Discovering Our Topic: Human Rights | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M1:U1:L1

Discovering Our Topic: Human Rights

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • W.5.8: Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
  • SL.5.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can infer the topic of this module from the resources. (RL.5.1, W.5.8)
  • I can generate norms for effective discussion. (SL.5.1)

Ongoing Assessment

  • I Notice/I Wonder Note-catcher: Inferring the Topic (RL.5.1, W.5.8)
  • Discussion Norms anchor chart (SL.5.1)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Practicing Observing Closely: I Notice/I Wonder (10 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Infer the Topic (20 minutes)

B. Generating Discussion Norms (15 minutes)

3. Work Time

A. Introducing the Performance Task and Module Guiding Questions (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Read and reflect on the guiding questions for the module. Talk about them with your family. How do they make you feel? Why? What do they make you think about? You can sketch or write your reflections.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students participate in the Infer the Topic protocol by engaging with the texts they will read throughout the module (RL.5.1, W.5.8, SL.5.1).
  • Be aware that human rights threats and the events of Esperanza Rising may be sensitive for students. Reflection time is provided during lessons and for homework to give students and families an opportunity to process connections they make. Be aware that these connections may be personal and students are not required to share them.
  • In Work Time B, students generate a Discussion Norms anchor chart. Ensure that all of the cues and responses suggested on the Discussion Norms anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) are added, as these will support students in having productive and equitable discussions that will deepen their understanding (SL.5.1).
  • In this lesson, students do not collect new vocabulary independently. New vocabulary is collected on the Academic Word Wall. Students are introduced to their vocabulary logs in Lesson 4, where they will collect vocabulary from the texts they read.
  • During all interaction, be aware that partnering with, looking at, talking with, or touching the opposite gender may be uncomfortable and inappropriate for some students. In addition, some students may believe it is inappropriate to speak with other students of either gender at all during class. Let students know that in the United States, speaking with a peer of either gender when the teacher gives the signal is appropriate, and it is one way that students can become independent learners and develop their content knowledge and language ability. At the same time, tell them you respect their needs, and if necessary, seek alternative arrangements for students according to their cultural traditions.
  • This lesson is the first in a series of two that include built-out instruction for strategic use of the Think-Pair-Share protocol to promote productive and equitable conversation.
  • This lesson uses cold calling, calling on students without them volunteering, as a total participation technique. Be aware that cold calling may be unfamiliar or embarrassing for some students. Prepare students and their families by telling them that cold calling in the United States is common and is a protocol that helps to ensure that all student voices are heard and respected. The protocol also provides the teacher with one way to assess what students know.

How it builds on previous work:

  • If students have worked on EL Education modules in grades K-4, this module will build on those foundations.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support reading the text excerpts in the Infer the Topic protocol. Invite students to help each other by reading the excerpts aloud to each other.

Assessment guidance:

  • Monitor students' I Notice/I Wonder note-catchers to ensure they are on the right track for inferring what the module is about at the end of the Infer the Topic protocol.

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will be introduced to the independent reading routine. They will also have a chance to share their reflections (if they choose) on the learning targets based on their background and experiences at the beginning of the lesson.
  • The Academic Word Wall and Discussion Norms anchor chart introduced in this lesson will be referred to throughout the module and the school year.

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Academic Word Wall with blank word cards and markers located close by. This is an area of the classroom where academic words will be added throughout the year.
    • The Infer the Topic resources and post around the room. Some of the resources require technology to play videos (see supporting materials).
    • Discussion Norms anchor chart. Note that Goal 1 Conversation Cues and sample student responses are built into the Discussion Norms anchor chart (example, for teacher reference). As students are introduced to Goal 2-4 Conversation Cues in Modules 2-4, additional cues and responses will be added to the Discussion Norms anchor chart. Thus, the Discussion Norms anchor chart is a living document; leave plenty of space to add Conversation Cues in future modules.
    • Performance Task anchor chart (see Performance Task Overview) and Module Guiding Question anchor chart (see Module Overview).
    • Online or paper translation dictionary for ELLs in their home language.
  • Review the Think-Pair-Share and Infer the Topic protocols (see Classroom Protocols).
  • Post: Learning targets.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Opening A: Complete the modeling for the I Notice/I Wonder Note-catcher: Inferring the Topic with the class in a word-processing document such as a Google Doc.
  • Work Time A: Some of the resources for the Infer the Topic protocol are videos:
    • Resource 1: "We Are All Born Free and Equal." Video. Youth for Human Rights. Youth for Human Rights, n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2016.
    • Resource 5: "Don't Discriminate." Video. Youth for Human Rights. Youth for Human Rights, n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2016.
    • Resource 10: "Right to Life." Video. Youth for Human Rights. Youth for Human Rights, n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2016.
  • Work Time A: Students complete their I Notice/I Wonder note-catchers in a word-processing document such as a Google Doc.
  • Work Time A: Students complete their note-catchers in a word-processing document using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices or using an app or software such as Dictation.io.
  • Work Time A: Record student discussions during the Infer the Topic protocol using software or apps such as Audacity or GarageBand.
  • Work Time B: Create the Discussion Norms anchor chart in an online format, such as a Google Doc, to display.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.A.1, 5.I.A.3, 5.I.A.4, 5.I.B.5, and 5.I.B.6

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by explicitly outlining discussion protocols and inviting students to contribute norms that reflect their home cultures, allowing time for students to investigate academic vocabulary, building background and making connections about the topic of the module, and allowing space for diverse perspectives on and experiences with human rights.
  • ELLs may find the Infer the Topic resources challenging because of the volume of potentially unfamiliar new language. Encourage them to focus on the gist of select resources and language that is familiar. Invite them to pat themselves on the back for what they do understand. See Work Time A for additional supports.
  • Human rights threats may be a particularly sensitive issue for some ELLs. Consider getting to know your students and their families' experiences, bringing your awareness of this background into the plan for this module.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Before providing any sentence frames or modeling during Work Time, observe student interaction and allow them to grapple. Provide supportive frames and demonstrations only after students have grappled with the task. Observe the areas in which they need additional support.
  • After Work Time A, consider inviting students to reflect on additional examples of human rights threats.

For heavier support:

  • Display, repeat, and rephrase all questions.
  • During Work Time A, distribute a copy of the I Notice/I Wonder note-catcher that includes sentence starters. Consider including a word bank for Lessons 1 and 2 to help them complete the sentence starters. This will provide students with models for the kind of information they should enter and reduce the volume of writing required.
  • To help students approach unfamiliar texts in this unit and in the Mid-Unit 1 Assessment, invite them to choose strategies to practice. Notice that many of these strategies coincide with the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart, first introduced in Lesson 2. Examples:
    • Chunk the text into manageable amounts, e.g., phrases, sentences, or paragraphs.
    • Read aloud.
    • Read repeatedly.
    • Silently paraphrase the chunks.
    • Summarize what you read for someone else, perhaps first in your home language.
    • Underline important people, places, and things.
    • Circle unfamiliar words.
    • Use context or a dictionary to define unfamiliar words.
    • Annotate unfamiliar words with synonyms or translation.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): The basic model of this lesson asks students to make inferences about this unit. Some students may need additional supports with the cognitive load of making inferences. Provide supports in the introduction by using think-alouds to model making inferences. Also, some students may need additional representations to visualize and reinforce the discussion norms. Consider providing role-play opportunities using the cues and responses generated by the class.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): This lesson requires students to use their expressive language skills for multiple purposes. Some students may need additional support as they develop these skills. Sentences frames are useful tools to help them organize and formulate their ideas in a way that effectively contributes to the conversation. See the Meeting Students' Needs column for specific examples.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Since this lesson is the students' introduction to the entire unit, it is important to engage them in the upcoming content and products. As you introduce the content through inference, convey the purpose of this activity and how it will contribute to their learning and preparation for the unit itself. Also, when you share the learning outcomes at the end of the lesson, provide some student examples to build excitement about what they will accomplish by the end of this unit.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • details, notice, wonder, infer, norms, effective (L)
  • human rights (T)

Materials

  • Infer the Topic resources (to display; see supporting materials)
  • Academic Word Wall (new; teacher-created; see Teaching Notes)
  • I Notice/I Wonder Note-catcher: Inferring the Topic (one per student and one to display)
  • Online or paper translation dictionary (for ELLs; one per student in student's home language)
  • Directions for Infer the Topic (one to display)
  • Discussion Norms anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time B)
  • Discussion Norms anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Performance Task anchor chart (new; teacher-created; see Performance Task Overview)
  • Module Guiding Questions anchor chart (new; teacher-created; see Module Overview)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Practicing Observing Closely: I Notice/I Wonder (10 minutes)

  • Move students into pairs or ask them to identify a person near them with whom they can think and talk. Ask them to label themselves A and B.
  • Focus students on one of the prepared Infer the Topic resources.
  • Tell students that when they look at a picture or a book, they are likely to notice details. Write the word on the board.
  • Tell students that they will now use the Think-Pair-Share protocol:
    • Ask the first question (below) and give students think time.
    • Invite partner A to ask partner B the question.
    • Give partner B 30 seconds to share his or her response.
    • Invite partner B to ask partner A the question and give partner A 30 seconds to share a response.
    • Cold call students to share their responses with the whole group.
    • Repeat this process with the next question:

"What are details?" (individual features or facts)

"What details do you notice about this text?" (Responses will vary depending on the source.)

  • Record the word details on the Academic Word Wall.
  • Tell students that they are going to record notes, or short, informal writing, about what they notice and wonder. Explain that the purpose of notes is to help them remember their thinking and the ideas they are learning about, and because of this notes are not usually assessed. Tell students when they record notes, they should write key words and phrases and not full sentences.
  • Display a blank I Notice/I Wonder Note-catcher: Inferring the Topic. As students share out, capture their ideas on the "What I notice" side of the displayed note-catcher, giving an example and non-example of how to record notes. Consider using multiple means of representation of student ideas, such as pictures or key words rather than full sentences, as this is a model for what students will do when they infer the topic later.
  • Use student responses to emphasize the importance of referring directly to what they see in the picture rather than making assumptions to help students begin to work with evidence.
  • Guide students through an intentional Think-Pair-Share, ensuring that partner A and partner B both have think time, both get to say the question aloud to the other, and both have an allocated time to respond and then to discuss to build deeper understanding. Cold call students to share their responses with the whole group:

"What do the details make you wonder? What questions do you have after looking at the text?" (Responses will vary, but may include: I wonder why it isn't written in sentences.)

  • As students share out, capture their questions in the "I Wonder" column of the T-chart (e.g., "Why isn't it written in full sentences?")
  • Consider using this opportunity to reinforce how to format a question using ending punctuation.
  • Write the words notice and wonder on the board.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner. Then, cold call students to share out:

"Think back to what we just did. When you notice something, what are you doing?" (describing the specific details that we can see through observation)

"When you wonder, what are you doing?" (asking questions based on the specific details we can see through observation)

  • Record the words notice and wonder on the Academic Word Wall.
  • For ELLs: Consider pairing students with a partner who has more advanced or native language proficiency. The partner with greater language proficiency can serve as a model in the pair, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames, for example.
  • Provide differentiated mentors by purposefully pre-selecting student partnerships. Consider meeting with the mentors in advance to encourage them to share their thought process with their partner. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with new vocabulary: Check comprehension of the word details by displaying the cover of Esperanza Rising. Invite students to point out some details. Label the picture with their responses, e.g., a girl tossing roses; vegetable fields.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with new vocabulary: During Think-Pair-Shares, use a sentence frame to boost confidence and encourage participation. (Example: "Another word for details is ______.")

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can infer the topic of this module from the resources."

"I can generate norms for effective discussion."

  • Guide students through an intentional Think-Pair-Share, ensuring that partner A and partner B both have think time, both get to say the question aloud to the other, and both have an allocated time to respond and then to discuss to build deeper understanding. Cold call students to share their responses with the whole group:

"Why do we have learning targets? What is the purpose of learning targets?" (to give us a goal; the goal is to be able to say "I can ...," which means that the target has been achieved)

  • Underline the word infer in the first target.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner. Then, cold call students to share out:

"What does infer mean? If you are going to infer the topic, what does that mean?" (When we make an inference, we make a good guess based on the evidence we have seen. Inferring the topic means making a good guess about the topic based on the content of the resources we will look at.)

  • Focus students on the second learning target and underline the words effective and norms.
  • Ask:

"What do you think norms are?" (expectations of how to do something in a way that is effective and productive; in this situation, it is norms for discussion)

  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner. Then, cold call students to share out:

"What word could you use to replace effective? Remember that this is called a synonym." (successful, good)

  • Ensure that students have access to an online or paper translation dictionary.
  • Record the words infer, norms, and effective on the Academic Word Wall. Invite students to add translations of the words in their home languages in a different color next to the target vocabulary.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading: Be transparent about why students are noticing and wondering (because it is a helpful way to understand and explore a new topic or text). (MME)
  • When introducing the word infer, provide some visuals and ask students to make an inference about them. For instance, a broken window with a baseball next to it (someone threw a baseball and it shattered the glass), a dog that is covered in mud (the dog played in the mud and got dirty). (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Say: "The words notice and wonder are often used with the word about as a phrase and can be learned as a phrase (collocation)." Examples:
    • What I notice about ______ is _____.
    • What I wonder about _____ is _____.
    • I wonder about _____.
  • For ELLs: Invite students to use the online or paper version of a home language translation dictionary if necessary to help explore the meaning of details, notice, wonder, infer, effective, and norms.
  • For ELLs: Invite students to write the home language translations of details, notice, wonder, infer, effective, and norms in a different color on the Academic Word Wall next to the target vocabulary. If the student does not know the translation or how to write it, invite him or her to ask a family member. Also consider adding simpler synonyms in parentheses next to the target word. Example:
    • details (facts)
    • detalles--Spanish; paub meej--Hmong
    • Offer a comforting smile and encourage ELLs: "We will use a lot of new English words. Don't worry. You don't have to understand all the words today. It's okay. Just try to understand more each day. You're doing great!"

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Infer the Topic (20 minutes)

  • Build up excitement for this module and unit by telling students that today they will begin learning about a new topic that they will study and write about over the next several weeks.
  • Focus students on the Infer the Topic resources posted around the room.
  • Tell them they will use the Infer the Topic protocol to make inferences about their new topic of study. Invite students to turn and talk with their partner:

"What does it mean to make inferences?" (You use what you know and what the text says or image shows to figure out something that isn't specifically said.)

  • Post the Directions for Infer the Topic. Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads, as you read the directions aloud.
  • Distribute I Notice/I Wonder Note-catcher: Inferring the Topic, pointing out that this is the same note-catcher used to model in the opening, and read aloud the question at the top:
    • "What do you think you will be learning about in this module?"
  • Remind students that the purpose of this note-catcher is just to take notes to help them remember their thinking. It isn't something they will hand in for assessment, so they can record in pictures or words. They do not need to write in full sentences.
  • Using the directions, guide students through the protocol, leaving space for students to choose the resources they want to observe. Those students who may not be able to read independently need the option of going to look at a picture resource.
  • After 12 minutes, refocus whole group.
  • Guide students through an intentional Think-Pair-Share, ensuring that partner A and partner B both have think time, both get to say the question aloud to the other, and both have an allocated time to respond and then to discuss to build deeper understanding. Cold call students to share their responses with the whole group:

"Now that you have looked at some resources, what do you think this module might be about?" (rights that everyone is entitled to)

"Why do they matter? Why might you want to know about the rights that everyone is entitled to?" (because it is important to know what our rights are so that we know how to treat others and also to recognize when our rights or the rights of others have been threatened or violated, so we can take action)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: Display, repeat, and rephrase the question. Tell students you will give them some time to think and write or sketch before responding. Cold call one or two students and display their responses. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Mixed-proficiency pairs can choose the resources they want to observe and begin by discussing what the text means. Encourage students to agree or disagree with one another about what the text means using sentence frames. Examples:
    • "I agree because _____."
    • "I disagree because_____."

Pairs can then begin discussing and recording their notices and wonders.

B. Generating Discussion Norms (15 minutes)

  • Refocus students and invite them to pair up with their partner from the beginning of the lesson.
  • Guide students through an intentional Think-Pair-Share, ensuring that partner A and partner B both have think time, both get to say the question aloud to the other, and both have an allocated time to respond and then to discuss to build deeper understanding. Cold call students to share their responses with the whole group:

"What did you do well when discussing your inferences with a partner and then a small group? What should we be mindful of whenever we participate in group discussions? Why?"

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the Discussion Norms anchor chart. Refer to Discussion Norms anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Guide students through the steps of the Think-Pair-Share protocol, leaving adequate time for each partner to think, ask the question, and share:

"How could you have improved the discussion? Are there any norms we could add to make our collaborative discussions more effective?"

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the Discussion Norms anchor chart.
  • Create a chart with two columns at the bottom of the Discussion Norms anchor chart, with "Cues" in one and "Responses" in the other.
  • Guide students through the steps of the Think-Pair-Share protocol, leaving adequate time for each partner to think, ask the question, and share:

"How did you encourage someone else to clarify when you didn't understand? What questions can you ask when you don't understand what someone is saying?"

"How did you find out more about the ideas of others? What questions can you ask when you want to find out more?"

  • As students share out, capture their responses in the Responses column at the bottom of the Discussion Norms anchor chart. Refer to the Discussion Norms anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Guide students through the steps of the Think-Pair-Share protocol, leaving adequate time for each partner to think, ask the question, and share:

"How can you respond when you are asked to clarify or to elaborate on an idea?"

  • As students share out, capture their responses in the Responses column at the bottom of the Discussion Norms anchor chart. Refer to the Discussion Norms anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: Display, repeat, and rephrase the questions. Restate responses, especially any confusing responses, to confirm meaning and make them comprehensible. (Example: "Did you do a good job talking with your partner? Why? What should we always remember when we talk to our partners? Why?" Say the ideas same to my partner. > My partner and I said the same ideas to each other; we agreed.) (MMR)
  • Prepare a script in advance to role-play some of the common phrases that you have identified in your Discussion Norms anchor chart to provide students with a live-action visual example. (MMR)
  • Consider creating nonverbal hand signals that represent common phrases on the Discussion Norms anchor chart (e.g., students can put their hands in the shape of a C for clarify or sequentially move their hands one above the other, like climbing stairs, for elaborate). Represent the symbols on the anchor chart. (MMR, MMAE)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Introducing the Performance Task and Module Guiding Questions (10 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the Performance Task anchor chart.
  • Tell them that the performance task is something they will do at the end of the module. Read the performance task prompt aloud.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner. Then, cold call students to share out:

"What do you notice?"  (We will present monologues to a group.)

"What do you wonder?" (Responses will vary, but may include: What is a monologue?)

  • Guide students through the steps of the Think-Pair-Share protocol, leaving adequate time for each partner to think, ask the question, and share:

"Now that you have analyzed the performance task, has your inference of what this module might be about changed?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Display the Module Guiding Questions anchor chart.
  • Tell students that these are the questions they will be thinking about as they work through the module.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner. Then, cold call students to share out:

"What do you notice?" (We will be thinking about human rights.)

"What do you wonder?" (Responses will vary, but may include: What are human rights?)

  • Guide students through the steps of the Think-Pair-Share protocol, leaving adequate time for each partner to think, ask the question, and share:

"Now that you have analyzed the module guiding questions, has your inference of what this module might be about changed?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Underline the words human rights in the first guiding question. Clarify that this module will be about human rights.
  • Cold call students to elicit responses from the group:

"What does rights mean? What are rights?" (Responses will vary. If students are unsure, invite a student to look it up in the dictionary: something we are entitled to.)

"So what do you think human rights are?" (something that all humans are entitled to)

  • Tell students that this is something they will learn more about throughout this module. Tell students that across time and all over the world, human rights have been and still are being threatened and that knowing our rights means we are able to recognize when human rights are being threatened and can take action, either for ourselves or for others.
  • Explain that for homework, students will reflect on the guiding question and how they feel about it based on their own personal experiences, and that this will be discussed more at the beginning of the next lesson.

Meeting Students' Needs

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: As students may be overwhelmed by the Performance Task anchor chart, assure them that you will continue to explore the meaning of the chart in subsequent lessons and units. (MME)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Consider displaying a model performance task from a former student. Ask students to make connections between the model and the performance task. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Establish transparency of purpose. Ask:

"Why do we have guiding questions for each module?" (Responses will vary, but may include: to help focus our learning, to help us think about the performance task.)

  • When discussing the meaning of rights, talk through how there are multiple meanings for the word right. (MMR)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Read and reflect on the guiding questions for the module. Talk about them with your family. How do they make you feel? Why? What do they make you think about? You can sketch or write your reflections.

Meeting Students' Needs

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: Display, repeat, and rephrase the guiding question. Examples:

"What are human rights, and how can they be threatened?" Explain what human rights are.

"What are some ways someone might try to take away another person's human rights?"

  • For ELLs: If possible, invite the family or a student in school who shares the home language to translate and discuss the question with students. (MMR)
  • To clarify the meaning of threatened, consider asking students to give a specific example of how a human right can be threatened.

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