Research: Loyalists | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G4:M3:U1:L4

Research: Loyalists

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.4.1: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.4.3: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
  • RI.4.4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • RI.4.5: Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
  • W.4.7: Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.4.8: Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.4.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • W.4.9b: Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text").
  • L.4.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.4.1f: Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  • L.4.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • L.4.2b: Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
  • L.4.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can explain who the Loyalists were and what they believed. (RI.4.1, RI.4.3)
  • I can describe the overall structure of the text "Loyalists." (RI.4.5)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Research Note-catcher: Loyalists (RI.4.1, RI.4.3, RI.4.5, W.4.8)
  • Loyalist paragraph (RI.4.1, RI.4.3, W.4.9b, L.4.1f, L.4.2b)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Reader: Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak (5 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Reading for Gist: "Loyalists" (15 minutes)

B. Partner Research: Loyalists (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Independent Writing: Loyalists (10 minutes)

B. Reading Aloud: "Revolutionary War, Part II" (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Complete the Marking Quotes Practice in your Unit 1 homework.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • The lesson begins with a rereading of "The Milliner" from Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak. This is meant to focus students on the Loyalist perspective to provide a purpose for reading more about Loyalists in the rest of the lesson.
  • In Work Time A, students read a new informational text, "Loyalists," for gist and unfamiliar Vocabulary in preparation for using it to research information in response to a question in Work Time B (RI.4.3, W.4.8). They also analyze the structure of the text (RI.4.5).
  • In Closing and Assessment A, students synthesize their reading about Loyalists in an informational paragraph (RI.4.1, W.4.9b). The elements of writing a paragraph are reviewed from Modules 1-2, specifically producing complete sentences (L.4.1f) and using commas and quotation marks to mark quotations from a text (L.4.2b).
  • In this lesson, students focus on working to become effective learners by collaborating in pairs.
  • For students who finish quickly and need an additional challenge, invite them to reread "Revolutionary War, Part I" and to add research notes from that resource.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In the previous lesson, students finished reading Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak and closely read "Revolutionary War, Part I" to build more context about the American Revolution. This lesson builds on those foundations by focusing on a particular perspective in the American Revolution, the Loyalist perspective.
  • In Module 1, students practiced writing complete sentences without fragments or run-ons and marking direct quotes from text, both of which are reviewed in this lesson.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support reading the text and recording their research. Ensure that pairs have at least one strong reader. For students who might really struggle to complete the note-catcher, invite the pair to share a note-catcher.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' Loyalist paragraphs to ensure that they understand what the Loyalists believed and why.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Phonics and Word Recognition Checklist (Grade 4) or the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist to assess students' during Work Times A and B (see the Tools page).
  • Consider using the Writing: Writing Informal Assessment: Observational Checklist for Writing and Language Skills to assess students' writing abilities in Closing and Assessment A (see the Tools page).

Down the road:

  • At the beginning of Lesson 5, students use the Loyalist paragraphs from this lesson to help write a class paragraph about the Loyalists. This models what an effective paragraph about the Loyalists looks like. Students also research to gather information about who the Patriots were and what they believed in preparation for the mid-unit assessment in Lesson 6.

In Advance

  • Strategically group students into pairs for the work in this lesson. There should be at least one strong reader in each pair.
  • Preview the Loyalist paragraph (example, for teacher reference) to familiarize yourself with the expectations of the final product of the lesson.
  • Post: Learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout Modules 1-2 to create anchor charts to share with families, to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families, and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standard 4.I.B.6, 4.I.B.8, 4.I.C.10, 4.I.C.11, 4.I.C.12, 4.II.A.2, 4.II.B.5, 4.II.C.6, 4.II.C.7

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by providing a consistent routine from previous lessons for determining the gist of "Loyalists"; providing an environment of respect for diverse perspectives; allowing time for discussion with a partner during each task; and providing time to investigate Vocabulary.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to keep pace during this lesson, particularly with the varying tasks involved. Consider providing additional time for students to orally process adding information to their note-catcher during Work Time B, as well as before writing their paragraphs. Additionally, consider working with a small group of students during each Work Time (see "for heavier support," below, and the Meeting Students' Needs column).

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Provide a word bank of coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so) and subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, before, even though) for students to use to develop compound and complex sentences in the Closing.

For heavier support:

  • Consider enlarging the text "Loyalists" and posting it alongside the enlarged text of "Revolutionary War, Part I." While reading for gist in Work Time A, make notes in the margins. In addition to writing key words or notes that correspond with each paragraph, sketch pictures to support comprehension. Keep this enlarged text posted alongside "Revolutionary War, Part I" throughout the unit to support comprehension, to serve as a model for reading for gist, and to serve as a model for descriptive text structure.
  • During Work Time B, distribute a partially filled-in copy of the research note-catcher. This provides students with models of the kind of information they should enter and reduces the volume of writing required.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students listen to a read-aloud of "Revolutionary War, Part II." Before this read-aloud, support comprehension by activating prior knowledge. Consider a brief review of "Revolutionary War, Part I" to highlight relevance and scaffold connections for students. Additionally, provide questions visually as well as verbally.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): In Work Time A, students write a short informative text with their partner to answer the question: "Who were the Loyalists, and what did they believe?" When introducing independent writing, continue to support a range of fine motor abilities and writing needs by offering students options for writing utensils. Also consider supporting students' expressive skills by offering partial dictation of their responses. Recall that varying tools for construction and composition supports students' ability to express knowledge without barriers to communicating their thinking.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Throughout this lesson, students share ideas and thinking with classmates. Support students' self-regulatory skills by modeling what to do if they need help from their partners. (Example: "I can remember when I'm sharing that if I forget my idea or need help, I can ask my partner to help me. My partner could give me prompts that will help me share my thinking.") Consider offering sentence frames as needed.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • loyal, Loyalists, structure (L)
  • fripperies (T)

Materials

  • Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak (from Lesson 1; one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • "Loyalists" (one per student and one to display)
  • Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • "Loyalists" (example, for teacher reference)
  • Research Note-catcher: Loyalists (one per student and one to display)
  • Research Note-catcher: Loyalists (example, for teacher reference)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Text Structures (from Lesson 3; one per student)
  • Informational Text anchor chart (begun in Module 2)
  • Paper (lined; one piece per student)
  • Loyalist paragraph (example, for teacher reference)
  • Marking Direct Quotes handout (from Module 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Writing Complete Sentences handout (from Module 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Questions about Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak anchor chart (begun in Lesson 1)
  • "Revolutionary War, Part II" (one to display)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak (5 minutes)

  • Move students into pairs and invite them to label themselves A and B.
  • As needed, review what happened in Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak.
  • Display and reread aloud "The Milliner."
  • Turn and Talk:

"From the text, what are some examples of fripperies?" (lace, fans, hats, velvet shoes, a scarlet cloak, silk flowers, fabric, beaded purses, muffs, and mitts)

  • Think-Pair-Share:

"What does the milliner think of the tax? How do you know?" (He thinks it is small because he describes it as a "tiny tax.")

"Is he a Patriot? How do you know?" (He isn't a Patriot because he says, "And once the Patriots come to their senses," as though he doesn't agree with them and isn't one.)

"If he isn't a Patriot, what might he be?" (Students may not know yet, but some may say Loyalist.)

  • Tell students that in the American Revolution there were Patriots and Loyalists, and there were also those in between who didn't have strong beliefs either way. Ensure students understand that not all milliners were Loyalists; this is just an example of a Loyalist perspective.
  • For students who may need additional support with oral language and processing: Allow ample wait time as students respond during the discussion. (MMAE, MME)
  • For ELLs: (Colonist Chart: Recording Loyalist) Record "Loyalist" next to the milliner on the Colonist Chart. As students learn more about Patriots and Loyalists throughout the unit, invite them to record the group that each colonist belongs to on the Colonist Chart.

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can explain who the Loyalists were and what they believed."

"I can describe the overall structure of the text 'Loyalists.'"

  • Focus students on the first learning target and underline the word Loyalists.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What word can you see in the word Loyalist?" (loyal)

"And what does loyal mean?" (showing constant support to a person or cause)

"So from that, what do you think a Loyalist might be?" (someone who is loyal to a person or cause, such as the king of England)

  • Tell students that they may have heard this term in Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak but may not understand fully what it means yet.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"How can we find out who Loyalists were and what they believed in?" (read informational texts)

  • Remind students that they reviewed the word structure in the previous lesson.
  • For ELLs: (Practicing Key Words in a Familiar Context) Invite students to practice using the word loyal in a familiar context to solidify understanding of this key word. Provide sentence frames for support. (Example: I am loyal to my grandma because I love her and she is always there for me. This means I will support her no matter what.)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading for Gist: "Loyalists" (15 minutes)

  • Post the question:
    • "What did the Loyalists believe and why?"
  • Distribute and display "Loyalists" and follow the same routine from Work Time A of Lesson 2 to guide students through reading and determining the gist of this text:
    • Read the text aloud.
    • Turn and Talk:

"What is this text about?" (Loyalists--who they were and what they wanted)

    • Focus students on the first paragraph. Reread it and ask students the gist (what the paragraph is mostly about). Record the gist in the margin of the text and invite students to do the same.
    • Invite students to circle unfamiliar words and phrases in the first paragraph and to use the Vocabulary strategies listed on the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart to determine the meaning of the words.
    • Invite students to work in pairs to find the gist and determine the meaning of unfamiliar Vocabulary in the remaining sections of the text: "Who Were the Loyalists?" and "Many Loyalists Flee."
    • Refocus the group and invite students to share the gist. Refer to "Loyalists" (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support determining the gist: (Key Phrases) Consider highlighting or underlining key phrases in their individual copy of "Loyalists" in advance. This will lift the gist up for them as they read along. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Displaying a Map: Building or Activating Schema) Display the map from Lesson 2 to build or activate students' schema on the geography of the 13 colonies. Locate the colonies mentioned in the text as the text is read aloud for students. (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with strategy development: (Modeling and Thinking Aloud: Determining Gist) Consider modeling and thinking aloud determining the gist of the first paragraph before asking students to do so in pairs. (MMAE)

B. Partner Research: Loyalists (20 minutes)

  • Distribute and display the Research Note-catcher: Loyalists.
  • Remind students of the posted question and point it out at the top of their note-catcher:
    • "Who were the Loyalists, and what did they believe?
  • Tell students that in this lesson they are going to use "Loyalists" to find information and evidence to answer the question. At the end of the lesson, they will use this information to write an informative paragraph that answers this question.
  • Model, with student input, how to use the research note-catcher by rereading "The Milliner" and recording information on the displayed note-catcher. Refer to Research Note-catcher: Loyalists (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Repeat this modeling with the first paragraph of the "Loyalists" text.
  • Direct students' attention to the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and review what collaboration looks and sounds like.
  • Tell students that if they finish their research, they can reread the "Revolutionary War, Part I" text and add any additional research to answer the question on their note-catcher.
  • Circulate to support students as they research. Prompt them to refer to the text as necessary by asking:

"How do you know? Where does the text say that? Can you point to it and read it aloud to me?"

  • When 3 minutes remain, refocus students and invite them to use their Text Structures handout to answer the questions at the end of their research note-catchers.
  • Use total participation techniques to select students to share out. Refer to the Research Note-catcher: Loyalists (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • If productive, cue students to think about their thinking and to explain others' ideas:

"How does our discussion about text structure add to your understanding of 'Loyalists'? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Responses will vary.)

"Who can explain why your classmate came up with that response? I'll give you time to think and write." (Responses will vary.)

  • For students who may need additional support with fine motor skills: Offer choice with Research Note-catcher: Loyalists by providing a template that includes lines. (MMR, MME)
  • For ELLs: (Orally Categorizing by "Who" or "What") Before recording on the displayed research note-catcher, model orally rephrasing evidence and determining whether the focus is on "who" or "what." Invite students to do the same. (Example: Some black slaves joined the Loyalist cause. "This tells me 'who' joined the Loyalist cause, so I will write 'Who? some black slaves' on the note-catcher.")
  • For ELLs: (Enlarged Text: Adding Web) After discussing that "Loyalists" follows a descriptive text structure, model adding descriptions from "Loyalists" to a web at the bottom of the Loyalists enlarged text (see "For heavier support"). Invite students to do the same. Compare this structure to the chronological text structure of "Revolutionary War, Part I" by attempting to create a timeline (without success) and explain that, because "Loyalists" is not chronological, a timeline does not make sense for this text.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Writing: Loyalists (10 minutes)

  • Remind students of the posted question:
    • "Who were the Loyalists, and what did they believe?"
  • Tell students they will now use their research to write an informative paragraph with their partner to answer this focus question. As needed, review the Informational Text anchor chart.
  • Distribute paper.
  • Remind students that the paragraph needs to have an introduction so that readers understand what they are about to read about.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What content should you include in the introductory sentences?" (introduce the two different sides in the Revolutionary War; a focus statement that answers the focus question)

  • Refer to the Loyalist paragraph (example, for teacher reference) to guide students.
  • Invite students to work with their partner to write an introductory paragraph. Emphasize that although they are planning together, each partner should write his or her own paragraph.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"Who were the Loyalists?"

  • Refer to the Loyalist paragraph (example, for teacher reference) to guide students.
  • Invite students to work with their partner to write the next part of their informational paragraph. Remind them to elaborate on their focus statement and to use evidence from the text to support their thinking. Refer students to their Marking Direct Quotes handout to remind them how to punctuate quotations.
  • After 5 minutes, repeat with the second part of the question:

"What did they believe?"

  • Remind students that the paragraph needs to have a conclusion to close the piece in a satisfying way.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What content should you include in the concluding sentence?" (restating the focus statement: telling who the Loyalists were)

  • Display and invite students to retrieve their Writing Complete Sentences handout and remind them of fragment and run-on sentences. Invite students to check their paragraph for incomplete or run-on sentences.
  • Use a checking for understanding technique (e.g., Red Light, Green Light or Thumb-O-Meter) for students to self-assess against the learning targets.
  • As time permits, focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and invite them to self-assess how well they collaborated in this lesson.
  • Revisit the questions on the Questions about Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak anchor chart to see whether students can answer any more of the questions after reading this text.
  • For ELLs: (Modified Anchor Chart: Concrete Examples) While reviewing the Informational Text anchor chart, refer to the enlarged "Loyalist" text to point out concrete examples for each bullet point listed. (Examples: topic=Loyalists; precise Vocabulary=colonist, Loyalist) Consider adding these examples to the Informational Text anchor chart as well, providing students with concrete examples to refer to as they write.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with strategy development: (Modeling and Thinking Aloud: Transferring from Note-catcher to Paragraph) Consider modeling and thinking aloud how to transfer information from the note-catcher to a paragraph, including at least one example of directly quoting evidence. Point out that not all of the information on the note-catcher needs to be included in the paragraph. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: (Sentence Frames) Consider providing sentence frames for students who need more support with organizing and writing their paragraph. (Example: Loyalists are people who _____. Some things they believed were______. The text says, "______.")

B. Reading Aloud: "Revolutionary War, Part II" (5 minutes)

  • Display "Revolutionary War, Part II." Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads as you read it aloud.
  • Invite students to work with their partner and their Text Structures handout to determine the structure of this text (chronology).
  • For ELLs: (Enlarged Texts: Referencing as a Model) Invite students to refer to the enlarged texts, "Revolutionary War, Part I" and "Loyalists," as they consider the text structure of "Revolutionary War, Part II." Encourage students to draw a visual at the bottom of the text that represents its text structure (timeline to represent chronology) and discuss why this visual makes sense.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Complete the Marking Quotes Practice in your Unit 1 homework.
  • Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: (Oral Response) Students may benefit from discussing and responding to their prompt orally, either with a partner or family member or by recording their response. (MMAE)
  • For students who may need additional support with reading: Support students in selecting a prompt to respond to, rephrasing the prompt, and thinking aloud possible responses. (MMR)

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