)

Full Alphabetic and Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Establish weekly Word Lists and exit tickets for independent work time.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word List Guidance (for teacher reference)
    • Word List (one per student or per pair)
    • Word Card Template (one per student or per pair
    • Sorting Words Template (one per student or per pair)

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