Close Read: “American Indians and the American Revolution” | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G4:M3:U1:L10

Close Read: “American Indians and the American Revolution”

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.4.1: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.4.2: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.4.4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • RI.4.5: Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
  • W.4.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • W.4.9b: Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text").
  • L.4.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.4.1f: Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  • L.4.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.4.5c: Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can determine the main idea and summarize the text "American Indians and the American Revolution." (RI.4.1, RI.4.2, W.4.9b, L.4.1f)
  • I can describe the overall structure of the text "American Indians and the American Revolution." (RI.4.5)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (RI.4.1, RI.4.2, RI.4.4, RI.4.5, L.4.4, L.4.5c)
  • Summary of "American Indians and the American Revolution" (RI.4.1, RI.4.2, W.4.9b, L.4.1f)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Returning "An Incomplete Revolution" Summaries (10 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Close Reading: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (35 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Independent Writing: Summary of "American Indians and the American Revolution" (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Complete the Fragments and Run-ons Practice in your Unit 1 homework.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In Opening A, students review the summaries they wrote in Lesson 8 against the Criteria of an Effective Summary anchor chart. Use this time to address any common issues from reviewing the summaries.
  • In Work Time A, students participate in a close read of "American Indians and the American Revolution," focused on text structure and the main idea. Recall that the Close Reading Guide lists only the text excerpts, key questions to ask students, and instructional moves required. Continue to use discussion protocols (e.g., Think-Pair-Share, Conversation Cues, and total participation techniques) to engage all students in collaborative discussion about the text.
  • In the Closing, students write a summary of "American Indians and the American Revolution" on an exit ticket (RI.4.1, RI.4.2, W.4.9b) to be collected and used for informal assessment. This follows the same routine as Lesson 8.
  • In this lesson, students continue to focus on working to become effective learners by collaborating in pairs and persevering through a complex text.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In the previous lesson, students read "American Indians and the American Revolution" for gist. In this lesson, they dig deeper with a close read to build a greater understanding of the text by determining the main idea and structure and writing a summary.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need additional support recording their answers on their note-catchers. Consider grouping those students together for teacher support when necessary.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review students' Close Reading note-catchers and summaries to ensure that they are ready for the end of unit assessment in the next lesson. Refer to the "American Indians and the American Revolution" summary (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Consider using the Writing: Writing Informal Assessment: Observational Checklist for Writing and Language Skills to assess students' writing abilities in Closing and Assessment A (see the Tools page).

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will complete the end of unit assessment.

In Advance

  • Preview the Close Reading Guide: "American Indians and the American Revolution" and Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (example, for teacher reference) to familiarize yourself with what will be required of students.
  • Provide feedback on students' summaries from Lesson 8 in preparation for returning them in this lesson.
  • Recall pairings from Lesson 9, as they will be used again in this lesson.
  • Post: Learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout Modules 1-2 to create anchor charts to share with families, to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families, and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standard 4.I.A.1, 4.I.B.6, 4.I.B.8, 4.I.C.10, 4.I.C.12, 4.II.A.1

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by providing the opportunity to participate in a close read of the complex text "American Indians and the Revolutionary War" and allowing for reflection and discussion about sensitive issues that may arise from the text. ELLs also have the opportunity to prepare for the end of unit assessment by writing a summary and answering questions about the main idea and structure of the text.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to think about the main idea and the structure of the text, as some will have difficulty understanding the meaning of the text itself. Check for comprehension during the close read and work closely with students as needed to support them to complete the Close Reading note-catcher.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During the Mini Language Dive, challenge students to generate questions about the sentence before asking the prepared questions.
  • Challenge students to create a summary paragraph frame of "American Indians and the American Revolution" for those who need heavier support during the Closing and Assessment.

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time A, distribute a partially filled-in Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution." This provides students with models of the kind of information they should enter and reduces the volume of writing required. Refer to the Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (example, for teacher reference) to determine which sections of the note-catcher to provide for students.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): This lesson offers a variety of visual anchors to cue students' thinking. Continue to support students by creating additional or individual anchor charts for reference and charting student responses during whole class discussions to aid with comprehension.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): When introducing independent writing, support a range of fine motor abilities and writing needs by offering options for writing utensils. Alternatively, consider supporting students' expressive skills by offering partial dictation of student responses. Recall that varying tools for construction and composition supports students' ability to express knowledge without barriers to communicating their thinking.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Invite students to reflect on their learning from the previous lesson with "American Indians and the American Revolution." This supports them in understanding the value and relevance of the activities in this lesson. Continue to provide support for students who may need additional guidance in peer interactions and collaboration.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • main idea, summarize (L)
  • merciless, ferocious, tyrannical monarch, the Crown (T)

Materials

  • "An Incomplete Revolution" summary (completed in Lesson 8; one per student)
  • Sticky notes (preferably two different colors; one of each color per student)
  • Criteria of an Effective Summary anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (one per student)
  • "American Indians and the American Revolution" (from Lesson 9; one per student)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Close Reading Guide: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (for teacher reference)
    •  Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
    •  Determining the Main Idea anchor chart (begun in Module 2)
    •  Text Structures (from Lesson 3; one per student)
    •  Strategies for Answering Selected Response Questions anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (example, for teacher reference)
  • Questions about Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak anchor chart (begun in Lesson 1)
  • Paper (lined; one piece per student)
  • Writing Complete Sentences handout (from Module 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Exit Ticket: Summary Writing 2 (example, for teacher reference)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Returning "An Incomplete Revolution" Summaries (10 minutes)

  • Return students' "An Incomplete Revolution" summaries with feedback and sticky notes.
  • Direct students' attention to the Criteria of an Effective Summary anchor chart and briefly review it.
  • Invite students to reread their summaries and to consider what they did well and what they could improve on using the criteria on the anchor chart.
  • Invite students to write a star on one sticky note and a step on another and put the sticky notes on their work.
  • To build an accepting and supportive environment, remind students that everyone is working toward individual goals and that learning is about continued growth and development. (MME)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to get back into their pairs from the previous lesson.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can determine the main idea and summarize the text 'American Indians and the American Revolution.'"

"I can describe the overall structure of the text 'American Indians and the American Revolution.'"

  • Remind students that they saw all of these learning targets in Lesson 8 for "An Incomplete Revolution" and review the meaning of main idea and summarize.
  • For students who may need additional support with comprehension and engagement: (Working toward Same Learning Target) Invite students to discuss one way that they worked toward similar learning targets in previous lessons. (MMR, MME)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with connecting to prior learning: (Comparing Finding the Gist to Summarizing) Remind students that in the previous lesson, they found the gist of "American Indians and the American Revolution" and in this lesson they summarize it. Ask:

"What is the relationship between the gist and a summary?" (MMR)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Close Reading: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (35 minutes)

  • Distribute and display Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution."
  • Invite students to retrieve "American Indians and the American Revolution." Remind them that digging deeper into the text can help them understand it better, so they are going to dig deeper into this text in this lesson.
  • Direct students' attention to the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and review perseverance and collaboration as needed.
  • Use the Close Reading Guide: "American Indians and the American Revolution" to guide students through a close read of this article. Refer students to the following Materials as needed:
    • Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart
    • Determining the Main Idea anchor chart
    • Text Structures handout
    • Strategies for Answering Selected Response Questions anchor chart
  • Refer to the Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution" (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • As time permits after the close read, consider inviting students to reflect silently on the text for 3 minutes. Due to the sensitive nature of this text, some students may benefit from silent reflection time. They may or may not wish to share their reflections with the whole group.
  • If productive, cue students to explain others' ideas:

"Who can explain why your classmate came up with that response? I'll give you time to think and write." (Responses will vary.)

  • Revisit the questions on the Questions about Colonial Voices: Hear Them Speak anchor chart to see if students can answer any more of the questions after reading this text.
  • For students who may need additional support with self-regulation: When you give students a warning before the transition to whole group, provide a clear routine for what to do with unfinished work and use a visual timer. (MME)
  • For ELLs: (Enlarged Text: Referencing Sentences) During the close read, display the text on a document camera or use the enlarged copy of the text (see Lesson 9, "for heavier support") to help direct students to the appropriate sentences in each paragraph.
  • For ELLs: (Mini Language Dive) "Indians knew that/the Revolution was a contest for Indian land/ as well as for liberty."
    • Deconstruct: Invite students to discuss the meaning of the sentence and grapple with the meaning of each chunk. Encourage extended conversation and practice with the focus structure in the highlighted chunk, keeping the following language goals in mind:

the Revolution: "What?"/Meaning: The Revolution refers to the war between the British and the Patriots. The chunk is about the war. Suggested question: "What is this chunk about?"

was a contest: "Was what?"/Meaning: Contest means a competition, or an event in which people compete for something. American Indians knew that the war was a contest. Suggested questions: "What did the American Indians know? What do you think contest means?" (noun)

for Indian land: "For what?"/Meaning: We use for to indicate purpose or why something is done. The contest was for Indian land. The land belonged to the Indians. Whoever won the war would win Indian land. Suggested questions: "What was the contest for? Who did the land belong to?" (prepositional phrase)

    • Practice: "What is another way to say this chunk?" (Whoever won the war got to have land that belonged to the Indians.)
    • Reconstruct: Reread the sentence. Ask:

"Now what do you think the sentence means?"

"How does your understanding of this sentence add to your understanding of the effect of the war on American Indians?"

    • Practice: Consider inviting students to use the sentence to speak or write about their own work or lives. Suggestion: I knew that _________ was ________. Ask:

"What is another way to say this sentence?"

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Writing: Summary of "American Indians and the American Revolution" (10 minutes)

  • Distribute paper for the exit ticket.
  • Tell students that similar to Lesson 8, they are going to write a summary of the text "American Indians and the American Revolution."
  • Encourage students to use the following resources to complete their summaries:
    • Star and step sticky notes from Opening A of this lesson
    • Close Reading Note-catcher: "American Indians and the American Revolution"
    • Criteria of an Effective Summary anchor chart
    • Writing Complete Sentences handout
  • Collect the exit tickets for informal assessment. Refer to Exit Ticket: Summary Writing 2 (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Tell students that in the next lesson, they will read a new text, answer questions about main idea and structure, and write a summary for the end of unit assessment.
  • Use a checking for understanding technique (e.g., Red Light, Green Light or Thumb-O-Meter) for students to self-assess against the learning targets.
  • For students who may need additional support to organize their ideas in writing: Offer sentence starters or frames as scaffolding for student expression and communication. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support locating fragments or run-ons in their writing: (Listening for Fragments or Run-on Sentences) Encourage students to read their summaries aloud and to listen for and correct any sentences that sound incomplete or do not make sense.
  • For ELLs: (Paragraph Frame) Invite students who need heavier support to use the paragraph frame created by more proficient students (see "for lighter support") when writing their summaries.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Complete Fragments and Run-ons Practice in your homework resources.
  • Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: (Oral Response) Students may benefit from discussing and responding to their prompt orally, either with a partner or family member or by recording their response. (MMAE) (MMR)

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