Research: Patriots | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G4:M3:U1:L5

Research: Patriots

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.4.1: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.4.3: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
  • W.4.7: Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.4.8: Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.4.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • W.4.9b: Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text").
  • L.4.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.4.1e: Form and use prepositional phrases.
  • L.4.1f: Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  • L.4.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • L.4.2b: Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can research to find out who the Patriots were and what they believed. (RI.4.1, RI.4.3, W.4.8, W.4.9b)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Research Note-catcher: Patriots (RI.4.1, W.4.8, W.4.9b)
  • Language Dive Note-catcher: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (L.4.1e, L.4.1f)
  • Exit Ticket: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (RI.4.1, RI.4.3)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Shared Writing: Loyalists (10 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Target (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Engaging the Reader: Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak (10 minutes)

B. Language Dive: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (15 minutes)

C. Partner Research: Patriots (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Exit Ticket: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Complete the Language Dive Practice: "Revolutionary War, Part I" in your Unit 1 homework.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In Opening A, students share the informative paragraphs they wrote about the Loyalists in the previous lesson to contribute to a whole group informational paragraph about the Loyalists (RI.4.1, W.4.9a, L.4.1f, L.4.2b). The purpose of this activity is for students to see a model of an effective informational paragraph in preparation for the mid-unit assessment, in which they will write a paragraph about the Patriots.
  • In Work Time B, students participate in a Language Dive that guides them through the meaning of a sentence from "Revolutionary War, Part I." The focus of this Language Dive is on identifying sentence fragments (L.4.1f) and adding information using prepositional phrases (L.4.1e). Students then apply their understanding of the meaning and structure of this sentence as they discuss the reasons for the Revolutionary War, particularly focusing on the Patriots' perspective. See the Tools page for additional information regarding a consistent Language Dive routine.
  • In Modules 3-4, Language Dive goals remain the same, but the Language Dive Guide format has been modified. The new format follows a Deconstruct, Reconstruct, and Practice routine (see Language Dives on the Tools page). Although students should briefly discuss all chunks in each Language Dive sentence, the new format invites students to slow down during one chunk to focus on a compelling language structure. Students should engage in extended conversation about this structure and practice it repeatedly.
  • In the Closing, students answer selected response questions about "Revolutionary War, Part I" on an exit ticket to prepare for the mid-unit assessment (RI.4.1, RI.4.3).
  • In this lesson, students continue to focus on working to become effective learners by collaborating to research in pairs.
  • For students who finish quickly and need an additional challenge, invite them to choose a research reading book to continue researching with a new source.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In the previous lesson, students finished hearing Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak read aloud and closely read "Revolutionary War, Part I" to build more context about the American Revolution. This lesson builds on those foundations by focusing on a particular perspective in the American Revolution, the Patriot perspective.
  • In Module 1, students practiced writing complete sentences without fragments or run-ons and marking direct quotes from text, both of which are reviewed in this lesson.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support reading the text and recording their research. Ensure that pairs have at least one strong reader. For students who might really struggle to complete the note-catcher, invite the pair to share a note-catcher.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' Close Reading note-catchers to ensure that they understand what the Loyalists believed and why, as well as the chronological structure of the text.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Phonics and Word Recognition Checklist (Grade 4) or the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist to assess students' during Work Time C (see the Tools page).

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students complete the mid-unit assessment.

In Advance

  • Strategically group students into pairs for the work in this lesson, with at least one strong reader in each pair.
  • Preview the Loyalist paragraph (example, for teacher reference) to familiarize yourself with the expectations of the final product of the lesson.
  • Preview the Language Dive Guide and consider how to invite conversation among students to address the questions and goals suggested under each sentence strip chunk (see supporting Materials). Select from the questions and goals provided to best meet your students' needs.
  • If the class didn't create a "Language Chunk Wall" in Module 2, consider creating one now. The Language Chunk Wall is an area in the classroom where students can display and categorize the academic phrases discussed in each Language Dive. During each Language Dive, students are invited to place the Language Dive sentence strip chunks on the Language Chunk Wall into corresponding categories, such as "Nouns and noun phrases" or "Language to talk about purpose." Students can then refer to the wall after the Language Dive and during subsequent lessons as they speak and write.
  • Post: Learning target and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout Modules 1-2 to create anchor charts to share with families, to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families, and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standard 4.I.B.6, 4.I.C.10, 4.I.C.11

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by providing a consistent routine from the previous lesson for completing a research note-catcher; explicitly focusing on language in a compelling sentence through a whole class Language Dive; allowing time for discussion with a partner during each task; and continuing to provide an environment of respect for diverse perspectives.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to determine the most important information to add to their research note-catchers during Work Time C. Additionally, they may find it difficult to determine whether to categorize the information recorded as "who" or "what." Consider modeling and thinking aloud this process together and allowing additional time for students to orally process adding information to their note-catcher during Work Time C. Additionally, consider working with a small group of students during this time (see "for heavier support," below, and the Meeting Students' Needs column).

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Before providing sentence frames or additional modeling during Work Time C, observe student interaction and allow students to grapple. Provide supportive frames and demonstrations only after students have grappled with the task. Observe the areas in which they struggle to target appropriate support.

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time A, distribute a partially filled-in copy of the research note-catcher. This provides students with models of the kind of information they should enter and reduces the volume of writing required. Consider only partially filling out the section that students will complete during Work Time C with the text "Revolutionary War, Part I" and leaving the section that is filled out during Work Time A blank, as this will be completed together as a class.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students are introduced to learning targets that may contain unfamiliar Vocabulary terms. When introducing each learning target, consider writing synonyms or sketching a visual above each key term to scaffold students' understanding. Additionally, invite students to share ways in which they worked toward similar targets from previous lessons.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): Continue to provide prompts and sentence frames for those students who require them to be successful in peer interactions and collaboration.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): In this lesson, students again interact with Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak. Throughout this unit, sustained engagement and effort is essential for student achievement. Continue to support students by reminding them of learning goals and their value or relevance.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • Patriot (L)
  • liberty, Mohawk (T)

Materials

  • Informational Text anchor chart (begun in Module 2)
  • Chart paper (one piece; used by the teacher to write the Loyalist paragraph)
  • Loyalist paragraph (from Lesson 4; example, for teacher reference)
  • Writing Complete Sentences handout (from Module 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Dictionary (one for class)
  • Domain-Specific Word Wall (begun in Lesson 1; added to during Opening B and Work Time A)
  • Research Note-catcher: Patriots (one per student and one to display)
  • Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak (from Lesson 1; one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Research Note-catcher: Patriots (example, for teacher reference)
  • Language Dive Guide: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (for teacher reference)
    • Questions We Can Ask during a Language Dive anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time B; see supporting Materials)
    • Questions We Can Ask during a Language Dive anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
    • Language Dive Chunk Chart: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (for teacher reference)
    • Language Dive Note-catcher: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (one per student and one to display)
    • Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (one to display)
    • Blue and red markers (one set per student)
  • "Revolutionary War, Part I" (from Lesson 2; one per student)
  • Loyalist paragraph (from Lesson 4; one per class)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Exit Ticket: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (one per student)
  • Strategies to Answer Selected Response Questions anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Exit Ticket: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (answers, for teacher reference)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Shared Writing: Loyalists (10 minutes)

  • Remind students of the question posted in the previous lesson:
    • "Who were the Loyalists, and what did they believe?"
  • Invite students to retrieve their Loyalist paragraphs.
  • Tell students they will now share parts of their paragraph with the whole group to construct a shared paragraph. Direct their attention to the Informational Text anchor chart and briefly review it.
  • Use total participation techniques to invite students to share parts of their paragraph with the whole group. As students share out, use their responses to construct an informative paragraph to answer the posted question on chart paper under the title "The Loyalists." Refer to the Loyalist paragraph (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Display and invite students to retrieve their Writing Complete Sentences handout and remind them of fragment and run-on sentences. Invite students to check the whole group informative paragraph for incomplete or run-on sentences.
  • For ELLs: (Noticing Complete Sentences: Asking Questions) Invite students to ask the questions from the Writing Complete Sentences handout that were added in this module as they check their work for complete sentences. (Examples: "Do I have a subject and a verb? If not ..." "Do I have a subordinating conjunction? If so ...")

B. Reviewing Learning Target (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning target and select a volunteer to read it aloud:

"I can research to find out who the Patriots were and what they believed."

  • Focus students on the first learning target and underline the word Patriots.
  • Invite a student to look up this word in the dictionary and to read the definition aloud for the whole group.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"How would you say this definition in your own words?" (a person who supports his or her country and is prepared to defend it)

  • Add this definition to the Domain-Specific Word Wall and invite students to add translations in native languages.
  • Remind students that they saw a similar learning target for Loyalists in the previous lesson.
  • For students who may need additional support with comprehension and engagement: Ask students to share one way that they worked toward the similar learning target for Loyalists from the previous lesson. (MMR, MME)
  • For ELLs: (Practicing Key Words in Context) Invite students to practice using the word Patriots in context to solidify understanding of this key word. Provide sentence frames for support. (Example: Patriots are people who ____. Patriots _____their country and defend it.)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak (10 minutes)

  • Move students into pairs and invite them to label themselves A and B.
  • Post the question:
    • "Who were the Patriots, and what did they believe?"
  • Distribute and display the Research Note-catcher: Patriots.
  • Point out that the posted question is also recorded at the top of their research note-catcher.
  • Tell students they will now complete this research note-catcher for the Patriots, beginning with a page of Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak, as they did in the previous lesson.
  • As needed, review what happened in Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak.
  • Display and reread aloud "The Patriots" page.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"What does the title tell you this page is about?" (Patriots)

"What does the first line, 'We are journeymen, apprentices, merchants,' tell you about Patriots?" (that they were all different kinds of people with different jobs)

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the displayed research note-catcher. Refer to the Research Note-catcher: Patriots (example, for teacher reference) as necessary. Invite students to add the same information to their own note-catchers.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"The text says the Patriots were 'speaking out for liberty.' What does this mean? What is liberty?" (They wanted freedom.)

"Having read a few texts about the American Revolution now, what do you think they wanted freedom from?" (Britain and the laws and taxes)

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the displayed research note-catcher. Refer to the Research Note-catcher: Patriots (example, for teacher reference) as necessary. Invite students to add the same information to their own note-catchers.
  • Add the word liberty to the Domain-Specific Word Wall.
  • Help students understand that Mohawk in this text refers to someone from the Mohawk Native American tribe.
  • Invite students to help you add to the displayed research note-catcher. Refer to the Research Note-catcher: Patriots (example, for teacher reference) as necessary. Invite students to add the same information to their own note-catchers.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"What do the Patriots think of the tax? How do you know? (They don't want to pay it. The text says, "No paying tax on tea....")

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the displayed research note-catcher. Refer to the Research Note-catcher: Patriots (example, for teacher reference). Invite students to add the same information to their own note-catchers.
  • Remind students that in the American Revolution there were Patriots and Loyalists, and there were also those in between who didn't have strong beliefs either way.
  • For students who may need additional support with fine motor skills: Provide options for expression by offering a note-catcher that includes lines. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: (Orally Categorizing by "Who" or "What") Before recording on the displayed research note-catcher, model orally rephrasing evidence and determining whether the focus is on "who" or "what." Invite students to do the same before recording on their own note-catchers.
  • For ELLs: (Noticing Complete Sentences: Fragments) Invite students to discuss why the notes recorded on the note-catcher are fragments, using the questions on the Writing Complete Sentences handout to guide them. (Examples: want liberty = includes only a predicate, not a subject; Some Native Americans = includes only a subject, not a predicate) Remind students that it is okay, and encouraged, to use fragments when taking notes.
  • For ELLs: (Colonist Chart: Recording Patriot) After students have recorded information from "The Patriots" page on their note-catcher, invite them to refer to the Colonist Chart begun in Lesson 1 to discuss other colonists they believe were Patriots. If time allows, consider referring back to relevant pages in Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak to find evidence for colonists who were Patriots and record "Patriot" next to their pictures on the Colonist Chart.

B. Language Dive: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (15 minutes)

  • Tell students they will now participate in a Language Dive with a change in format.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What do you remember about the most recent Language Dive from Module 2?" (It was teacher-led, with the teacher asking questions about the sentence strip chunks and the students responding.)

  • Let students know that going forward, they will be given more independence to think and discuss the chunks in their groupings. Reassure students that the teacher will continue to monitor and guide their conversations.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Think about our work with Language Dives. What questions do we ask about the sentences? What questions do we ask about the chunks? What questions do we ask about the words?" Tell students you will give them time to think and discuss with their partner. (Responses will vary.)

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the Questions We Can Ask during a Language Dive anchor chart. Refer to the Questions We Can Ask during a Language Dive anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary. Ensure that students understand how to use these questions, pointing out that the questions underlined on the anchor chart are questions that students should always ask when they dive into a sentence.
  • Ask:

"How will thinking of our own questions for a Language Dive help us during a Language Dive?" Tell students you will give them time to think and discuss with a partner. (The questions will help jog our thinking about important language features in the sentence.)

  • Read the second paragraph of "Revolutionary War, Part I."
  • Focus students on the sentence:
    • "The war started as a fight for the rights of English people in Britain's 13 American colonies."
  • Use the Language Dive Guide: "Revolutionary War, Part I" and Language Dive Chunk Chart: "Revolutionary War, Part I" to guide students through a Language Dive of the sentence. Distribute and display the Language Dive Note-catcher: "Revolutionary War, Part I" and Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: "Revolutionary War, Part I."
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"Now that we have completed our first new Language Dive, what additional questions should we add to our Questions We Ask during a Language Dive anchor chart?" (Responses will vary.)

  • For ELLs: (Strategic Grouping) Create groups with varying levels of language proficiency as students come up with questions to add to the Questions We Can Ask during a Language Dive anchor chart. The students with greater language proficiency can serve as models in the group, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames. If possible, consider grouping students who speak the same home language together to help one another interpret and comprehend the conversation in their home languages.

C. Partner Research: Patriots (15 minutes)

  • Tell students that in this lesson, they are going to use "Revolutionary War, Part I" to find information and evidence to answer the question:
    • "Who were the Patriots, and what did they believe?"
  • Tell students that in the next lesson, they will read a new text and add to this research note-catcher before writing a paragraph to answer the posted question for the mid-unit assessment.
  • Emphasize that this text does not use the term Patriots.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"So how do you know whether the text is talking about Patriots or Loyalists? (They know the Loyalists were loyal to the king and to Britain, and the Patriots were not.)

  • If productive, cue students to add on:

"Who can add on to what your classmate said? I'll give you time to think and write." (Responses will vary.)

  • Focus students on the Loyalist paragraph written in the previous lesson and remind them if they get confused about which side is which, they can reread this paragraph to remind themselves of who the Loyalists were and what they wanted.
  • Direct students' attention to the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them what collaboration looks and sounds like.
  • Tell students that if they finish with this text, they can read other research texts in the classroom library and add to their note-catcher any additional research to answer the question.
  • Circulate to support students as they research. Prompt them to refer to the text as necessary by asking:

"How do you know? Where does the text say that? Can you point to it and read it aloud to me?"

  • Use a checking for understanding technique (e.g., Red Light, Green Light or Thumb-O-Meter) for students to self-assess against the learning target and against how well they collaborated.
  • For students who may need additional support with self-regulation: When you give students a warning before the transition to clean up, provide a clear routine for what to do with unfinished work and consider using a visual timer. (MME)
  • For ELLs: (Orally Categorizing by "Who" or "What") Remind students to orally rephrase evidence and determine whether the focus is on "who" or "what" before recording in the corresponding section of their note-catchers.
  • For ELLs: (Enlarged Text: Referencing Notes) Encourage students to refer to the notes on the enlarged text, "Revolutionary War, Part I" as they determine important information about Patriots included in the text.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Exit Ticket: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (5 minutes)

  • Distribute the Exit Ticket: "Revolutionary War, Part I."
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What kinds of questions are these?" (selected-response)

"How do you answer them?" (You read through each option, look back at the text, and underline the correct answer.)

  • Direct students' attention to the Strategies to Answer Selected Response Questions anchor chart and briefly review the strategies as needed.
  • Invite students to work with their partner to answer the questions.
  • Using total participation techniques, select students to share out their answers. Refer to the Exit Ticket: "Revolutionary War, Part I" (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • For students who may need additional support with oral language and processing: Pair students with strategic partners to ensure that they have strong, politely helpful partners to support their efforts in sharing their thinking and listening to their partner. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Rephrasing Selected Response) Invite students to rephrase selected response questions--and answer them--before they read each answer choice. (MMR, MMAE)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Complete the Language Dive Practice: "Revolutionary War, Part I" in your Unit 1 homework.
  • Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.
  • For students who may need additional support with writing: (Oral Response) Students may benefit from discussing and responding to their prompt orally, either with a partner or family member or by recording their response. (MMAE)
  • For students who may need additional support with reading: Support students in selecting a prompt to respond to, rephrasing the prompt, and thinking aloud possible responses. (MMR)

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