Writing a Literary Analysis Essay: Proof Paragraph 2 | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M2:U2:L10

Writing a Literary Analysis Essay: Proof Paragraph 2

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RF.5.4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • RF.5.4a: Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • RF.5.4c: Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
  • W.5.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • W.5.2a: Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • W.5.2b: Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • W.5.2c: Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
  • W.5.2d: Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • W.5.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • W.5.9a: Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]").
  • L.5.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.5.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • L.5.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can work with a partner to write a proof paragraph for our literary analysis. (W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2c, W.5.2d, W.5.9a)
  • I can link ideas in my literary analysis essay using words, phrases, and clauses. (W.5.2c)
  • I can read aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World with accuracy and fluency. (RF.5.4a, RF.5.4c)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Second proof paragraph of literary analysis essay (W.5.2a, W.5.2b, W.5.2c, W.5.2d, W.5.9a)
  • Self-assessment on Reading Fluency Checklist (RF.5.4a, RF.5.4c)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Reader: Assembling Evidence 2 (5 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Planning and Drafting Proof Paragraph 2 (25 minutes)

B. Linking Words (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Reading Fluency: The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, Page 31 (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Reading Fluency: Practice reading aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World. See the Reading Fluency chart in your Unit 2 homework for some excerpt suggestions.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students write the second proof paragraph for their literary analysis essay, using the same proof paragraph criteria generated in Lesson 9 (W.5.2b, W.5.2d). Because the proof paragraph criteria were generated in the previous lesson, students have time in this lesson to review linking words to connect information (W.5.2c).
  • At the end of the lesson, students continue to practice reading aloud a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World in preparation for the reading fluency assessment required as part of the End of Unit 2 Assessment (RF.5.4).
  • Students who finish quickly or require an extension can exchange essays with another student to proofread for spelling and punctuation errors (L.5.1, L.5.2).
  • The research reading that students complete for homework helps build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to the rainforest, specifically rainforest species and research. By participating in this volume of reading over time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it. Inviting students to share what they have been learning through independent reading holds them accountable.
  • In this lesson, the habit of character focus is working to become an effective learner. The characteristics students are reminded of specifically are collaboration and respect, as they work in pairs on their literary analysis essays and provide kind, specific, and helpful reading fluency feedback.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In Lessons 8-9, students analyzed the model essay and wrote the introduction and first proof paragraph of their literary analysis essay. In this lesson, they continue to analyze the model essay and write the second proof paragraph of their literary analysis essay.
  • Continue to use Goals 1-3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Throughout this lesson, students should continue to work with a partner for peer support.
  • Students may require support in writing their second proof paragraphs. Consider grouping those students together to receive additional support as they write.
  • Note that sentence frames are not provided for all students to use when writing in this module. Refer back to the writing lessons in Module 1 if students need this additional support.
  • Consider providing students who require additional support reading aloud with shorter excerpts of text to read in the reading fluency practice in Closing and Assessment A.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' proof paragraphs to ensure they are ready to write the conclusion to their literary analysis essay in the next lesson. If you notice common issues, use these as teaching points at the beginning of the next lesson before students begin writing their conclusions.
  • Consider using the Writing Informal Assessment: Writing and Language Skills Checklist (Grade 5) during students' drafting in Work Time A.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist during students' fluency practice in Closing and Assessment A.

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will write the conclusion of their literary analysis essay.
  • In Lessons 12 and 13, students will work independently to write a literary analysis essay to answer the same question for a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World.

In Advance

  • Prepare the Assembling Evidence 2: Evidence Chunks by cutting out the chunks (see supporting materials).
  • Based on students' progress in Lesson 9, determine any whole group teaching points, particularly related to their first proof paragraph. Address these points before students begin writing their second proof paragraph.
  • Post: Learning targets, Literary Analysis anchor chart, Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart, and Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time A: For students who benefit from hearing the text read aloud multiple times, consider using a text-to-speech tool like Natural Reader, SpeakIt! for Google Chrome, or the Safari reader. Note that to use a web-based text-to-speech tool like SpeakIt! or Safari reader, you will need to create an online doc, such as a Google Doc, containing the text.
  • Work Time B: Students use a word processing document, such as a Google Doc, to write their proof paragraphs.
  • Work Time B: Students write their proof paragraph using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software like Dictation.io.
  • Closing and Assessment A: Record students reading the text aloud using software or apps such as Audacity or GarageBand.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.A.1, 5.I.A.2, 5.I.B.6a, 5.I.B.7, 5.I.C.10a, 5.I.C.11a, 5.I.C.12a, 5.II.A.1, 5.II.A.2b, 5.II.C.6

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to discuss and write a proof paragraph with another student, thereby creating an ideal context for language development. Students are exposed to linking language, which can help make their writing more comprehensible.
  • ELLs may find using linking words challenging. They review 21 linking words and phrases from Module 1 in this lesson. ELLs may not have learned or may not remember the meaning of most of them. Consider lightening the load for ELLs by highlighting the most frequently used linking phrases in this unit and those that will be most useful in student texts (e.g., and, but, for example, also). You might also provide time for ELLs to use a paper or online dictionary to translate the words. To use linking words effectively, ELLs need to know about the English clause and phrase system. Therefore, they have to know what an independent clause is, which means they need to understand how to identify a subject with a verb. Be explicit about these grammar terms (or use equivalent terms, such as "complete thought" for "independent clause"). Not all languages require a subject and a verb to form an independent clause. However, nearly all languages use coordinating conjunctions to connect clauses. Use these facts as a departure point for talking with ELLs about English. This information may be new and possibly overwhelming for students. Reassure them and encourage them to do their best, emphasizing that learning these terms and concepts will help them write clearly over time.

Levels of support                                                                                                                                     

For lighter support:

  • Invite students to substitute linking phrases that are synonymous with the linking phrases on the Linking Words and Phrases handout to create variety and interest in their writing. (e.g., For example = For instance)
  • Invite students to work as the expert in home language groups with students who need heavier support. The expert can explain how to use key English linking language such as and, also, another, and so in contrast with the usage in the home language. Provide the expert with simple sentences to link as a demonstration for other students.

For heavier support:

  • Display four bulleted blanks and ask students to help you label them with the structure for the concrete language and sensory details essay, i.e., Introduction with Focus Statement, Proof Paragraph 1, Proof Paragraph 2, Conclusion.
  • For Opening A, on separate strips, write a phrase that describes the gist of each chunk strip and distribute the gist strips to ELLs who need heavier support. Invite them to match the gist strip to the chunk strip before they sequence the chunk strips.
  • Provide students with a cloze copy of the Literary Analysis Essay: Proof Paragraph 2 (example, for teacher reference). Leave out key words or phrases and invite students in pairs to fill in the blanks. Consider providing a word bank for them to choose from, too.
  • Consider highlighting one or two examples of effective use of linking words and one or two examples for improvement in ELL texts in advance.
  • Remove the linking words from a copy of the model essay and allow ELLs to add the correct linking word back into the blanks.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation: Some students may need additional support accessing the various skills and tools needed during the writing process. Visually capture the analysis of the model essay so that students can reference it as they write. As much as possible, provide varied representations for planning writing. Example: Allow students to orally plan their introduction with their partner before writing.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression: To enable students to synthesize a large amount of information as they write, allow differentiated methods for writing their introduction paragraph. (Example: Invite students to use colored pencils to "paint" the different sentences as part of the checklist criteria. This will visually reinforce the key components of the introductory paragraph and also promote self-monitoring for students.)
  • Multiple Means of Engagement: During a writing activity, provide multiple formats of lined paper. (Examples: Skipping lines by giving lined paper with every other line highlighted or starred. Provide paper that has an empty box for sketching an idea before writing it.) Offer students a choice of format that best suits their learning needs. This will not only help them to accomplish the writing task but also to take ownership of their own learning. Help students manage their frustration during writing by offering a list of options that students can take if they get frustrated or don't know what to do next. This list could include options such as: reference the anchor chart, ask an elbow partner, look at my note-catcher, etc.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • link (L)
  • concrete language, sensory detail (W)

Materials

  • Assembling Evidence 2: Evidence Chunks (one set per student and one set to display)
  • Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree (from Lesson 7; one per student and one to display)
  • Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart (begun in Lesson 8)
  • Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (from Lesson 7; one per student and one to display)
  • Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language note-catcher (from Lesson 6; one per student)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (from Lesson 7; example, for teacher reference)
  • Literary Analysis Essay: Partner Version (begun in Lesson 8; added to during Work Time A; one per student)
  • Informative Writing Checklist (from Lesson 8; added to during Work Time A; one per student)
  • Explaining Quotes handout (from Lesson 2; one per student and one to display)
  • Literary Analysis Essay: Proof Paragraph 2 (example, for teacher reference)
  • Linking Words and Phrases (from Module 1; one per student and one for display)
  • Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Reading Fluency Checklist (from Lesson 8; one per student)
  • The Most Beautiful Roof in the World (one per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Assembling Evidence 2 (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to move to sit with their writing partner.
  • Distribute and display Assembling Evidence 2: Evidence Chunks.
  • Explain that these two evidence chunks are from the second proof paragraph of the Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree and that the sentence strips fit together to introduce, present, and explain the evidence.
  • Invite students to work with their writing partner to put the evidence chunks in order.
  • After 4 minutes, display the Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree and invite students to check their work.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Invite students to discuss the gist of each evidence chunk strip before they put the chunks in order. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Ask students to identify each piece of the evidence chunk as they work: introduce/present/explain. Consider offering a checklist with examples for students to reference as they write. (MMR, MMAE)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select volunteers to read them aloud:
    • "I can work with a partner to write a proof paragraph for our literary analysis."
    • "I can link ideas in my literary analysis essay using words, phrases, and clauses."
    • "I can read aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World with accuracy and fluency."
  • Remind students that they used the same first and final learning targets in Lesson 9.
  • Underline the word link in the second learning target.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What does link mean? Why is this important in a literary analysis essay?" (Link means to connect, and this is important so that the reader understands how each part of the essay is connected to the focus statement and also how the essay is sequenced so that the order makes sense.)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with new vocabulary: Emphasize the different forms and meanings of the word link. (MMR)

Examples:

    • "Let's stand up and link arms. What part of speech is link in the second learning target and when we link arms?" (verb)
    • "Can link also be used as a noun? If so, what does it mean?" (a relationship or connection between two things; also, a loop in a chain)
    • "Look at the links we made with our arms when we linked arms. As we learn about linking ideas, think about a simile or metaphor for our linked arms and the writing we will do. How are our linked arms similar to our ideas when we write?"

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Planning and Drafting Proof Paragraph 2 (25 minutes)

  • Invite students to refer to the Model Essay: Concrete and Sensory Language in The Great Kapok Tree. Explain that in this lesson, they will focus on the second proof paragraph, which they underlined in blue in Lesson 7.
  • Reread the introduction, the first proof paragraph, and the second proof paragraph aloud and invite students to chorally read with you.
  • Invite students to work with their partner to identify evidence of each of the proof paragraph criteria listed on the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart. Emphasize that this proof paragraph follows the same structure as the first. It should contain evidence chunks that introduce the context of a quote, state the quote, and elaborate on how the quote supports the claim being made in the focus statement.
  • Invite students to retrieve their Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer and their Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language note-catcher.
  • Focus students on the Proof Paragraph 2 box and select a volunteer to read the questions aloud.
  • Remind students that in each proof paragraph, they will elaborate on the focus of their essay, or explain how the evidence they've chosen shows how the author's use of concrete and sensory language help the reader to better understand the rainforest.
  • Focus students on their Explaining Quotes: Concrete and Sensory Language note-catcher and point out that they already have the context, the quote, and the elaboration recorded here.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them specifically of the collaboration criteria. Remind students that because they will be working together in pairs, they need to be conscious of working effectively with others.
  • Invite students to work with their partner to determine which evidence they are going to use in their first proof paragraph and which they will use in their second proof paragraph. Remind them that making decisions in pairs can be challenging and refer them to the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart to help them collaborate effectively.
  • Invite students to use the criteria for the proof paragraph on the Literary Analysis Essay anchor chart and their chosen evidence for their first proof paragraph to orally plan the evidence chunks for their first proof paragraph with their partner.
  • Then, invite students to complete the Proof Paragraph 2 box of their Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer. If needed, model completing this box, referring to the Informative Writing Planning graphic organizer (example, for teacher reference).
  • Use this opportunity to provide any key teaching points you identified in advance of the lesson.
  • Invite students to retrieve their Informative Writing Checklist and their Literary Analysis Essay: Partner Version.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Which of the criteria do you think we are working on today when writing the second proof paragraph?"

  • Invite students to mark the following on their checklist to help them remember as they write:
    • W.5.2a
    • W.5.2b
    • W.5.2d/L.5.6
    • W.5.4
    • L.5.1/L.5.3a
    • L.5.2
  • Focus students on the rows labeled W.5.2d/L.5.6 about precise vocabulary and emphasize that this specific vocabulary (concrete language and sensory detail) should be referred to throughout the essay. Tell students to refer to the academic and domain specific word walls as they write.
  • Remind students to leave a line between each line of writing for editing later.
  • Invite students to write their second proof paragraph, referring to their Explaining Quotes handout as needed.
  • Circulate to support students in writing their proof paragraphs. Focus your time on those who you are aware may need additional support to do this effectively. Refer to the Literary Analysis Essay: Proof Paragraph 2 (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Encourage students who finish to pair up with a student other than their writing partner to share work and provide kind, specific, and helpful feedback.
  • Invite students to record 'Y' for 'Yes' and the date in the final column of their Informative Writing Checklist if they feel the criteria marked on their checklists have been achieved in their writing in this lesson.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Read the model a second time. Pause and invite students to paraphrase key sentences as you read the model. Example: As you read "The author paints a visual picture for the reader, showing vividly what rainforest destruction can look like," stop and ask:

"Can you say that in your own words?" (The author's descriptions help us imagine the terrible things that might happen to the rainforest, like the trees disappearing.) (MMR)

  • If students need additional modeling, model planning and writing a paragraph using the model essay as a support. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Invite students to stop you as you read each piece of an evidence chunk in the model and identify the piece of the evidence chunk. Example: After you read "He tells the man, 'Where once there was life and beauty, only black and smoldering ruins remain,' students can say "Stop!" and hold up a sign that says "write the quote." (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Encourage students to use colored markers or pencils to continue to "paint" the Proof Paragraph 2 of their draft using the Painted Essay structure from Lesson 7. Invite them to label each piece of their evidence chunks (e.g., "context," "quote," "helps me understand"). If they struggle to identify the structure or label the chunks, ask:

"How might you make each element clearer?" (using one of the phrases from the Explaining Quotes anchor chart) (MMAE)

  • To support students who need additional support with spatial organization, provide lined paper with every other line highlighted or starred. (MMR, MME)

B. Linking Words (15 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to their Informative Writing Checklist and focus them on the following row:
    • W.5.2c
  • Display and invite students to retrieve their Linking Words and Phrases handout and to review the words and phrases in the Words and Phrases That Connect Ideas column.
  • Invite students to work with their writing partner to review their literary analysis essays to add linking words and phrases to connect ideas where necessary.
  • If productive, cue students with a challenge, and to think about their thinking:

"Can you figure out why I invited you to add linking language? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Responses will vary.)

"What strategies helped you succeed in adding linking language? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Responses will vary.)

  • Circulate to support students and refer them to the model essay to see how the author has linked ideas, as necessary.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Ask:

"Think back on how we linked arms. What is the simile or metaphor for our arms and the words we discussed in Work Time B? How are our linked arms similar to our linked ideas when we write?" (Responses will vary but may include: Linking words connect our ideas into a unified essay like our linked arms connected students into a unified class.) (MMR)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Ask:

"Why are linking words and phrases important?" (to make writing clearer, help the reader go easily from one idea to the next, and explain how one idea makes sense with the next idea). (MMR)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Invite partners to identify smooth and awkward transitions in their text and suggest appropriate linking words. Provide sentence frames to facilitate such discussions. (MMR) Examples:
    • "Where is my writing choppy?"
    • "Why did you use this linking phrase?"
    • "Consider adding the linking word ____ here."
    • "I think you should use the linking phrase _____ here."
    • "I like the linking phrase _____ you used here. It makes the writing sound smooth."
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: As students add linking language, ask them to draw a line between the two ideas connected by the linking language. (MMR)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading Fluency: The Most Beautiful Roof in the World, Page 31 (10 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the Fluent Readers Do These Things anchor chart and review as necessary.
  • Invite students also to retrieve their Reading Fluency Checklist and to identify the challenges they faced in the previous lesson to work on in this lesson.
  • Remind students that at the end of this unit, they will each read aloud a new excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World to assess their reading fluency with a new text.
  • Invite students to retrieve their copies of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World and to turn to page 31.
  • Explain that they are going to read from "Next the boys help their mother do a set of sweeps ..." to "... must think and climb and pay attention."
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them specifically of the respect criteria. Remind them that as they provide each other with feedback, they need to ensure that they appreciate the abilities, qualities, and achievements of others and treat others with care.
  • Follow the same process used in the previous three lessons to guide students through fluency practice with this excerpt. Refer students to the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart as necessary:
    • Read the excerpt aloud to students.
    • Ask students to determine the gist. (After sweeping to sample insects, it is time for the boys to go into the canopy.)
    • Provide independent practice time.
    • Provide partner practice and feedback time.
    • Ask students to mark the date in the column for each criterion on the Reading Fluency Checklist that describes how they feel they are doing today.
    • Provide additional practice, as time allows.
  • Focus students on the learning targets. Read each one aloud, pausing after each to use a checking for understanding protocol for students to reflect on their comfort level with or show how close they are to meeting each target. Make note of students who may need additional support with each of the learning targets moving forward.
  • Repeat, inviting students to self-assess against how well they collaborated and showed respect in this lesson.
  • As you read the excerpt on page 31, draw arcs under phrases to signal appropriate pauses in the text. Some students may benefit from a copy with the arcs already drawn under the text. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Focus on whether the student can be understood relatively clearly while reading. Celebrate differences in accents. If corrections are necessary to allow the reader to be comprehensible, focus more on the greater impact of intonation and stress in phrases and sentences, rather than on the pronunciation of single words.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Invite students to choose a new strategy to practice for reading unfamiliar texts. (MME) Examples:
    • Circle unfamiliar words.
    • Use context or a dictionary to define unfamiliar words.
    • Annotate unfamiliar words with synonyms.
    • Summarize what you read for someone else, perhaps first in your home language.
  • Reading fluency is best practiced on text that is at or below the independent reading level. For students whose independent reading levels are below this excerpt, allow them to use an excerpt from their choice reading text to practice fluency. (MMAE)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading Fluency: Practice reading aloud an excerpt of The Most Beautiful Roof in the World. See the Reading Fluency chart in your Unit 2 homework for some excerpt suggestions.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs: Read aloud and discuss the gist of the excerpt students choose. Encourage developing readers to focus more on the meaning of the fluency passage, spending time figuring out the meaning of unfamiliar words in context or using a translation dictionary to understand unfamiliar words.
  • For students whose independent reading levels are below the excerpt selections, allow them to practice their fluency in their independent reading books. (MMAE)

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