Writing a PSA: Drafting the Body and Conclusion | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M4:U1:L10

Writing a PSA: Drafting the Body and Conclusion

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • W.5.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • W.5.2a: Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • W.5.2b: Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • W.5.2d: Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  • W.5.2e: Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  • W.5.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • W.5.5: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
  • L.5.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • L.5.2a: Use punctuation to separate items in a series.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can use punctuation to separate items in a series. (L.5.2a)
  • I can write a script for my PSA. (W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2d, W.5.2e, W.5.4, W.5.5)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Draft PSA Script (W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2d, W.5.2e, W.5.4, W.5.5, L.5.2a)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Analyzing a Model PSA: Body and Conclusion (15 minutes)

B. Mini-Lesson: Using Punctuation to Separate Items in a Series (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Independent Writing: Writing a Body and Conclusion (25 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Complete Using Punctuation in a Series in your Unit 1 Homework.

B. For ELLs: Complete the Language Dive Practice: Model PSA Script in your Unit 1 Homework.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your Independent Reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards: 

  • In this lesson, students write the body and conclusion paragraphs for their PSAs. They first analyze these paragraphs in the Model PSA and compare it to the body and conclusion of other informative pieces written throughout the school year. Then, they use their planning from Lesson 9 to complete their PSA drafts (W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2d, W.5.2e, W.5.4, W.5.5, L.5.2a).
  • Prior to drafting their body and conclusion paragraphs, students learn how to use commas and semicolons to separate items in a series. (L.5.2a).
  • In this lesson, students focus on working to become effective learner by focusing on a characteristic of their choice as they finish drafting their PSAs.

How this lesson builds on previous work: 

  • In previous lessons, students have been analyzing the Model PSA, and planned and drafted the introduction of their own PSA. In this lesson, the body and conclusion paragraphs are analyzed in detail to help students write their own. Areas in which students may need additional support:
  • Students may require additional support writing their drafts. Consider providing paragraph frames with sentence starters, so that they only have to add specific things the listener can doto stay safe during the natural disaster.
  • Consider allowing students to work with a partner or grouping students who may need additional writing support together while you guide them through completing their PSA drafts.

Assessment Guidance:

  • Review students' drafts to ensure that they have included all the necessary information. Use common issues as teaching points for the whole group.
  • Refer to the characteristics related to W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2d, and W.5.2e on the Informative Writing Checklist when assessing students' work in this lesson (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • Consider using the Writing Process Checklist for Writing and Language Skills during the independent writing in Work Time A (see the Tools page).

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will revise and edit their PSAs. They will practice and record their PSAs in the last two lessons of the unit as part of the end of unit assessment.

In Advance

  • Predetermine pairs for Work Time A.
  • Review Questions We Can Ask During a Language Dive anchor chart as needed (begun in Module 3, Unit 1, Lesson 2.)
  • Preview the Language Dive Guide and consider how to invite conversation among students to address the questions and goals suggested under each sentence strip chunk (see supporting materials). Select from the questions and goals provided to best meet your students? needs.
  • Post: Learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout Modules 1-3 to create anchor charts to share with families, to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families, and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.A.4, 5.I.C.10, 5.I.C.11,5.I.C.12, 5.II.A.1, 5.II.A.2, 5.II.C.6, 5.II.C.7

Important points in the lesson itself 

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by building on work begun in the previous lesson, providing students with an opportunity to analyze the body and conclusion paragraphs of the Model PSA before writing their own. Additionally, the Mini-Lesson on using punctuation to separate items in a series is supportive of ELLs, particularly as it focuses on separating items that are grammatically equivalent.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to keep pace with the class in completing both their body and conclusion paragraphs in the amount of time allotted. Consider working with a small group of students as they write and further scaffolding the writing as needed (see Levels of Supportand the Meeting Students? Needs column).
  • In Work Time B of this lesson, ELLs can participate in an optional Language Dive that guides them through the meaning of a sentence from the Model PSA Script. The focus of this Language Dive is on using commas to separate items in a series. Students then apply their understanding of the meaning and structure of this excerpt when drafting body paragraph 1 of their PSA during Closing and Assessment A, as well as when using commas to separate items in a series on the End of Unit 2 Assessment. Preview the Language Dive Guide and consider how to invite conversation among students to address the language goals suggested under each sentence strip chunk (see supporting materials). Refer to the Tools Page for additional information regarding a consistent Language Dive routine.

Levels of Support

For lighter support:

  • During the Closing, invite students to create sentence starters to support writing. Invite students who need heavier support to use the frames.
  • Encourage students to use the sentence practice from the optional ELL Language Dive, Before the _________, make sure you __________, _________, and _________ in case _______. Challenge students to think of more than one way they can complete the sentence frames.

For heavier support: 

  • During the Closing, consider providing an outline for students to organize the body and conclusion paragraphs. 
  • (Example for Body Paragraph 1: [Things you can do to stay safe before the natural disaster] ___________. [Reasons they keep you safe] _________________________.
  • (Example for Body Paragraph 2: [Things you can do to stay safe during the natural disaster] ___________. [Reasons they keep you safe] _________________________.
  • (Example for Conclusion Paragraph: [Engaging reflection on the natural disaster] ______________.[Restate focus statement, with a call to action!] __________________.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Continue to provide scaffolds that connect new information to prior knowledge in support of increasing memorability of information.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): Continue to support development of executive skills and strategies by offering scaffolds for students learning to set appropriate personal goals.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Continue to explicitly highlight the utility and relevance of each activity to the learning target.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • punctuation, separate, series, logical, semicolon (L)
  • before, during, after, prepare, protect (W)

Materials

  • Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Academic Word Wall (begun in Module 1)
  • Domain-Specific Word Wall (begun in Lesson 1)
  • Vocabulary logs (from Module 1; one per student)
  • Natural Disasters PSA prompt (from Lesson 8; one per student)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Organizing the Model: Body and Conclusion paragraph strips (one strip per pair)
  • Model PSA (from Lesson 8; one per student and one to display)
  • Characteristics of PSAs anchor chart (begun in Lesson 8; added to during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • Characteristics of PSAs anchor chart (begun in Lesson 8; example, for teacher reference)
  • Using Punctuation in a Series (one per student and one to display)
  • Language Dive Guide: Model PSA Script (optional; for ELLs;for teacher reference;)
  • Questions We Can Ask During a Language Dive anchor chart (begun in Module 3)
  • Language Dive Chunk Chart: Model PSA Script (optional; for ELLs; for teacher reference; from Lesson 8)
  • Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: Model PSA Script (optional; for ELLs; one to display)
  • Language Dive note-catcher: Model PSA Script (optional; for ELLs; one per student and one to display)
  • Informative Writing Checklist (from Lesson 9; one per student and one to display)
  • Natural Disasters Research note-catcher (completed in Lesson 5; one per student)
  • PSA Planning note-catcher (completed in Lesson 9; one per student)
  • PSA drafts (begun Lesson 9; added to during the Closing; one per student)
  • Paper (lined; several pieces per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes) 

  • Direct students' attention to the learning targets and read them aloud:
    • "I can use punctuation to separate items in a series."
    • "I can write a script for my PSA."
  • Underline and use the vocabulary strategies on the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart to review and/or determine the meaning of the following words from the learning targets. Add them to the Academic and Domain-Specific Word Walls and invite students to add them to their vocabulary logs.
    • punctuation (marks used in writing to help make the meaning clear, such as question marks, periods, or commas)
    • separate (to set or keep apart)
    • series (a group of similar things that come one after another)
  • Tell students that today they are going to learn a new way to use punctuation in their writing.
  • Focus students on the second learning target. Turn and Talk: "

What do you think you will be doing in this lesson? What makes you think that?"(finish the draft of our PSAs)

  • Invite students to retrieve their Natural Disasters PSA prompt and read it to themselves.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"What key points will you write about today in your PSA?" (There are things you can do to prepare for a natural disaster that will keep you safe during one.)

  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart, and invite them to read the habits of character on the chart to themselves. Tell students to choose a habit to focus on as they work today
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Reinforcing Key Word with Something Familiar) Explain that a series is similar to a list, or a group of connected items. Invite students to list items that they might buy at the grocery store, and write them on the board. Share that they will revisit this list during Work Time B (see Meeting Students' Needs, Work Time B). MMR)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Analyzing a Model PSA: Body and Conclusion (15 minutes) 

  • Move students into pre-determined pairs and invite them to label themselves A and B.
  • Distribute Organizing the Model: Body and Conclusion Paragraph strips. Tell students that each pair has been given only one part of the body and conclusion paragraphs, and they will find the other parts to create complete paragraphs.
  • Invite pairs to first determine if their sentence is part of the body or part of the conclusion paragraph. Then, invite students to find pairs with the other parts of the body and conclusion paragraphs and put them together in the right order. Model an example as necessary.
  • Tell students that when they have finished, they will check their work against the displayed Model PSA.
  • Invite students to begin and circulate to support them in reading and sorting the strips of the body and conclusion paragraphs.
  • After 7 minutes, refocus whole group.
  • Invite students to help you record the parts of the body and conclusion paragraphs on the Characteristics of PSAs anchor chart. Refer to the Characteristics of PSAs anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"Think back to the informational essays you have written throughout this school year. How will the body be similar to the proof paragraphs of these essays? How will it be different?" (similarities: it will include facts and details to support our focus; differences: like in the introduction, the body of the PSA will sound more conversational since it is meant to be spoken)
"Think about the overall structure of the model PSA. It is logically ordered, or in an order that makes sense to the audience. How is it structured so it makes sense?" (It gives information to the audience in a well-thought out, reasonable way; it gives background so the audience understands what the natural disaster is, then builds on that background by telling the audience what to do to stay safe before the storm and during it.)

  • Point out that the model first explains how to prepare for the storm before it happens, and then describes how to stay safe during the storm. Explain how this is logical, or reasonable, because it follows the order of what might happen during a storm--to be prepared during the storm, there are specific suggestions on things to do before the storm hits.
  • Tell students that they may decide to structure their body paragraphs differently. For example, they might have three paragraphs: one for what to do before their natural disaster happens, one for what to do during it, and one for after. Or, they might decide to have a paragraph about what to do if you are inside while the natural disaster happens, and another paragraph explaining what to do if they are outside. Reassure students that this is okay, and it is up to them to decide how to logically organize their PSAs.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Displaying Essays Side by Side) Consider displaying the Model Essay from Module 3 next to the Enlarged Model PSA (See Lesson 8, For heavier support) as students discuss similarities and differences between the body and conclusion paragraphs. Provide sentence frames for support. Examples:
  • "They are similar because they both ________."
  • "They are different because the paragraphs of the Model Essay _________, while the paragraphs of the Model PSA _______." (MMR)

B. Mini-Lesson: Using Punctuation to Separate Items in a Series (15 minutes) 

  • Distribute and display the Using Punctuation in a Series handout. Tell students that before they begin drafting, they will learn how to use commas and semicolons to separate items in a series in their writing.
  • Read the definition of a series at the top of the handout, clarifying as needed.
  • Tell students that writers use commas and semicolons to separate items in a series, and that correctly using these punctuation marks help to make the writing clearer to the reader.
  • Focus students on Rule 1 on the handout:
    • "Use a comma to separate each item in the series."
  • Clarify that the items in the series must all be the same grammatically--if the first item is a noun, then all of the following items must be nouns. If the first item is an action in the past tense, then all the other items must be past tense verbs.
  • Focus students on the first example on their handout, pointing out that this sentence comes from the Model PSA:
    • "These storms can bring destructive winds, icing, sleet, and freezing rain."
  • Think-aloud:
    • Circle the commas after each item and notice the items being listed: destructive winds, icing, sleet, freezing rain.
    • Notice that they are all nouns.
  • Focus students on the second example on the handout, pointing out that this sentence also comes from the Model PSA, and invite them to chorally read it with you:
    • "Before the blizzard, make sure you have an emergency kit, dress warmly, and have extra blankets in case you lose power."
  • Circle the first comma. Point out that this comma is used to separate the introductory element ?Before the blizzard,'from the rest of the sentence, as learned about in Module 3. Share that today they will focus on the remaining commas in this sentence, which serve a different purpose.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"Circle the remaining commas. What items are being listed in this example?" (have an emergency kit, dress warmly, have extra blankets)
"Are these all the same kind of words, grammatically? What are they?" (yes; verb phrases)

  • Focus students on the first practice sentence on their handout. Model editing it for commas in a series by:
    • Identifying the items being listed (hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes).
    • Noticing that they are all plural nouns.
    • Adding commas after the first two items, pointing out that there is no comma after the last item (earthquakes).
  • Invite students to whisper read the second practice sentence on their handout with their partner, and to work together to edit it for commas in a series.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What items are being listed?" (collapse roofs, bring down trees, knock down power lines)
"Are these all the same kind of words, grammatically? What are they?" (yes; verb phrases in the present tense)
"Where did you add commas?" (after each item: The snow from a blizzard can collapse roofs, bring down trees, or knock down power lines.)

  • Focus students on the Rule 2 on the handout:
    • "Use a semicolon to separate each item in the series when they already include commas. This avoids confusion between the listed items."
  • Point out that sometimes commas may already be used in the items they are listing, so adding additional commas in the series can make the list unclear. Tell students that in these cases, they should use a semicolon. Write a semicolon on the board.
  • Clarify that like before, the items in the series must all be the same grammatically.
  • Focus students on the example on this part of the handout:
    • "Some major blizzards in the United States include the Great Blizzard of 1888, March 11-13, 1888; the Chicago Blizzard of 1967, January 26-27, 1967; and the Storm of the Century, March 12-15, 1993."
  • Think-aloud:
    • Circle the semicolon after each item and notice the items being listed.
    • Notice that each item is the name of a blizzard and the date it occurred.
    • Circle the commas within each item and notice its purpose (to mark dates).
  • Invite students to whisper read the practice sentence on their handout with their partner, and to work together to edit it for semicolons in a series.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What items are being listed?" (hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards)
"What other information is included for each item?" (a brief description of the natural disaster)
"Where did you add semicolons?" (after each item: Natural disasters include hurricanes, powerful storms with heavy winds and rain; tornadoes, funnel-shaped clouds with heavy winds; and blizzards, strong storms with a lot of snow and wind.)

  • Tell students that they will continue practicing how to use punctuation to separate items in a series throughout the unit.
  • Use a checking for understanding technique (e.g., Red Light, Green Light or Thumb-O-Meter) for students to self-assess against the first learning target.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Practicing with Something Familiar) Before reviewing the first example on the Using Punctuation in a Series handout, invite students to practice using commas to separate the items they listed in Opening A (see Meeting Students? Needs column). Invite them to complete the following sentence frame with the items they listed: At the grocery store, I might buy ________, ________, ______, and _____. This provides students with a familiar example of using a comma to separate items in a series before practicing with sentences from the Model PSA script. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: (Language Dive) During or after Work Time B, guide students through a Language Dive. Refer to Language Dive Guide: Model PSA Script, Questions We Can Ask During a Language Dive anchor chart, and Language Dive Chunk Chart: Model PSA Script. Distribute and display Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: Model PSA Script and Language Dive Note-catcher: Model PSA Script.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Writing: Writing a Body and Conclusion (25 minutes) 

  • Display and invite students to retrieve their copy of the Informative Writing Checklist.
  • Read aloud the following criteria, pausing after each to invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner to restate the criterion in their own words:
    • "W.5.2a: Information is grouped logically, in a way that makes my thinking clear to the reader."
    • "W.5.2b: I use accurate and relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples to explain my thinking."
    • "W.5.2d, L.5.6: I use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary."
    • "W.5.2e: I have a conclusion that is clearly related to the focus and the information presented."
    • "L.5.2: My spelling, capitalization, and punctuation are correct."
  • Invite students to mark/highlight these criteria on their checklist.
  • Remind students that they discussed the first criterion in the previous lesson. Point out that they are focusing on it again as they think about what ideas to include in their body and conclusion paragraphs.
  • Focus students on the criterion:
    • "W.5.2b: I use accurate and relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples to explain my thinking."
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Where will you find the facts and details to include in your PSA?" (from our Natural Disasters Research note-catcher)

  • Model how to record this (by sketching or writing) on the displayed Informative Writing Checklist and invite students to do the same.
  • Repeat with the other criteria students have marked.
  • Invite students to retrieve the following materials and remind them that they planned and began drafting their PSAs in the previous lesson:
    • Natural Disasters Research note-catcher
    • PSA Planning note-catcher
    • PSA drafts
  • Turn and Talk:

"Share the key points you made in the introduction of your PSA." (Responses will vary, but should include ideas like: I described my natural disaster.)
Conversation Cue: "Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?"(Responses will vary.)

  • Distribute paper and invite students to use their copy of the Model PSA, the criteria recorded on the Characteristics of PSAs anchor chart, the Informative Writing Checklist, and to refer to the Domain-Specific Word Wall to write their body and conclusion paragraphs.
  • Remind students also to leave a line between each line of their writing, and to remember to use commas or semicolons to separate items in a series if they include any lists as they write.
  • Invite students to begin writing. Circulate to support students as they work. Ask questions to guide student thinking:
    • "How can you say that more concisely in a shorter, simpler sentence?"
    • How does your reason convince the audience to take action?"
  • Use a checking for understanding technique (e.g., Red Light, Green Light or Thumb-O-Meter) for students to self-assess against the second learning target and how well they worked to become an effective learner in this lesson.
  • Refocus students on their Informative Writing Checklist and invite them to record "Y" for "Yes" and the date in the final column if they feel the criteria marked on their checklists in this lesson have been achieved in their writing in this lesson.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Providing Concrete Examples) Display the Enlarged Model PSA (See Lesson 8, For heavier support) next to the Informative Writing Checklist. While going over each criterion, model and think aloud identifying an example of each criterion in the corresponding paragraph of the Model PSA Script, supporting students in using the criteria to write their own paragraphs. (Example: "Criterion W.5.2b says: I use accurate and relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples to explain my thinking. In body paragraph 2, "Sprinkle sand on sidewalks and walkways outside to help make them less slippery from ice." What other relevant information can you identify in the body and conclusion paragraphs?")(MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with organizing ideas for written expression: (Oral Processing Before Writing) Before inviting students to write, consider providing time for students to orally process the information on their PSA Planning note-catchers and PSA drafts, and to discuss how they will organize this information for their body and conclusion paragraphs. Additionally, invite students to brainstorm and partner-share specific language they might use to write each paragraph, and to say each sentence aloud before writing it down. Encourage them to refer to the Model PSA for structural and language support, and consider replaying some of the example PSAs viewed in Lesson 8 for further examples of language they might use. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: (Revisiting Action Words and Phrases) Invite students to revisit the action words and phrases they listed during Lesson 5 (See Work Time A, Meeting Students' Needs column) and to select relevant words and phrases to use in their own body and conclusion paragraphs.
  • For students who may need additional support with sustained effort and reflection: Invite students to share one writing goal for their work during independent writing. Encourage them to reflect on their writing in the previous lesson where they drafted the introduction and think of one way they can work toward this goal in today's lesson. (MMAE, MME)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Complete Using Punctuation in a Series in your Unit 1 Homework.

B. For ELLs: (Language Dive Practice) Complete the Language Dive Practice: Model PSA Script in your Unit 1 Homework.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your Independent Reading journal.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with written expression: (Oral Response) Read aloud, discuss, and respond to your prompt orally, either with a partner, family member, or student from Grades 4 or 6, or record an audio response. (MMAE)

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