Metaphors in Esperanza Rising: “Las Uvas” | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G5:M1:U2:L9

Metaphors in Esperanza Rising: “Las Uvas”

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RL.5.2: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
  • RL.5.5: Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
  • RI.5.1: Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • L.5.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.5.5a: Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can describe how pages 234-253 of Esperanza Rising contribute to the overall structure of the story. (RL.5.1, RL.5.5)
  • I can interpret metaphors in "Las Uvas." (RL.5.1, L.5.5a)
  • I can identify themes in Esperanza Rising. (RL.5.1, RL.5.2)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Connections between Esperanza Rising and articles of the UDHR on sticky notes
  • Metaphors Note-catcher: The River (RL.5.1, L.5.5a)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

B. Engaging the Reader: "Las Uvas" of Esperanza Rising (20 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Interpreting Metaphors in "Las Uvas" (30 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Whole Group Share (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students read the next chapter of Esperanza Rising, "Las Uvas," and analyze how the chapter fits into the overall structure (RL.5.1, RL.5.5). They then make connections between this chapter and the UDHR, looking for evidence of threats to human rights (RI.5.1).
  • Students then interpret the river metaphors in the novel in expert triads (RL.5.1, L.5.5a). They use their interpretation of the metaphors to identify themes (RL.5.2).
  • Although the lesson is written for "Las Uvas" to be a teacher read-aloud, this can be organized in different ways to meet the needs of your students. For example, students could read this in pairs or triads, taking turns to read, with a teacher-led smaller group of students who need additional support.
  • Many of the articles of the UDHR could be applied to each chapter. Students may make other suggestions than those recorded on the How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (example, for teacher reference).
  • In this lesson, the habit of character focus is on working to become an ethical person. The characteristic that students practice is respect as volunteers share out personal reflections on what happened in Esperanza Rising.
  • Students practice their fluency in this lesson by following along and reading silently in their heads as the teacher reads aloud "Las Uvas" during Opening B.
  • The research reading that students complete for homework will help build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to human rights. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In Lessons 2 and 4, students read a chapter of Esperanza Rising and made connections to the UDHR before interpreting the metaphors in that chapter, just as they will in this lesson with the next chapter, "Las Uvas."
  • Continue to use Goal 1 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support reading the text to interpret the metaphors. Consider grouping students who will need additional support with this in one group to receive teacher support.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' answers to questions as they work to identify common issues. Use these common issues as teaching points in the whole group share-out.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist as students read Esperanza Rising in Opening B.  See the Tools page.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Phonics and Word Recognition Checklist (Grade 5) as students read Esperanza Rising in Opening B.  See the Tools page.
  • Collect homework from Lesson 7: Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Los Duraznos." Refer to Esperanza Rising: Questions about "Los Duraznos" (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will complete the Mid-Unit 2 Assessment, in which they will interpret another recurring metaphor in Esperanza Rising and the theme that it suggests.

In Advance

  • Strategically group students into triads, with at least one strong reader per triad.
  • Review:
    • Metaphors Note-catcher: The River (example, for teacher reference) to familiarize yourself with what students will be required to do in the lesson.
    • Thumb-O-Meter protocol. See Classroom Protocols.
  • Post: Learning targets and other applicable anchor charts.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time B: Students complete their note-catchers in a word-processing document--for example, a Google Doc--using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software such as Dictation.io.

Supporting English Language Learners

  • Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 5.I.B.6, 5.I.B.8, 5.1.C.12, 5.II.A.1, and 5.II.A.2

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to put the entire reading pattern of Esperanza Rising together, reflect on the sensitive events in the book, and analyze how a metaphor that runs throughout the story contributes to a theme in the book.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to analyze the meaning of the metaphors about the river and how they come together to convey an overall theme in the book. See the Meeting Students' Needs column for specific supports.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Invite a student to paraphrase the key points of pages 234-253 of Esperanza Rising in more comprehensible language for students who need heavier support.
  • Encourage students to add to the graphic organizer they began in Unit 1 to track (and illustrate) the main events in pages 234-253 of Esperanza Rising against the structure of the story. Invite them to explain this graphic organizer to students who need heavier support.
  • During the Mini Language Dive in Opening B, challenge students to generate questions about the sentence in Esperanza Rising before asking the prepared questions. Example: "What questions can we ask about this sentence? Let's see if we can answer them together."

For heavier support:

  • During the reading of Esperanza Rising, stop often to check for comprehension. Dictate key sentences for students to recite so that they practice using verbal language. Encourage students to act out and sketch key sentences.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Throughout this unit, students incorporate what they are reading into their writing. Consider ways to facilitate increased comprehension by repeatedly offering opportunities for students to access prior knowledge and review previous material. Additionally, use a color-coding system to help students make connections between the model paragraphs and the Character Reaction Paragraph anchor chart. This way, students can see how to apply these writing strategies to their own work.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): Some students may find it overwhelming to analyze characters' reactions and generate appropriate themes. Provide scaffolded practice for students who may need additional support with generating the theme. For instance, have students provide evidence for themes that their classmates generate.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Many students are more engaged when they are given choices. Consider providing multiple versions of the graphic organizer with lines to help support students' fine motor skills. This way, students can make decisions regarding what is best for their own learning.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • metaphor, interpret, theme (L)

Materials

  • Esperanza Rising (from Unit 1, Lesson 2; one per student)
  • Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2)
  • Experiences with Threats against Human Rights anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 2; added to during Opening B)
  • Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (from Unit 1, Lesson 2; added to during Opening B; see supporting materials)
  • Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Vocabulary logs (from Unit 1, Lesson 3; one per student)
  • Simplified version of the UDHR (from Unit 1, Lesson 4; one per student)
  • How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart (begun in Lesson 4; added to during Opening B; see supporting materials)
  • Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; added to during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Metaphors Note-catcher: The River (one per student and one to display)
  • Metaphors Note-catcher: The River (example, for teacher reference)
  • Strategies to Answer Selected Response Questions anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 5)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Move students into triads and invite them to label themselves A, B, and C.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can describe how pages 234-253 of Esperanza Rising contribute to the overall structure of the story."

"I can interpret metaphors in 'Las Uvas.'"

"I can identify themes in Esperanza Rising."

  • Remind students that they saw these learning targets in Lessons 2 and 4 and remind them of what a metaphor and a theme is and what interpret means.
  • Tell students that in this lesson they will be reading "Las Uvas," the final chapter of Esperanza Rising. They will analyze how the chapter fits into the overall structure of the story, make connections with the UDHR, and analyze metaphors.
  • For ELLs: Check comprehension of the second and third learning targets by asking: "What are some examples of metaphors you interpreted so far in Esperanza Rising? What are some themes you have identified?" (Responses will vary.)
  • Provide differentiated mentors by purposefully pre-selecting student partnerships. Consider meeting with students in advance to coach them to share their thought process with their partner. (MMAE)
  • Help students generalize skills across lessons by asking the students to share out one strategy they learned about reaching the first two learning targets from the previous lessons. (MMR)

B. Engaging the Reader: "Las Uvas" of Esperanza Rising (20 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their copies of Esperanza Rising and to turn to page 234, "Las Uvas."
  • Begin by pointing out the title of this chapter and select volunteers to share:

"What does Las Uvas mean in English? How do you know?" (grapes: it says so underneath "Las Uvas")

  • Invite students to turn and talk with their triads, and use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What do you notice about the title of this chapter?" (It has the same title as the first chapter.)

"What do you think this means?" (Responses will vary, but may include: It shows a full year has passed, as the title of the chapter shows grapes are being harvested again, or that this will be the turning point in the story where things go right again.)

  • Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads as you read aloud pages 234-253, adding words to the Spanish/English Dictionary anchor chart as they come up. Invite Spanish speakers to provide the translation and record the Spanish on the anchor chart.
  • After reading, invite students to reflect on the following question by thinking, writing, or drawing. Students must be silent when they do this, though:

"What did this part of the story make you think about?"

  • After 3 minutes, refocus whole group.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and remind them of the habit of character recorded: respect.
  • Invite volunteers to share out. Do not force anyone to share ideas with the group, but provide those who desire it with the chance to voice their reflections.
  • As students share out, capture any threats against human rights that students share on the Experiences with Threats against Human Rights anchor chart.
  • Focus students on the Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart. Ask them to turn and talk to their triad, and cold call students to share with the whole group:

"What is the gist of this chapter?" (Miguel brings Abuelita to them, and Esperanza hears the heartbeat of the earth again.)

"Looking at the key, where do you think this part of the story fits into the structure? Why?" (climax, falling action and resolution; the turning point comes when Abuelita arrives because it makes Esperanza and Mama happy. The falling action is when Abuelita tells her story, and when she hears the heartbeat of the earth with Miguel, and the resolution is her birthday, a year on from the events at the beginning of the book, when they are all together.)

  • Add this to the anchor chart. Refer to Structure of Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Invite students to share any new words, adding any unfamiliar words to their vocabulary logs. Add any new words to the academic word wall and domain-specific word wall, and invite students to add translations in native languages.
  • Ask students to turn and talk to their triad, and cold call students to share out:

"Looking at the titles of the chapters, what does this tell you?" (Responses will vary, but may include: They are all fruit and vegetables that signify what is being harvested in that chapter, and that rather than months or seasons, Esperanza sees time in terms of what is being harvested. Refer to page 246, which says Esperanza told their story "as a field-worker, in spans of fruits and vegetables and by what needed to be done to the land.")

  • Invite students to retrieve their simplified version of the UDHR.
  • Focus them on the How Were the Human Rights of the Characters in Esperanza Rising Threatened? anchor chart. Ask students to turn and talk to their triad, and cold call students to share out:

"What do you notice about connections to the UDHR in this chapter?" (There are none. It is a happy-ending chapter without threats to human rights. In fact, the last entry about Esperanza's money being stolen came out well because it was taken for good reason.)

  • Tell students they are now going to use the Thumb-O-Meter protocol to reflect on their progress toward the first learning target. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lesson 8 and review as necessary. Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the Thumb-O-Meter protocol using the first learning target. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • For ELLs: Before reading, invite students to summarize the first thirteen chapters of Esperanza Rising in 1 minute or less (with feedback) and then again in 30 seconds or less with a partner.
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of chunks from a key sentence of this chapter of Esperanza Rising. Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Example:
    • "Place your finger on the sentence: She soared with the anticipation of dreams she never knew she could have, of learning English, of supporting her family, of someday buying a tiny house." Read the sentence aloud as students follow along.
    • "What is the gist of this sentence?" (Responses will vary.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk She soared. Who is she? How do you know?" (Esperanza. The paragraph is describing Esperanza watching the sun rise.)
    • "What is soared in our home languages?" (se remonto in Spanish) Invite all students to repeat the translation in a home language other than their own.
    • "What does soared mean? You can use your dictionaries." (to rise up, to fly) "What does She soared mean in this sentence? Does Esperanza actually fly? What, in the text, makes you think so?" (She does not actually fly. The paragraph describes her watching the sunrise and feeling hopeful, like she is rising with the sun.)
    • "Place your finger on the word with. What type of word is this? What does it tell us in this sentence?" (It is a preposition. It signals the description of feelings Esperanza has when she soars.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk the anticipation of dreams she never knew she could have. What does anticipation mean? You can use your dictionaries." (feeling of excitement about something that is going to happen.) 
    • "Now read the first two chunks together: She soared with the anticipation of dreams she never knew she could have. What does this tell us about Esperanza?" (Esperanza feels excited about her future.)
    • "Place your finger on the chunk of learning English, of supporting her family, of someday buying a tiny house. What does this chunk tell us?" (the things Esperanza dreams about) "Are you surprised by Esperanza's dreams? Why or why not?" (Responses will vary.)
    • "Why do you think the author says that these dreams are dreams Esperanza never knew she could have?" (Responses will vary, but may include: Esperanza never thought these were things she would want, but now she does want them and they bring her hope; Esperanza never believed she was strong enough to accomplish these dreams, but now she has learned that she is strong enough.)
    • "Now what do you think is the gist of this sentence?" (Esperanza is excited and feels hopeful as she thinks about her future in the United States.)
    • "How does your understanding of this sentence help you understand Esperanza's character?" (Esperanza is feeling hopeful. In the next sentence it says she thinks that Miguel was right about never giving up. She is finally able to imagine making a new life with her family in the United States.)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Interpreting Metaphors in "Las Uvas" (30 minutes)

  • Refocus students on the learning targets and read the last two aloud:

"I can interpret metaphors in 'Las Uvas.'"

"I can identify themes in Esperanza Rising."

  • Remind students that authors use figurative language to paint a picture that allows them to show, not tell, their ideas.
  • Focus students on the Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart and remind them of the metaphors they interpreted in Lesson 2 and 4.
  • Display page 249. Invite students to follow along, reading silently in their heads as you reread pages 249-251 read from "As the sun rose ..." to "... held her heart to the earth."
  • Tell students that today they will interpret another metaphor that runs throughout the book: the river.
  • Tell students that they will be doing this in triads, with each person in the triad looking at a different excerpt in the book when the river is used as a metaphor and interpreting what it means.
  • Tell students that because this metaphor runs throughout the book, it suggests themes, ideas that the author wants us to take away.
  • Distribute and display Metaphors Note-catcher: The River.
  • Ensure students understand that each of the metaphors on the note-catcher is about the river. Tell students that the river metaphor is a theme in the story. Remind them that the theme is a main idea that the author wants the reader to take away.
  • Work through the first metaphor (Ex.) on the note-catcher as a whole group to model how to complete the note-catcher. Remind students that they are not literally standing on either side of a river--this is figurative language. Refer to Metaphors Note-catcher: The River (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Invite students within their triads to assign who in the triad will work on which river metaphor (or, depending on your class, consider allocating them yourself--for example, partner A could work on 1, partner B on 2, partner C on 3).
  • Tell students that they will work independently to complete their row of the note-catcher and then share their learning with their triad.
  • Allocate an area of the room for each metaphor so that students can opt to talk with someone else working on the same metaphor as them, rather than working completely independently.
  • Circulate to support students in completing their row of the note-catcher.
  • After 10 minutes, invite students to rejoin their original triad to share out.
  • Allocate 2 minutes for each person in the triad to share, beginning with B, then C, then A, and invite students to update their note-catchers based on what they learn as they listen to their group members.
  • For ELLs: Invite students to share examples of metaphors and their meanings in their home languages and add them to the chart started in Lesson 2.
  • For ELLs: Consider working closely with a group of students who need heavier support to discuss and fill in the note-catcher for one metaphor on the Metaphors Note-catcher: The River. To prepare for sharing in triads, invite students to orally describe the meaning of the metaphor in 30 seconds or less. Have them share out and give them feedback on their language use.
  • To activate students' prior knowledge, review figurative language by providing examples of metaphors with corresponding images that have the figurative and literal meaning. Have students verbally explain the meaning of the metaphor. (MMR)
  • For students who may need additional support with fine motor skills: Offer choice with the graphic organizer by providing a template that includes lines within the boxes. (MMR, MME)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Whole Group Share (5 minutes)

  • Refocus whole group.
  • Using total participation techniques, select students to share whole group to help you fill in the Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart. Refer to Metaphors in Esperanza Rising anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • If productive, cue students to expand the conversation by saying more:

"Can you say more about that?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Focus students on the selected response question at the bottom of their note-catcher. Remind them of the Strategies to Answer Selected Response Questions anchor chart, and read the question and the possible answers aloud and invite students to work in pairs to underline the best answer. Ensure students understand that because the word answer is not plural, it means they will underline only one option to answer this question.

"The river metaphor is woven throughout the story. What theme does this metaphor convey?" (Everyone should be treated equally.)

  • Tell students they are now going to use the Thumb-O-Meter protocol to reflect on their progress toward the last two learning targets. Remind them that they used this protocol earlier in the lesson and review as necessary. Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the Thumb-O-Meter protocol using the last two learning targets. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • Repeat, inviting students to self-assess against how well they showed respect in this lesson.
  • For ELLs: Display and repeat the statement and question: "The river metaphor is woven throughout the story. What theme does this metaphor convey?" Rephrase: "The river is a metaphor the author uses throughout the story. What did the author want this metaphor to make us think about?"
  • For ELLs: Invite students to give specific examples of how they worked toward achieving the second and third learning targets in this lesson. Invite students to rephrase the learning targets now that they have more experience interpreting metaphors and identifying themes.
  • For students who may need additional support: Even if they cannot generate a theme independently, ask them to repeat or explain a classmate's answer in reflection. (MMR, MMAE)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)

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