Writing a Literary Analysis Essay: Analyzing a Model | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M2:U2:L7

Writing a Literary Analysis Essay: Analyzing a Model

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RF.5.4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • RF.5.4a: Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • RF.5.4c: Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
  • W.5.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • W.5.2a: Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • W.5.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • W.5.9a: Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]").
  • L.5.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can work with a partner to select a focus statement and concrete and sensory language for my literary analysis essay. (W.5.2a, W.5.2b)
  • I can read aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World with accuracy and fluency. (RF.5.4)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Colored-in Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree (W.5.2)
  • Sticky note with chosen focus statement (W.5.2a)
  • Highlighted Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language note-catcher (W.5.2b)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

B. Engaging the Reader: Model Essay (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Reading for Gist and Analyzing the Model Essay: The Painted Essay (20 minutes)

B. Planning a Literary Analysis Essay: Selecting a Focus Statement and Quotes (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Reading Fluency: The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, Page 28 (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Concrete and Sensory Language II: Gather concrete and sensory language from your independent reading book (either research or choice) on the note-catcher.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students analyze the structure of a model literary analysis about the author's use of concrete and sensory language in The Great Kapok Tree. This prepares them for writing their own literary analysis in which they analyze the concrete and sensory language in the excerpt from pages 41-42 of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, read closely in Lesson 5 (W.5.2).
  • The literary analysis written during this half of the unit is done in pairs. This gives students a thought partner during the writing process. At the end of the unit, students will write a literary essay independently (W.5.2).
  • After analyzing the model essay, students work in pairs to choose a focus statement from a provided selection (W.5.2a) and to identify the concrete and sensory language they would like to use to develop the topic with quotes in their essay (W.5.2b).
  • Over the next several lessons, students use the Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer to plan their essays (W.5.2). Students may be familiar with this graphic organizer from fourth grade, as it follows the same overall format. However, while the format is the same, the focus question and content increases the rigor in fifth grade.
  • An example Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer is provided in the supporting materials; however, in this lesson students only complete the focus statement at the top of the graphic organizer. They will complete each part of the graphic organizer before drafting the corresponding paragraph over the next few lessons.
  • In Closing and Assessment, students practice reading aloud an excerpt from The Most Beautiful Roof in the World in preparation for the reading fluency assessment required as part of the End of Unit 2 Assessment (RF.5.4).
  • The research reading that students complete for homework helps build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to the rainforest, specifically rainforest species and research. By participating in this volume of reading over time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it. Inviting students to share what they have been learning through independent reading holds them accountable.
  • In this lesson, the habit of character focus is working to become an effective learner. The characteristics students are reminded of specifically are collaboration and respect, as they work in pairs on their literary analysis essays and as they provide kind, specific, and helpful reading fluency feedback.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In Lesson 5, students closely read an excerpt from pages 41-42 of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World. In Lesson 6, they analyzed those same pages, but with a focus on the concrete and sensory language. In this lesson, they decide which examples of concrete and sensory language they would like to use to develop the topic in their literary analysis essay (W.5.2b).
  • In this lesson, students revisit the Painted Essay structure introduced in Module 1 to analyze the structure of the model essay. This analysis will help them to structure their own essays (W.5.2).
  • Students choose a focus statement for their literary analysis from some teacher-chosen options taken from students' Exit Ticket: Focus Statement from Lesson 6 (W.5.2a).
  • Continue to use Goals 1-3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • A modified model essay has been provided for students who may need additional support. The modified model uses simplified vocabulary and sentence structure; however, the overall content and structure follows the model essay. Note that supporting materials related to the modified model essay have not been provided. Additionally, parts of the model essay that are used in Language Dives or in the Additional Language and Literacy Block and have not been provided for the modified model.
  • Throughout this lesson, students should work with a partner. Strategically pair them so they can support one another well as they read and analyze the model text and choose a focus statement and the quotes they would like to use in their essay.
  • Consider providing students who require additional support reading aloud with shorter excerpts of text in the reading fluency practice in Closing and Assessment A.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' focus statements and quote choices to determine whether pairs have the essential components for their essay, as they will begin writing the essay in the next lesson.
  • Consider using the Writing Informal Assessment: Writing and Language Skills Checklist (Grade 5) during students' planning in Work Time B (see the Tools page).
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist during students' fluency practice in Closing and Assessment A (see the Tools page).

Down the road:

  • In Lesson 8, pairs will use the focus statement and concrete and sensory language quotes they have chosen to begin to write a literary analysis in response to the question: "What does the author's use of sensory detail and point of view help the reader understand about the rainforest?"
  • Throughout the remaining modules, when students write informative or opinion essays they will use planning graphic organizers with a similar format to the Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer introduced in this lesson.

In Advance

  • Create the Focus Statement Options for display by choosing two to four focus statements from students' Exit Ticket: Focus Statement from Lesson 6.
  • Strategically pair students for writing their literary analysis for the rest of the unit.
  • Post: Learning targets, Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart, and Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time A: For students who benefit from hearing the text read aloud multiple times, consider using a text-to-speech tool like Natural Reader, SpeakIt! for Google Chrome, or the Safari reader. Note that to use a web-based text-to-speech tool like SpeakIt! or Safari reader, you will need to create an online doc, such as a Google Doc, containing the text.
  • Work Time A: Students analyze the text in a word processing document, such as a Google Doc, and change the color of the text according to the structure.
  • Work Time B: Students complete the note-catcher in a word processing document, such as a Google Doc.
  • Closing and Assessment A: Record students reading the text aloud using software or apps such as Audacity or GarageBand.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.B.6a, 5.I.B.7, 5.I.C.11, 5.II.A.1

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to discuss the gist of each paragraph of a new model essay as well as visuals to analyze the structure of the essay.
  • ELLs may find identifying the parts of the essay challenging because they will first need to understand the meaning of the essay they are analyzing. See suggestions in the lesson.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Consider asking students to create a graphic that shows how US essay structure is similar to and different from conventional essay structures in other countries.
  • Consider asking students to create a graphic that shows how this essay structure is similar to and different from other structures, such as narrative structure.

For heavier support:

  • Highlight the sentences in the model essay that contain the introduction, focus statement, first piece of evidence, second piece of evidence, and conclusion in advance. Invite students to write the appropriate label next to each. Consider discussing, acting out, sketching, and paraphrasing the meaning of some key sentences from the model essay before class so that students can more fully participate. Copy the introduction, focus statement, first piece of evidence, second piece of evidence, and conclusion from the model essay onto separate strips of paper in advance. Scramble the strips and invite students to put them back in the proper order and label them.
  • Consider providing students with a recording of the fluency passages from Closing and Assessment and Homework in Lessons 7-11. Allow them to practice reading aloud with the recorded text.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation: Offer a variety of representations to help facilitate comprehension of new vocabulary introduced in this lesson. Connect the idea of structure to architecture. Say: "Just like authors structure their writing based on their purpose, architects build structures to suit how people will use them." When practicing fluency, consider using phrasing arcs in your model and in the text to help visually convey appropriate phrasing for students.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression: Consider differentiated ways for students to analyze the structure of the model text. Example: Highlight sentences in the model text and have students label the focus statement, pieces of evidence, and conclusion. Another option is to write the sentences on sentence strips and have students put them in the order that makes the most sense. By engaging with the model text in these different ways, students have more opportunities to practice analyzing text.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement: In Work Time A, students use colored pencils to mark up the model text based on their analysis. Students then share out their responses in a group discussion and are encouraged to go back and revise their text. Some students may feel embarrassed if they made errors with the colored pencil that they cannot erase. Minimize risk by providing a new, unmarked copy of the model text for students to revise their analysis.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • structure, accuracy, fluency, literary analysis (L)

Materials

  • Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree (one per student and one to display)
  • Modified Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree (optional; for students needing additional support; see Teaching Notes)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Colored pencils: red, green, yellow, blue (one of each per student)
  • Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree (example, for teacher reference)
  • Markers: red, green, yellow, blue (one of each per student)
  • Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language note-catcher (from Lesson 6; one per student)
  • Focus Statement Options (one to display; see In Advance section)
  • Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (one per student and one to display)
  • Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language Note-catcher: Class Version (from Lesson 6)
  • Excerpt of Pages 41-42 of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World (from Lesson 5; one per student)
  • Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (example, for teacher reference)
  • Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • The Most Beautiful Roof in the World (one per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and ask for volunteers to read them aloud:
    • "I can work with a partner to select a focus statement and concrete and sensory language for my literary analysis essay."
    • "I can read aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World with accuracy and fluency."
  • Remind students that they worked with the Painted Essay structure in Module 1. Tell students they will be writing an essay using this structure, and that today they will begin planning it. Write the word structure on the board.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is the translation of structure in our home languages?" (estructura in Spanish) Invite students to use their translation dictionary if necessary. Call on volunteers to share. Ask other students to choose one translation to quietly repeat. Invite students to say their chosen translation out loud when you give the signal. Chorally repeat the translations and the word in English. Invite self- and peer correction of the pronunciation of the translations and the English.

"What does structure mean?" (the way something is put together)

"Why would we want to analyze the structure of a piece of model writing?" (so that we can apply that structure to our own work to make it as effective as the model)

"How can we use the Painted Essay structure to analyze writing?" (It helps us see how the essay is put together; we can identify the different components and the content of each component, which can help us to structure our own work.)

  • Remind students that in the previous lesson they generated an idea for a focus statement on the Exit Ticket: Focus Statement, and in this lesson you will provide a selection of those focus statements for them to choose from.
  • Remind students that in the previous lesson they analyzed the excerpt from pages 41-42 of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World for concrete and sensory language and explain that in this lesson they will choose some of those quotes to develop the topic of their chosen focus statement.
  • Underline the words accuracy and fluency in the second learning target.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What does it mean to read with accuracy and fluency?" (to read smoothly without making many mistakes)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Spell and say structure aloud. (MMR)
  • Support new vocabulary by drawing connections to architecture. Provide several visuals of different types of structures (e.g., skyscraper, table, swimming pool). Ask:

"How do these images demonstrate different structures?"

Connect this to writing by saying that authors structure their writing differently based on the writer's purpose just like architects build different structures based on how they will be used. (MMR)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with memory: Ask students to provide you with examples of a focus statement and concrete language and sensory details from the previous lesson. Consider having those who wrote the focus statements share out how they identified them in the previous lesson. (MMR, MME)

B. Engaging the Reader: Model Essay (5 minutes)

  • Distribute and display Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree. Distribute the Modified Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree as needed.
  • Focus students on the question at the top of the essay and ensure that they recognize the similarities between this question and the question they have been considering when reading the excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World over the previous couple of lessons.
  • Invite students to read along silently in their heads while you read the model essay aloud.
  • For ELLs: To provide heavier support, be explicit with students about the conventional essay structure in the United States. As taught in this lesson, an essay often begins with an introduction to set context and "hook" the reader; the introduction often includes a focus statement to set the course and main idea of the essay; the essay continues with a body of two or three main pieces of evidence and explanation to support the focus statement; and then the author provides a conclusion to wrap up the essay and reflect on the focus statement. Although essay structure is different in many countries and sometimes in different genres, tell ELLs the structure taught here is often what teachers and other readers expect to see in the United States and that mastering this formula, among others, can help ELLs become successful writers. Highlight, label, and distribute less complex models of this structure for students who are struggling, or invite students to highlight and label other models.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading for Gist and Analyzing the Model Essay: The Painted Essay (20 minutes)

  • Move students into predetermined partnerships.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them specifically of the collaboration criteria. Remind students that because they will be working together in pairs, they need to be conscious of working effectively with others.
  • Invite pairs to reread the model essay and annotate the gist of each paragraph in the margin next to the writing. Remind students that the gist is what the text is mostly about, so students will read a paragraph, discuss what it is mostly about, and then record this in notes next to the paragraph before moving on to find the gist of the next paragraph.
  • Ask students to begin working.
  • Circulate to support students in rereading the model essay when necessary.
  • After 5 minutes, refocus whole group.
  • Remind students of the colors of the Painted Essay recorded at the top of the model essay.
  • Explain that now pairs are going to use colored pencils: red, green, yellow, blue to underline the different parts of the essay according to the key at the top of the model essay. Remind students that they are using colored pencils at this stage because this is their initial thinking.
  • Invite pairs to begin color-coding the model essay.
  • Circulate to ask students about their choices and to identify a pair with a solid understanding. Consider asking question such as:

"Why do you think that is the introduction?"

"Why do you think that is the focus statement?"

  • After 10 minutes, or when most students appear to have finished, refocus whole group.
  • Strategically identify a pair of students who demonstrated a solid understanding of the task. Invite them to come and underline the introduction on the displayed model, according to the work they did together.
  • If productive, cue the pair to provide reasoning after they underline the introduction:

"Why do you think that is the introduction?" (because it introduces the title of the book and the author and briefly explains what it is about)

  • Repeat with the focus statement and a new pair of students. Refer to the Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Distribute markers: red, green, yellow, blue and invite pairs to use them to revise their original thinking about the structure based on the whole group discussion.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What type of writing piece is this essay: is it a narrative piece, informational piece, or opinion piece? What in the model essay makes you think so?" (It is an informational piece because it explains how Lynn Cherry's descriptions help the reader to better understand the rainforest.)

  • Tell students this essay is called a literary analysis: it analyzes a literary text. In the model essay, the writer analyzes descriptions in The Great Kapok Tree.
  • Provide choice by allowing students to have a new and unmarked copy of the excerpt to revise with markers and/or colored pencils after the peer share-out. (MME)

B. Planning a Literary Analysis Essay: Selecting a Focus Statement and Quotes (20 minutes)

  • Distribute and display the Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer and tell students they will be using this graphic organizer to plan their writing.
  • Select a volunteer to read the headings and questions in each box of the graphic organizer. Reassure students that it is okay if they do not completely understand what to do in each part of this organizer. Tell students they will learn how to use this graphic organizer over the next several lessons. 
  • Select a volunteer to read the focus question aloud:
    • What does the author's use of concrete language and sensory detail help you understand about the rainforest?
  • Remind students that a focus statement answers the focus question. Direct students to find the model essay's focus statement. Remind them that the focus statement answers the question at the top of the model: "What does the use of concrete language and sensory detail help you understand about the rainforest?" Point out that this is the same focus question they will be answering in their essays.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"In the focus statement, the author makes a claim. How has the author of this essay supported the claim made in the focus statement? Why?" (with quotes from the text and reasoning to support the claim)

"What quotes has the author chosen? Why?" (quotes that include concrete and sensory language--specifically quotes about things the characters can hear and quotes about things the characters can see, as stated in the focus statement)

  • If productive, cue students with a challenge, and to listen carefully and seek to understand:

"What if the author hadn't included these quotes from the text and reasoning to support the claim? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (The reader might not trust the claim that the author is making, and it might be more difficult to "see" or understand reasoning behind the focus statement.)

"Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Invite students to retrieve their Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language note-catcher and focus them on the question at the top.
  • Display the Focus Statement Options and read them aloud.
  • Explain that students are going to work in pairs to choose a focus statement to answer the question for their literary analysis essay. Emphasize that pairs should choose a focus statement that they have at least two pieces of evidence to support, so before making a decision, they should go through each focus statement option and determine what evidence they can find on their Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language note-catcher to support the claim it is making. Remind them also of the Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language Note-catcher: Class Version, which the whole group contributed to in Lesson 6. It may have more evidence that they can transfer to their own organizer to support a particular focus statement.
  • Remind students that working in pairs to make a selection from a number of choices can be challenging. They will need to refer to the collaboration criteria on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart to ensure that they work effectively and productively together to make a selection.
  • Explain that when students have chosen their focus statement and the two pieces of evidence, they should write the focus statement in the corresponding spot on their Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer, and underline the evidence on their Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language Note-catcher: Class Version.
  • Remind students to also refer to their excerpt of pages 41-42 of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World in case they want to revisit the text to check that they have all of the quotes they need.
  • If students share a home language, invite them to begin their discussion in their home language. Say:

"Selecting a focus statement and underlined evidence may be difficult. To make it easier, you can take a few minutes to talk about this with a partner who shares your home language. Then we can share in English. _____ (student's name), since you are the only student who is able to speak in wonderful _____ (e.g., Urdu), feel free to think quietly or write in _____ (e.g., Urdu)."

  • Invite students to begin. Circulate to support students in selecting a focus statement and evidence. Refer to the Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (example, for teacher reference) as needed. Ask:

"What evidence do you have from the text to support the claim made in that focus statement?"

"How does that evidence support the claim?"

  • Refocus students on the first learning target and invite them to show either a thumbs up, thumbs down, or thumbs to the side for how close they feel they are to meeting that target now. Be aware that this gesture may mean something different in other cultures, so in this situation choose a different way for students to self-assess progress, or use it as a teaching point for what this means in the United States. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • Consider chunking this Work Time into two timed sessions, the first to identify a focus statement and the second to highlight pieces of evidence. Provide timers to help support students' executive function skills. (MMR, MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of the chunks of this focus statement: "Lynne Cherry's description of things the man hears and sees helps the reader to understand the serious consequences of cutting down the kapok tree." Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Examples:
    • "What is consequence in our home languages?" (natija in Arabic) Invite all students to repeat the translation in a different home language.
    • "What does consequence mean? You can use your dictionaries." (result, effect)
    • "Is a serious consequence a really bad result or a really good result?" (really bad)
    • "What is the gist of this sentence?" (Responses will vary.)
    • "What senses is the sentence talking about?" (hearing, seeing)
    • "What does Lynne Cherry describe?" (things the man hears and sees)
    • "What does the man hear and see?" (e.g., birds, monkeys, smoldering ruins)
    • "What is one of the serious consequences of cutting down the tree?" (loss of beauty and home)
    • "Now what do you think is the gist of this focus statement?" (We realize that many bad things will happen, based on the author's descriptions, when the tree is cut down.)
  • For ELLs: Help students negotiate selecting a focus statement and evidence by providing negotiation phrases such as:
    • "That sounds good. In my opinion, however, _____."
    • "What if we _____?"
    • "Another thing I was thinking we might do is _____."
    • "I agree. And I would add that _____."
    • "Maybe the evidence belongs here instead."

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading Fluency: The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, Page 28 (10 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart and select volunteers to read the criteria aloud.
  • Explain that at the end of this unit, students will read aloud a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World to assess their reading fluency with a new text.
  • Invite students to retrieve their copies of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World and turn to page 28.
  • Explain that they are going to read from "So first the boys show Meg the jade green pool ..." to "... thinks his bright blonde hair is a weird flower."
  • Read this excerpt aloud for students.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is the gist of this excerpt? What is it mostly about?" (The boys swim in a green pool, and when James stands up, an owl butterfly lands on his head.)

  • Tell students they will have 3 minutes to practice reading this excerpt to themselves, following the criteria on the Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart.
  • After 3 minutes, post and review the following directions:
  1. Find a partner.
  2. Determine who will be partner A and who will be partner B.
  3. Partner A reads the excerpt from page 28 aloud to partner B.
  4. Partner B provides kind, specific, and helpful feedback based on the criteria listed on the Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart. (Example: "Your pace was really good, but your volume was a little quiet. I struggled to hear you at times.")
  5. Switch roles and repeat Steps 3-4.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them specifically of the respect criteria. Remind students that as they provide each other with feedback, they need to ensure that they appreciate the abilities, qualities, and achievements of others and treat others with care.
  • Invite students to begin reading aloud and providing feedback.
  • Refocus students on the second learning target and invite them to show either a thumbs up, thumbs down, or thumbs to the side for how close they feel they are to meeting that target now. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • Repeat, inviting students to self-assess against how well they collaborated and showed respect in this lesson.
  • As you read the excerpt from page 28 aloud, draw arcs under phrases to signal appropriate pauses in the text. Some students may benefit from a copy with the arcs already drawn under the text. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with fluency: Model reading the beginning of the excerpt and have them repeat it back to you or chorally read with you. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Group students who need heavier support heterogeneously so that students who need lighter support and those with native language proficiency can serve as models for the activity. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Give students the choice to focus on only one or two of the criteria on the Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart. (MMAE)
  • Reading fluency is best practiced on text that is at or below the independent reading level. For students whose independent reading levels are below this excerpt, allow them to use an excerpt from their choice reading text to practice fluency. (MMAE)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Concrete and Sensory Language II: Gather concrete and sensory language from your independent reading book (either research or choice) on the note-catcher.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)
  • Consider offering multiple ways for students to respond to the prompt other than written expression. Examples could include pictures, digital media, song/poem, etc. (MMAE)

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