Opportunities to Lead Change: The Most Important Factors in Jackie Robinson’s Success | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M3:U2

Opportunities to Lead Change: The Most Important Factors in Jackie Robinson’s Success

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In this unit, students continue their study of Jackie Robinson, building on their understanding of the factors that led to his success in leading social change by developing an opinion on which factor(s) were most important in his success. In the first half of the unit, students work with different texts and videos, describing and comparing each author's point of view on the factor that was most important in Jackie's success.

In the second half of the unit, students draw on the evidence they have collected throughout Units 1-2 to develop their own opinion on the factor (or factors) most important in Jackie's success. They begin by participating in a text-based discussion, and then use their conclusions from this discussion to write an opinion essay on this topic.

Big Ideas & Guiding Questions

  • How have athletes broken barriers during the historical era in which they lived?
  • What factors can contribute to an individual's success in a changing society?
  • Athletes are presented with unique opportunities to lead change.
  • A variety of factors can influence an individual's ability to effect change.

The Four T's

  • Topic: Jackie Robinson as a Leader of Change
  • Task: Students read and listen to informational texts, summarizing the texts and comparing the authors' point of view (mid-unit assessment). Students write and revise an opinion essay (end of unit assessment).
  • Targets (standards explicitly taught and assessed): RI.5.1, RI.5.6, RI.5.9, RI.5.10, W.5.1, W.5.4, W.5.5, W.5.9b, W.5.10, SL.5.3, L.5.2b
  • Texts: Promises to Keep, "This I Believe: Free Minds and Hearts at Work"

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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Content Connections

This module is designed to address English Language Arts standards and to be taught during the literacy block of the school day. However, the module intentionally incorporates social studies content that many teachers may be teaching during other parts of the day. These intentional connections are described below.

College, Career, and Civic Life C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards:

  • D2.Civ.12.3-5
  • D2.Eco.2.3-5
  • D2.His.2.3-5
  • D2.His.3.3-5
  • D2.His.16.3-5
  • D3.3.3-5
  • D3.4.3-5
  • D4.1.3-5
  • D4.3.3-5
  • D4.6.3-5

Habits of Character/Social-Emotional Learning Focus

Central to EL Education's curriculum is a focus on "habits of character" and social-emotional learning. Students work to become effective learners, developing mindsets and skills for success in college, career, and life (e.g., initiative, responsibility, perseverance, collaboration); work to become ethical people, treating others well and standing up for what is right (e.g., empathy, integrity, respect, compassion); and work to contribute to a better world, putting their learning to use to improve communities (e.g., citizenship, service).

In this unit, students work to become effective learners. They practice showing initiative, responsibility, perseverance, and collaboration as they read and work together collaboratively, and manage their own time.

Students also work to become ethical people, treating others well and standing up for what is right (e.g., empathy, integrity, respect, compassion). They practice respect, compassion, and empathy in response to the potentially diverse views of different students after reading and discussing the texts, and when giving and receiving feedback, and integrity when completing research reading for homework each night.

Students also work to contribute to a better world, putting learning to use to improve communities (e.g., citizenship, service). They using their strengths to help others grow when giving and receiving peer critique as they write their essays.

Unit-at-a-Glance

Each unit is made up of a sequence of between 5-20 lessons. The “unit at a glance” chart in the curriculum map breaks down each unit into its lessons, to show how the curriculum is organized in terms of standards address, supporting targets, ongoing assessment, and protocols. It also indicates which lessons include the mid-unit and end-of-unit assessments.

Accountable Independent Reading

The ability to read and comprehend texts is the heart of literacy instruction. Comprehension is taught, reinforced, and assessed across both components of this curriculum: module lessons and the Additional Language and Literacy block. Refer to the 5M3 Module Overview for additional information.

In this unit, students continue to read research texts independently for homework, and engage in frequent research reading shares during the module lesson for accountability.

Supporting English Language Learners

The Meeting Students' Needs column in each lesson contains support for both ELLs and Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and some supports can serve a wide range of student needs. However, ELLs have unique needs that cannot always be met with UDL support. According to federal guidelines, ELLs must be given access to the curriculum with appropriate supports, such as those that are specifically identified as "For ELLs" in the Meeting Students' Needs column.

  • Prioritizing lessons for classrooms with many ELLs: To prepare for the Unit 2 assessments, consider prioritizing and expanding instruction in Lessons 1-5, which introduce new texts and video content, and include a close reading and practice comparing points of view; Lessons 7-8, which help students form their opinions by preparing for and participating in a text-based discussion; and Lessons 9-12, which focus on analyzing and writing opinion essays, and include whole class Language Dives in Lessons 9 and 11. If necessary, consider placing less focus on and condensing instruction in Lessons 2 and 14, which provide helpful background, practice, and repetition, but don't introduce as many new concepts.
  • Language Dives: All students participate in Language Dives in Lessons 9 and 11. These Language Dives support ELLs and all students in deconstructing, reconstructing, and practicing the meaning and structures of sentences from Promises to Keep, "This I Believe: Free Minds and Hearts at Work," and the Model Essay: Branch Rickey. Many lessons also include optional Mini Language Dives for ELLs. The Language Dive goals remain the same as in previous modules; however, the new format goes beyond those goals by encouraging students to take more of a lead in the conversations and to build greater independence by taking an inquiry-based approach to language in general, and the selected sentence in particular. See the Tools page for additional information.
  • Conversation Cues: Encourage productive and equitable conversation with Goals 1-4 Conversation Cues, which are questions teachers can ask students to help achieve four goals: (Goal 1) Encourage all students to talk and be understood; (Goal 2) Listen carefully to one another and seek to understand; (Goal 3) Deepen thinking; and (Goal 4) Think with others to expand the conversation (adapted from Michaels, Sarah and O'Connor, Cathy. Talk Science Primer. Cambridge, MA: TERC, 2012. Based on Chapin, S., O'Connor, C., and Anderson, N. [2009]. Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grades K-6. Second Edition. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications). See the Tools page for the complete set of cues.
  • Diversity and inclusion: Investigate the routines, practices, rituals, beliefs, norms, and experiences that are important to ELLs and their families. Integrate this background into the classroom as students continue to learn about the issues of racial injustice and segregation presented in the texts and videos, and as they write about their opinions. Be sensitive to students' experiences and perspectives on these topics, and foster inclusive action by creating space for students to express their feelings about issues embedded in the texts and videos while being aware that these discussions may unearth trauma or social stigma. Consult with a guidance counselor, school social worker, or ESL teacher for further investigation of diversity and inclusion.
  • Writing opinion essays: Students receive explicit instruction in how to craft an opinion essay: introductory paragraph, body paragraphs, and concluding paragraph. Students use the Painted Essay(r) format, which they are familiar with from Modules 1-2. Students who are still trying to comprehend the language itself may also need additional support grasping this organizational structure. Use color-coding and manipulatives inspired by the Painted Essay(r) routines, such as paragraph strips, to support this skill. Also, this essay structure may be different from the text structure students may be familiar with in their home languages. Compare and contrast home language text structure whenever possible.
  • Introductory elements: In the first half of the unit, students are introduced to introductory elements, which are phrases or words separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma that give background information or set the stage for the rest of the sentence. Additionally, students continue to use linking words and phrases learned in the previous modules to connect their ideas. This instruction will benefit ELLs by preparing them with language to connect ideas when they write opinion essays in the second half of the unit, and for revising their opinion essays in the end of unit assessment. Support students by providing additional practice with introductory elements, including linking words and phrases, throughout the unit. Encourage students to use varying linking words and phrases in their speaking as well as in their writing.
  • Reinforcing verb tenses: Throughout the unit, continue to encourage students to notice verb tenses, reinforcing the work students did with verb tenses in Unit 1. Invite students to continue discussing how verb tenses convey time, sequence, states, and conditions, and to notice shifts in verb tense, (for example, from simple present tense to simple past tense), identifying and correcting shifts in verb tense that are inappropriate. Supports are provided in the Meeting Students' Needs column to help ELLs continue this work.
  • Celebration: Celebrate the courage, enthusiasm, diversity, and bilingual assets that ELLs bring to the classroom.

Texts to Buy

Texts that need to be procured. Please download the Trade Book List for procurement guidance.


Text Quantity ISBNs
Promises to Keep: How Jackie Robinson Changed America
by Sharon Robinson
1 per student
ISBN: 9780439425926

Materials

  • Inform families in advance that students will be learning about Jackie Robinson and segregation in the United States. Open a dialogue of how best to support students through some of the issues that the text they read presents.
  • Students will each need devices with internet access to listen to and read "This I Believe: Free Minds and Hearts at Work" (Lessons 1-3, 5), and to view "Jackie Robinson: Royals to Obamas" (Lessons 4-5) and "Jackie Robinson--Mini Biography" (Lesson 6); prepare this technology prior to Lesson 1.
  • Gather the following materials from previous modules for use in this unit:
    • Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • Academic Word Wall (begun in Module 1)
    • Vocabulary logs (begun in Module 1)
    • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • Working to Contribute to a Better World anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • Affix List (from Module 1)
    • Criteria for an Effective Summary anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • Strategies to Answer Selected Response Questions anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • Tracking Progress folders (from Module 1)
    • Discussion Norms anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • The Painted Essay(r) template (from Module 1)
    • Painting an Essay lesson plan (from Module 1)
    • Peer Critique Protocol anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    • Linking Words and Phrases (from Module 1)

Technology and Multimedia

  • Baseball Hall of Fame - Additional reading and research: Students read additional texts and look at resources about Jackie Robinson.
    • Note: Please preview before sharing with students and determine which are appropriate for this age.
  • Society for American Baseball Research - Additional reading and research: Students read additional texts and look at resources about Jackie Robinson.
    • Note: Please preview before sharing with students and determine which are appropriate for this age.
  • Jackie Robinson.com - Additional reading and research: Students read additional texts and look at resources about Jackie Robinson.
    • Note: Please preview before sharing with students and determine which are appropriate for this age.
  • History.com - Additional reading and research: Students read additional texts and look at resources about Jackie Robinson.
    • Note: Please preview before sharing with students and determine which are appropriate for this age.
  • American Studies Resource Center - Additional reading and research: Students read additional texts and look at resources about racial segregation in sports.
    • Note: Please preview before sharing with students and determine which are appropriate for this age.
  • The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Additional reading and research: Students read additional texts and look at resources about racial segregation in sports.
    • Note: Please preview before sharing with students and determine which are appropriate for this age.
  • Prezi - Creating a multimedia presentation: Students use Prezi to create their multimedia presentations instead of slideshow software.

Additional Language and Literacy Block

The Additional Language and Literacy (ALL) Block is 1 hour of instruction per day. It is designed to work in concert with and in addition to the 1-hour Grades 3-5 ELA "module lessons." Taken together, these 2 hours of instruction comprehensively address all the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts.

The ALL Block has five components: Additional Work with Complex Text; Reading and Speaking Fluency/GUM (Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics); Writing Practice; Word Study and Vocabulary; and Independent Reading.

The ALL Block has three 2-week units which parallel to the three units of the module.

Optional: Community, Experts, Fieldwork, Service, and Extensions

Community:

Invite members of the community, family members, or teachers to come into the classroom to share their experience of segregation and/or their experiences of listening to or watching Jackie Robinson's baseball games.

Experts:

  • Invite a professional baseball player or a professional athlete from another sport to come into the classroom to talk about his or her life, particularly how the athlete uses his or her position to make changes in society.
  • Invite a local leader of social change to come in to talk to the students about the factors that contributed to him or her being an effective leader of social change.

Fieldwork:

  • Visit a local baseball stadium or professional sports facility to watch a game.
  • Visit an exhibition about segregation.

Service:

  • Students present their End of Unit 3 presentations to an audience of community members.
  • Create the performance task display somewhere out in the community rather than just in school.

Extension opportunities for students seeking more challenge:

  • Invite students to watch movies and documentaries about Jackie Robinson, gathering additional evidence of factors that led to his success.
  • Invite students to research Jackie Robinson by using internet sources to find and read primary source documents.
  • Invite students to research an additional athlete in Unit 3 and to write their compare and contrast essay about two athletes as well as Jackie Robinson.
  • Invite students to research gender segregation in sports.

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