Reading Informational Texts: Determining Main Ideas | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M3:U1:L2

Reading Informational Texts: Determining Main Ideas

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.5.2: Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.5.4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
  • L.5.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.5.1c: Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  • L.5.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. (L.5.1c)
  • I can determine the main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details. (RI.5.1, RI.5.2)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, pages 6-9 (RI.5.1, RI.5.4, L.5.4)
  • Determining Main Ideas and Key Details: "A Black and White World" note-catcher (RI.5.1, RI.5.2)
  • Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas (RI.5.1, RI.5.2)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Reading for Gist: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 (15 minutes)

B. Language Dive: Promises to Keep, Pages 8-9 (15 minutes)

C. Guided Practice: Determining Main Ideas and Key Details (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students read the first two chapters from Promises to Keep, determining main ideas and key details of pages 8-9, "A Black and White World" (RI.5.1, RI.5.2, RI.5.4, L.5.4). This section of text provides a brief background of slavery and racial prejudice in the United States. Continue to be mindful that these issues may be sensitive for students, and that some students may connect with these topics personally or deeply. After reading these sections of the text for the gist, students have time to reflect. Monitor your students and determine if there are issues surfacing that need to be discussed in more detail as a whole group, in smaller groups, or independently. Be aware that reflections may be personal, and students are not required to share them.
  • In Work Time A, refer to Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 (answers, for teacher reference). Words students are likely to be unfamiliar with have been included in the Unfamiliar Vocabulary column, with accompanying definitions provided in the Meaning column; however, these words may vary based on students.
  • During Work Time A, students participate in Day 1 of a two-day Language Dive that guides them through the meaning of a sentence from Promises to Keep. The focus of Day 1 of this Language Dive is using verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions (L5.1c). Students then apply their understanding of the meaning and structure of this sentence when discussing the main ideas of the text and when writing summaries in future lessons. See the Tools page for additional information regarding a consistent Language Dive routine.
  • In this lesson, students focus on working to become ethical people by showing respect as they reflect on what they read and saw when exploring Promises to Keep.
  • Students practice their fluency in this lesson by following along and reading silently as the teacher reads Promises to Keep in Work Time A and by reading this text with a partner in Work Times A and C.
  • The research reading that students complete for homework helps build both their Vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to baseball and athletes, specifically how athletes have led change. By participating in this volume of reading over time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it.

How it builds on previous work:

  • Students previewed Promises to Keep and began to build background knowledge about Jackie Robinson and baseball in Lesson 1. In this lesson, they continue reading Promises to Keep, learning about what life was like in the United States when Jackie Robinson was growing up.
  • Recall that the Language Dive format has changed to reflect a more student-centered approach (see Unit 1 Overview).
  • Recall that the ELL supports within the Meeting Students' Needs column have changed. Each support is labeled and fully explained the first time it is used, then labeled and condensed in subsequent lessons (see Module Overview).
  • This lesson is the second in a series of three that include built-out instruction for the use of Goal 4 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation (adapted from Michaels, Sarah and O'Connor, Cathy. Talk Science Primer. Cambridge, MA: TERC, 2012. Based on Chapin, S., O'Connor, C., and Anderson, N. [2009]. Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grades K-6. Second Edition. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications).

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support determining main ideas of pages 8-9 and identifying key details. Consider working with these students in a small group, modeling using strategies such as reading the heading of the chapter, looking for repeated words and phrases, and rereading the first sentence of paragraphs to determine main ideas.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' Determining Main Ideas and Key Details: "A Black and White World" note-catcher and Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas to informally assess how well students understand how to determine main ideas and identify key details.
  • Consider using the Speaking and Listening Informal Assessment: Collaborative Discussion Checklist (see the Tools page) during students' partner discussions in Work Time A.

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students use their Determining Main Ideas and Key Details: "A Black and White World" note-catcher to summarize pages 8-9 of Promises to Keep.
  • Throughout the first half of Unit 1, students continue reading sections from Promises to Keep, determining main ideas, identifying key details, and summarizing the sections.

In Advance

  • Preview the Language Dive Guide and consider how to invite conversation among students to address the questions and goals suggested under each sentence strip chunk (see supporting Materials). Select from the questions and goals provided to best meet your students' needs.
  • Post: Learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout Modules 1 and 2 to create anchor charts to share with families; to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families; and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.B.6, 5.I.B.8, and 5.II.B.3

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to read a section of Promises to Keep for the gist, identify and define unfamiliar Vocabulary, and discuss the text as a class before identifying the main ideas and key details in the text. Students also have the opportunity to explore using verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to identify the main idea and key details of pages 6-9 of Promises to Keep. Model and think aloud the process for students and explain that if they do not understand everything right now, it is okay. They will have many opportunities to practice identifying main ideas and key details during the unit (see "Levels of support" below and the Meeting Students' Need column).

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Before providing modeling in Work Time A, observe student interaction and allow students to grapple. Provide demonstrations only after students have grappled with the task. Observe the areas in which they struggle in order to target appropriate support.

For heavier support:

  • Prepare sticky notes with pre-written words or drawings based on the gist of different sections of the text. During Work Time B, students can match the gist represented on the sticky notes with each section of the text.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students interact with Promises to Keep. They listen to a read-aloud of this text, then focus on determining the gist and identifying key details. For students who may need additional support determining the gist, consider highlighting or underlining key phrases in their section (in advance). This lifts the gist up for them in preparation for completing the note-catcher.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): Continue to support students in setting appropriate goals for their effort and the level of difficulty expected.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Because this is a unit about reading, students who may have needed additional support with reading in the past may lack engagement. Encourage students by reminding them that all students have reading goals that they are working toward. Emphasize that all students will grow and improve in their reading throughout this unit.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • main ideas, key details (L)
  • assumed, saluted, defining, accomplishments, elected, encouraged, , deserved, mesmerized, measure, impact, admired, opinion, biography, chronicled, commitment, segregated, existed, color barrier, race relations, enslaved, amendments, violate, favoring, opposed, demeaning (T)

Materials

  • Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Academic Word Wall (begun in Module 1; added to during the Opening)
  • Domain-Specific Word Wall (begun in Lesson 1; added to during the Opening)
  • Promises to Keep (from Lesson 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 (one per student and one to display)
  • Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Vocabulary logs (begun in Module 1; one per student)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Language Dive Guide: Promises to Keep (for teacher reference)
    • Questions We Can Ask During a Language Dive anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time B)
    • Questions We Can Ask During a Language Dive anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
    • Language Dive Chunk Chart: Promises to Keep (for teacher reference)
    • Language Dive Note-catcher: Promises to Keep (one per student and one to display)
    • Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: Promises to Keep (one to display)
    • Verb Tenses handout (one per student and one to display)
    • Red markers (one per student)
  • Determining Main Ideas and Key Details: "A Black and White World" note-catcher (one per student and one to display)
  • Determining Main Ideas and Key Details: "A Black and White World" note-catcher (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas (one per student and one to display)
  • Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas (answers, for teacher reference)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions."

"I can determine the main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details."

  • Remind students they have seen similar learning targets in Modules 1-2.
  • Turn and Talk, and then cold call students to share out:

"What are main ideas? How are main ideas different from the gist?" (Main ideas are the main points related to the real world that the author wants you to understand and take away from reading, and the gist is what the text is mostly about.)

  • Underline and use the Vocabulary strategies on the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart to review and/or determine the meaning of any unfamiliar words. Record any new words on the Academic Word Wall and Domain-Specific Word Wall and invite students to add translations in their home languages.
  • For students who may need additional support with comprehension and engagement: Invite them to share one way they worked toward similar learning targets in Modules 1-2. (MMR, MME)
  • For ELLs: (Checking Comprehension of Concepts) Check comprehension of the word details by inviting students to turn to an elbow partner and define it in their own words. Provide clarification as necessary and then invite them to notice the details in the illustration of a familiar book cover. Ask:

"What details do you notice in this illustration? How do you know it is a detail?"

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading for Gist: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 (15 minutes)

  • Invite students to take out their copies of Promises to Keep and open to page 6.
  • Display page 6. Read aloud pages 6-7 without stopping, as students read along silently in their heads.
  • Turn and Talk, and use total participation techniques to invite students to share their responses with the whole group:

"What is the text about?" (Jackie Robinson)

"What is the purpose of the book? What might you expect the rest of the book to be about?" (The purpose is to tell about Jackie Robinson's life and why making a promise and keeping it is so important.)

  • Read aloud pages 8-9 as students read along silently in their heads.
  • Turn and Talk, and use total participation techniques to invite students to share their responses with the whole group:

"What is the text about?" (segregation in the United States)

  • Focus students on the first paragraph on page 6 and invite students to chorally read it with you. Turn and Talk, and use total participation techniques to select students to share with the whole group:

"What is the gist of this paragraph? What is it mostly about?" (When Jackie Robinson first played for the Brooklyn Dodgers, it was a defining moment for baseball.)

  • Distribute Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 and record the gist in the first row, inviting students to do the same. Remind students that the gist doesn't need to be complete sentences--it can be key words or notes as long as it explains what the text is mostly about.
  • Invite students to work with an elbow partner to write down unfamiliar words and phrases in this paragraph.
  • Focus students on the Vocabulary strategies listed on the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart, and invite students to identify the most effective strategy to determine the meaning of each of the words they have circled. Remind students to record new Vocabulary in their Vocabulary logs.
  • After 3 minutes, refocus the group and invite students to share the unfamiliar words and their definitions.
  • Invite students to follow this same process for the remainder of the text.
  • When 3 minutes remain, refocus the whole group and invite students to share the gist of each of the paragraphs. Refer to Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary. Add any new words to the Academic Word Wall and Domain-Specific Word Wall and invite students to add translations in home languages.
  • Guide students through the reflection routine from Work Time C of Lesson 1:
    • Invite students to spend 3 minutes reflecting silently. Reflection can include thinking or writing/drawing on paper. Students must be silent when they do this, though.
    • Ask:

"What did what you read or saw in the book make you think about? Why?"

    • Invite students to begin reflecting. Circulate to quietly view student reflections in order to be able to address concerns.
    • After 3 minutes, refocus whole group.
    • Review the importance of respect on the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart.
    • Invite volunteers to share their reflections.
  • For students who may need additional support with fine motor skills: Provide options for expression by offering a copy of Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 that includes lines. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: (Modeling and Thinking Aloud: Determining Gist) Consider modeling and thinking aloud determining the gist of the first two paragraphs before asking students to do so in partners.
  • For ELLs: (Cognates) When discussing strategies for figuring out the meanings of unfamiliar words, suggest thinking about similar words in English or other languages students might know (cognates). Example: "Saluted in Spanish is saludo. That sounds so similar. So if you know the meaning of saludo, that might give you one clue about what saluted means."
  • For ELLs: (Visual Reinforcement/Acting Out Word Meanings) Consider adding a sketch or drawing next to any new words added to the Academic and Domain-Specific Word Walls and inviting students to act out the meaning of each word as it is added.

B. Language Dive: Promises to Keep, Pages 8-9 (15 minutes)

  • Tell students they will now participate in a Language Dive with a change in format.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What do you remember about the most recent Language Dive from Module 2?" (It was teacher-led, with the teacher asking questions about the sentence strip chunks and the students responding.)

  • Let students know that going forward they will be given more independence to think and discuss the chunks in their groupings. Reassure students that the teacher will continue to monitor and guide their conversations to support students as they grapple in the Language Dive.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Think about our work with Language Dives. What questions do we ask about the sentences? What questions do we ask about the chunks? What questions do we ask about the words?" Tell students you will give them time to think and discuss with their partner. (Responses will vary.)

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the Questions We Can Ask During a Language Dive anchor chart. Refer to Questions We Can Ask During a Language Dive anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary. Ensure students understand how to use these questions, pointing out that the questions highlighted on the anchor chart are questions they should always ask when they dive into a sentence.
  • Ask:

"How will thinking of our own questions for a Language Dive help us during a Language Dive?" Tell students you will give them time to think and discuss with a partner. (Responses will vary, but may include: The questions will help jog our thinking about important language features in the sentence.)

  • Reread the third paragraph of page 8 of Promises to Keep.
  • Focus students on the sentence:
    • "Before we get into the story of Jackie Robinson, however, we need to understand how segregation became a way of life in the United States."
  • Use the Language Dive Guide: Promises to Keep and Language Dive Chunk Chart: Promises to Keep to guide students through a Language Dive conversation of the sentence. Distribute and display the Language Dive Note-catcher: Promises to Keep, the Language Dive sentence strip chunks, and the Verb Tenses handout.
  • Ask:

"Now that we have completed our first new Language Dive, what additional questions should we add to our Questions We Ask during a Language Dive anchor chart?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Use a checking for understanding technique (e.g., Red Light, Green Light or Thumb-O-Meter) for students to self-assess against the first learning target.
  • For students who struggle with oral language and processing: Allow ample wait time after asking questions during the Language Dive. (MME, MMAE)

C. Guided Practice: Determining Main Ideas and Key Details (20 minutes)

  • Distribute and display the Determining Main Ideas and Key Details: "A Black and White World" note-catcher. Select a volunteer to read the definition of main idea at the top of the note-catcher:
    • "The main ideas of a text are the main points that the author wants you to understand and to take away from reading the text. There is often more than one idea in a text."
  • Tell students that authors develop main ideas with pieces of evidence that support the main idea called key details. Tell students that as they read a text, they should think about what the author wants the reader to understand and take away from the text and gather details to confirm this original thinking about what the text is about or more precisely focus this thinking.
  • Model rereading pages 8-9 in Promises to Keep, determining one main idea for "A Black and White World," identifying key details that support this main idea, thinking about how the details is evidence of the main idea, and recording this in the appropriate spots on the note-catcher and modeling how to quote accurately from the text as necessary. Refer to Determining Main Ideas and Key Details: "A Black and White World" note-catcher (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary. Invite students to record this main idea and key details on their copy of the note-catcher.
  • Turn and Talk, and select volunteers to share out:

"What is another main idea of this section? What key details support the main idea? How is this detail evidence of the main idea?" (Main idea: After the Civil War, African Americans were still treated badly, and they were segregated from white people; Key details will vary, but may include: "They passed state laws to restrict the rights of blacks and to keep them from voting." and "White audiences laughed at the clowning and foolish antics of the character. Black people found the performances demeaning.")

  • If productive, cue students to explain why a classmate came up with a particular response and to encourage students to agree or disagree, and explain why:

"Who can explain why your classmate came up with that response? I'll give you time to think and write." (Responses will vary.)

"Do you agree or disagree with what your classmate said? Why? I'll give you time to think and write." (Responses will vary.)

  • Invite students to record this main idea and key details on their copy of the note-catcher.
  • Use a checking for understanding technique (e.g., Red Light, Green Light or Thumb-O-Meter) for students to self-assess against the second learning target and to self-assess how well they did with showing respect in this lesson.
  • For students who may need additional support with recording their ideas in writing: Provide a partially filled-in note-catcher that contains sentence stems or frames as scaffolds. (MMAE, MME)
  • For ELLs: (Noticing Irrelevant Details) When modeling identifying key details that support the main idea, suggest a detail that is irrelevant and ask students to evaluate it. (Example: "The author says that people started to use the term 'Jim Crow' to mean discrimination." Ask: "Does that detail support the main idea that African Americans were slaves in the United States before the Civil War? Why or why not?")
  • For ELLs: (Providing Key Details) Before inviting students to work in pairs and determine the second main idea of the section, consider providing the key details for students who need heavier support, and then inviting them to determine the main idea based on those key details. Encourage them to think about and discuss with a partner how each detail supports the main idea.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas (5 minutes)

  • Distribute Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas.
  • Read aloud the questions on the exit ticket. Then select students to read each option aloud, and invite students to underline the answer they think is correct.
  • Collect exit tickets to assess students' progress toward determining main ideas and identifying key details. Refer to Exit Ticket: Determining Main Ideas (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • For ELLs: (Referencing Note-catcher) Encourage students to refer to Finding the Gist and Unfamiliar Vocabulary: Promises to Keep, Pages 6-9 from Work Time A for support when completing the exit ticket.
  • For students who may need additional support with organizing ideas for written expression: Provide them with an opportunity to verbally recall their learning and rehearse their ideas with a partner before writing. This may allow them additional time to organize their thinking. (MMAE)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: (Oral Response) Read aloud, discuss, and respond to your prompt orally with a partner, a family member, or a student from Grades 4 or 6, or record an audio response. (MMAE)
  • For students who may need additional support with reading: Support students in selecting a prompt to respond to, rephrasing the prompt, and thinking aloud possible responses. (MMR)

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