Writing a Literary Analysis Essay: Conclusion | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M2:U2:L11

Writing a Literary Analysis Essay: Conclusion

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RF.5.4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • RF.5.4a: Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • RF.5.4c: Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
  • W.5.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • W.5.2a: Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • W.5.2b: Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • W.5.2c: Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
  • W.5.2d: Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • W.5.2e: Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • W.5.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • W.5.9a: Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]").
  • L.5.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can work with a partner to write a conclusion for our literary analysis. (W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2c, W.5.2d, W.5.9a)
  • I can read aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World with accuracy and fluency. (RF.5.4a, RF.5.4c)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement (W.3.2a)
  • Conclusion of literary analysis essay (W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2c, W.5.2d, W.5.9a)
  • Self-assessment on Reading Fluency Checklist (RF.5.4a, RF.5.4c)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement (5 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Analyzing the Model Essay: Conclusion (10 minutes)

B. Planning and Drafting the Conclusion (20 minutes)

C. Editing (10 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Reading Fluency: The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, Page 32(10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Reading Fluency: Practice reading aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World. See the Reading Fluency chart in your Unit 2 homework for some excerpt suggestions.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students analyze the conclusion of the Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree to generate criteria for the conclusion of their own literary analysis essay to answer the question: "What does the use of concrete language and sensory detail help you understand about the rainforest?" Students then work in pairs to write the conclusion for their literary analysis essay (W.5.2c).
  • When students have finished writing their conclusion, they will work with a student other than their writing partner to proofread for spelling and punctuation errors. They will then work with their writing partner to revise the essay (L.5.1, L.5.2).
  • At the end of the lesson, students continue to practice reading aloud a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World in preparation for the reading fluency assessment required as part of the End of Unit 2 Assessment (RF.5.4).
  • The research reading that students complete for homework helps build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to the rainforest, specifically rainforest species and research. By participating in this volume of reading over time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it. Inviting students to share what they have been learning through independent reading holds them accountable.
  • In this lesson, the habit of character focus is working to become an effective learner. The characteristics students are reminded of specifically are collaboration and respect, as they work in pairs on their literary analysis essays and provide kind, specific, and helpful reading fluency feedback.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In previous lessons, students analyzed the model essay to generate criteria and write the introduction and two proof paragraphs of their literary analysis essay. In this lesson, they continue to analyze the model essay to generate criteria and finish writing their own essay.
  • Continue to use Goals 1-3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Throughout this lesson, students should continue to work with a partner for peer support.
  • Students may require support in writing their conclusions. Consider grouping those students together to receive additional support as they write.
  • Consider providing students who require additional support reading aloud with shorter excerpts of text to read in the reading fluency practice in Closing and Assessment A.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' essays to ensure that they are ready to write a literary essay independently for the end of unit assessment in the next two lessons. If you notice common issues, use these as teaching points at the beginning of the next lesson before students begin their assessments.
  • Consider using the Writing Informal Assessment: Writing and Language Skills Checklist (Grade 5) during students' drafting and editing in Work Times B and C (see the Tools page).
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist during students' fluency practice in Closing and Assessment A (see the Tools page).

Down the road:

  • In the next two lessons, students will work independently to write a literary analysis essay to answer the same question for a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World for their End of Unit 2 Assessment. They will also read aloud a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World for accuracy and fluency as part of the assessment.

In Advance

  • Based on students' progress in the previous lesson, determine any whole group teaching points. Address these points before students begin writing their conclusions.
  • Post: Learning targets, Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart, Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart, and Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time A: For students who benefit from hearing the text read aloud multiple times, consider using a text-to-speech tool like Natural Reader, SpeakIt! for Google Chrome, or the Safari reader. Note that to use a web-based text-to-speech tool like SpeakIt! or Safari reader, you will need to create an online doc, such as a Google Doc, containing the text.
  • Work Time B: Students use a word processing document, such as a Google Doc, to write their conclusions.
  • Work Time B: Students write their conclusion using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software like Dictation.io.
  • Closing and Assessment A: Record students reading the text aloud using software or apps such as Audacity or GarageBand.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.B.6a, 5.I.B.7, 5.I.C.10a, 5.I.C.11a, 5.I.C.12a, 5.II.A.1, 5.II.A.2b, 5.II.C.6

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to discuss and write a conclusion with another student, thereby creating an ideal context for language development. Students analyze a model conclusion to help them understand expectations. They will also profit from the oral processing in preparation for writing about the concrete language and sensory details evidence and what it helps them understand about the rainforest.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to begin writing the conclusion. Writing a conclusion using U.S. conventions may be unfamiliar. Support students by calling special attention to the name and purpose of each piece of the conclusion. Example: Highlight and label where the focus statement is restated and where the author reflects on the ideas in the essay. It may be particularly difficult for students to bring their ideas to the next level in English in the conclusion; consider allowing time for home language use. Discuss each of the checklist criteria and think aloud an example of each for the introduction. See the lesson for additional suggestions.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Invite students to analyze the differences between the conclusion and the focus statement in the Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement (answers, for teacher reference). Example: The author uses the phrase just a tiny part of the biodiversity in the rainforest in the focus statement and the phrase just one small part of that in the conclusion. (MMR) Ask:

"Why did the author change tiny part to small part?" (to vary the writing and make it more interesting by using a synonym)

"What does that refer to in the conclusion? (the amazing diversity of life in the rainforest)

"Which phrase in the focus statement is similar to the amazing diversity of life in the rainforest in the conclusion?" (the biodiversity in the rainforest)

"So, what did the author do with the language in the focus statement and the conclusion?" (The author changed the words and phrases but kept similar meaning.)

Tell students that this is a very common approach to writing a focus statement and conclusion.

For heavier support:

  • Display four bulleted blanks and ask students to help you label them with the structure for the concrete language and sensory details essay, i.e., Introduction with Focus Statement, Proof Paragraph 1, Proof Paragraph 2, Conclusion.
  • To build schema around the concept of a conclusion, read a quick story but omit the ending. When the students notice that the story was not finished, explain that it is just as frustrating when an informative essay does not have an ending. That is why conclusions are so important.
  • Provide ELLs who need heavier support with a cloze copy of the Literary Analysis Essay: Conclusion (example, for teacher reference). Leave out key words or phrases and invite students in pairs to fill in the blanks. Consider providing a word bank for them to choose from, too.
  • Reinforce the idea that students have persevered to reach particularly challenging learning targets in a language they are still mastering. Congratulate them: "Fantastic! You've written a draft of an entire essay in English! Your skills are getting even better."

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation: Some students may need additional support accessing the various skills and tools needed during the writing process. Visually capture the analysis of the model essay so that students can reference it as they write. As much as possible, provide varied representations for planning writing. Examples:
    • Allow students to orally plan their introduction with their partner before writing.
    • Model how to write a conclusion paragraph by thinking aloud.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression: To enable students to synthesize a large amount of information as they write, allow differentiated methods for writing their introduction paragraph. (Example: Invite students to use colored pencils to "paint" the different sentences as part of the checklist criteria. This will visually reinforce the key components of the introductory paragraph and also promote self-monitoring for students.)
  • Multiple Means of Engagement: During a writing activity, provide multiple formats of lined paper. (Examples: Skipping lines by giving lined paper with every other line highlighted or starred. Provide paper that has an empty box for sketching an idea before writing it.) Offer students a choice of format that best suits their learning needs. This will not only help them to accomplish the writing task but also to take ownership of their own learning. Build a supportive and accepting classroom culture during the revision process by reminding students that professional writers receive a great deal of feedback from their editors to improve their writing, too. 

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • conclusion (L)
  • concrete language, sensory detail (W)

Materials

  • Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement (one per pair and one to display)
  • Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree (from Lesson 7; one per student and one to display)
  • Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart (begun in Lesson 8; added to during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (from Lesson 7; one per student and one to display)
  • Literary Analysis Essay: Partner Version (begun in Lesson 8; added to during Work Time B; one per student)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Informative Writing Checklist (from Lesson 8; added to during Work Time A; one per student)
  • Informative Writing Checklist (example, for teacher reference)
  • Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (from Lesson 7; example, for teacher reference)
  • Literary Analysis Essay: Conclusion (example, for teacher reference)
  • Sticky notes (three per student)
  • Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Reading Fluency Checklist (from Lesson 8; one per student)
  • The Most Beautiful Roof in the World (one per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to move to sit with their writing partner.
  • Display and distribute Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement.
  • Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads as you read the directions aloud.
  • Ask students to work with their writing partner to choose the focus statement for that essay based on the conclusion. Only one student needs to write on the entry ticket.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group. Refer to the Entry Ticket: Guess the Focus Statement (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • For students who may need additional support with comprehension: Consider providing a differentiated entry ticket that has multiple choice options for the focus statement rather than an open-ended question. Also consider altering the open-ended question to read: "Why did you pick that answer?" or "What evidence do you have for the answer you selected?" (MMAE)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select volunteers to read them aloud:
    • "I can work with a partner to write a conclusion for our literary analysis."
    • "I can read aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World with accuracy and fluency."
  • Remind students that the second learning targets should be familiar from the previous lesson.
  • Underline the word conclusion in the second learning target.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Based on the entry ticket activity, what do you know about the conclusion?" (restates the focus statement of the piece and adds some reflection on the information and ideas presented in the piece)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with new vocabulary: Explore the different word forms of conclusion. Identify meaning, parts of speech, spelling, and pronunciation (conclusion, conclude, conclusive). (MMR)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Analyzing the Model Essay: Conclusion (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree. Explain that in this lesson, they will focus on the conclusion, which they underlined in green in Lesson 7.
  • Reread the model essay aloud, inviting students to chorally read with you. It is important to read the entire essay so that students can hear how one part flows into the next and how the conclusion follows on from the second proof paragraph.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What information does the conclusion contain? Why?" (restates the focus statement and reflects on the ideas presented)

"How is it organized? Why?" (first it restates the focus statement and then reflects on the ideas presented because that is a natural order)

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart. Refer to the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) to ensure that the necessary criteria are recorded.
  • Point out the source at the end of the essay. Remind students that they should always cite their sources.
  • Record a format for citing sources on the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart. Refer to the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) to ensure that the necessary criteria are recorded.
  • If productive, cue students to think about their thinking:

"How does our discussion and analysis add to your understanding of how to write the conclusion to the essay? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Responses will vary.)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Read the model essay a second time. Then, read it for a third time, pausing to invite students to paraphrase key sentences as you read. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Review and rephrase the definition of focus statement. Say:

"A focus statement is the main idea of our essay. It is the idea the author wants us to remember most from the essay. It is the most important thing that we want to teach our readers." (MMR)

  • Tell ELLs:

"Citing sources is an important academic and career skill in the United States. In the United States, you can borrow important ideas from the original text, but you must use your own words to explain the ideas when you write and you must place quotation marks around the quotes you borrow. In addition, you must tell your reader where the ideas and quotes came from. Otherwise, you might get into serious trouble."

B. Planning and Drafting the Conclusion (20 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer and their Literary Analysis Essay: Partner Version.
  • Focus students on the Conclusion Paragraph box and select a volunteer to read the questions aloud.
  • Use this opportunity to provide any key teaching points identified in advance of the lesson.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them specifically of the collaboration criteria. Remind them that because they will be working together in pairs, they need to be conscious of working effectively with others.
  • Post and review the following directions:
  1. Read what you have written so far with your partner.
  2. Review the criteria for the conclusion on the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart.
  3. Plan your conclusion with your partner, recording your ideas on your Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer. Remember: You need to restate your focus statement and reflect on the ideas and information presented in your essay; the conclusion does not need to be long. The conclusion in the model essay is only two sentences.
  4. Write your conclusion, leaving a space between each line for editing later.
  5. Cite your source(s) at the end.
  • Invite students to retrieve their Informative Writing Checklist.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Which of the criteria do you think we are working on today when writing the conclusion?"

  • Invite students to mark the following on their checklist to help them remember as they write:
    • W.5.2a
    • W.5.2a
    • W.5.3c
    • W.5.2d/L.5.6
    • W.5.2e
    • W.5.4
    • W.5.8
    • L.5.1/L.5.3a
    • L.5.2
  • Focus students on the W.5.2d/L.5.6 criteria about precise vocabulary and remind them that as the terms concrete language and sensory detail feature in the question, this specific vocabulary should be referred to throughout the essay.
  • Also remind students of their work on linking words and phrases to make connections in the previous lesson and explain that this needs to continue in the conclusion so that the writing flows smoothly from the second proof paragraph to the conclusion and connects the information.
  • Invite students to refer to the criteria on the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart to determine whether there are criteria specific to this piece of writing that they would like to add to the third column of their Informative Writing Checklist.
  • Invite students to add specific criteria to their checklist.
  • Circulate to support students. Refer to the Informative Writing Checklist (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • If students share a home language, invite them to begin their discussion about the conclusion in their home language. Say:

"Writing a conclusion that reflects on the ideas in the essay may be difficult. To make it easier, you can take a few minutes to talk about this with a partner who shares your home language. Then we can share in English. _____ (student's name), since you are the only student who is able to speak in wonderful _____ (e.g., Hungarian), feel free to think quietly or write in _____ (e.g., Hungarian)."

  • Invite students to begin planning and writing their conclusion.
  • Circulate to support students in writing their conclusions. Focus your time on those who you are aware may need additional support to do this effectively. Refer to the Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (example, for teacher reference) and the Literary Analysis Essay: Conclusion (example, for teacher reference).
  • Encourage students who finish to pair up with a student other than their writing partner to share work and provide kind, specific, and helpful feedback.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Provide conclusion sentence frames to help students generate ideas. Example:

"In The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, Katherine Lasky's description does more than just show the reader _____. Her descriptions help us _____." (MMR)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Model and think aloud writing a conclusion for more practice, either as a whole class or with a small group. Alternatively, consider group-writing a conclusion with a small group during independent work time. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Invite students to underline the focus statement in their introduction. Have them orally rephrase their focus statement to their partner. Then ask them to write the new version into their conclusion. Finally, have them underline the new version in the conclusion and draw a line to the version in the introduction to emphasize the connection. (MMAE)
  • For students who may need additional support with spatial organization: Offer lined paper with every other line highlighted or starred to help them skip lines as they write. (MMR, MME)

C. Editing (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to take their Literary Analysis Essay: Partner Version and find a partner whom they have not worked with in this lesson.
  • Distribute sticky notes.
  • Post and review the following directions:
  1. Trade papers with your partner.
  2. Read your partner's essay for mechanics, spelling, and punctuation errors only.
  3. When you find an error, write the correction or a piece of guidance on a sticky note and place it next to the error.
  4. Request additional sticky notes as necessary.
  • Invite students to trade papers with their partner and begin working.
  • After 5 minutes, invite students to return the essay to its owner.
  • Invite students to revise their essay using the corrections or feedback from their editing partner.
  • Invite students to record 'Y' for 'Yes' and the date in the final column of their Informative Writing Checklist if they feel the criteria marked on their checklists have been achieved in their writing and editing in this lesson.
  • Develop an accepting and supportive classroom climate by reminding students that professional writers frequently use editors to get feedback. They do not get discouraged when their editor offers suggestions because they know it just makes them a better writer. (MME)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: After modeling, invite students to add to the list of mechanics, spelling, and punctuation criteria. Consider offering a peer editing checklist with the following examples: (MMR, MMAE)
    • Check for capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
    • Check for capital letters at the beginning of a proper noun, e.g., someone's name.
    • Check that their/they're/there, you're/your and its/it's are spelled correctly.
    • Check that longer words have all of their vowels.
    • Check for periods after sentences.
    • Check for commas between clauses.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading Fluency: The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, Page 32 (10 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart and review as necessary.
  • Invite students also to retrieve their Reading Fluency Checklist and to identify the challenges they faced in the previous lesson to work on in this lesson.
  • Remind students that at the end of this unit, they will each read aloud a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World to assess their reading fluency with a new text.
  • Invite students to retrieve their copies of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World and to turn to page 32.
  • Explain that they are going to read from "James and Edward are very excited ..." to "Don't touch it. Keep on climbing."
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them specifically of the respect criteria. Remind them that as they provide each other with feedback, they need to ensure that they appreciate the abilities, qualities, and achievements of others and treat others with care.
  • Follow the same process used in the previous three lessons to guide students through fluency practice with this excerpt. Refer students to the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart, as necessary:
    • Read the excerpt aloud to students.
    • Ask students to determine the gist. (James and Edward ascend into the canopy, and James is excited when he sees a bark beetle.)
    • Provide independent practice time.
    • Provide partner practice and feedback time.
    • Ask students to mark the date in the column for each criterion on the Reading Fluency Checklist that describes how they feel they are doing today.
    • Provide additional practice, as time allows.
  • Focus students on the learning targets. Read each one aloud, pausing after each to use a checking for understanding protocol for students to reflect on their comfort level with or show how close they are to meeting each target. Make note of students who may need additional support with each of the learning targets moving forward.
  • Repeat, inviting students to self-assess against how well they collaborated and showed respect in this lesson.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Model reading the beginning of the excerpt and have them repeat it back to you. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Encourage students to focus more on the gist and meaning of the fluency passage, spending a few minutes figuring out the meaning of unfamiliar words in context or using a translation dictionary to understand unfamiliar words.
  • Reading fluency is best practiced on text that is at or below the independent reading level. For students whose independent reading levels are below this excerpt, allow them to use an excerpt from their independent reading book to practice fluency. (MMAE)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading Fluency: Practice reading aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World. See the Reading Fluency chart in your Unit 2 homework for some excerpt suggestions.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs: Read aloud and discuss the gist of the excerpt students choose. Encourage developing readers to focus more on the meaning of the fluency passage, spending time figuring out the meaning of unfamiliar words in context or using a translation dictionary to understand unfamiliar words.
  • For students whose independent reading levels are below the excerpt selections, allow them to practice their fluency in their independent reading books. (MMAE)

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