Planning Organization: Expanding the Introduction | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G4:M2:U3:L7

Planning Organization: Expanding the Introduction

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.4.9: Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
  • W.4.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  • W.4.3a: Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • W.4.3d: Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  • W.4.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • W.4.5: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • L.4.3: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  • L.4.3a: Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
  • L.4.3c: Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
  • L.4.6: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can plan and draft a compelling introduction that establishes a situation by introducing and describing the characters, setting, and plot of my narrative. (RI.4.9, W.4.3a, W.4.3d, W.4.4, W.4.5, L.4.3a, L.4.3c, L.4.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Millipede Introduction Expansion graphic organizer (RI.4.9, W.4.3a, W.4.3d, W.4.5, L.4.3a)
  • Millipede Introduction draft (RI.4.9, W.4.3a, W.4.3d, W.4.4, W.4.5, L.4.3a, L.4.3c, L.4.6)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets and Engaging the Writer: Understanding the Narrative Writing Checklist (10 minutes)

2. Work Time 

A. Examining a Model: An Introductory Paragraph for the Pufferfish Narrative (10 minutes)

B. Guided Practice: Planning the Millipede Narrative Introduction (15 minutes)

C. Guided Writing: Drafting the Introduction for the Millipede Narrative (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment 

A. Debriefing (5 minutes)

4. Homework 

A. Create a short comic strip based on the plans for Choice #1 of your story by drawing a picture for each section of your Narrative Planning graphic organizer.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

C. For ELLs: Complete the Language Dive Practice in your Unit 3 Homework.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • This lesson follows a similar flow as Lessons 4 and 5; students review the characteristics and organization of the beginning of a narrative and then expand their plan for the millipede narrative using an Introduction Expansion graphic organizer (RI.4.9, W.4.3a, W.4.3d, W.4.5, L.4.3a). Students then use this graphic organizer to write a draft as a class of the beginning paragraphs of the millipede narrative (RI.4.9, W.4.3a, W.4.3d, W.4.4, W.4.5, L.4.3a, L.4.3c, L.4.6).
  • This lesson uses the terms introduction and beginning interchangeably. This is intentional. This will help students to make meaning of the academic vocabulary word introduction and become used to hearing these two terms used together and interchangeably.
  • The most important aspect of this lesson is for students to practice using the Narrative Planning and Introduction Expansion graphic organizers. As in Lesson 4, they practice writing about the millipede to prepare for planning and writing narratives based on their expert group animals on the mid-unit assessment and in the lessons that follow.
  • The research reading students complete for homework will help to build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to animals and specifically animal defense mechanisms. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help to describe and make sense of it.
  • Students will have the opportunity to practice their fluency in this lesson by following along and reading silently as you read "Powerful Polly" aloud in Work Time A.
  • Students who finish quickly can draft the millipede narrative independently and confer in small groups to share and offer critique on the characteristics from the Narrative Writing Checklist.

How it builds on previous work:

  • Students use their research notes from Unit 2 and planning from Lessons 3-5 to expand their plan for the introduction and draft the beginnings of their narratives.
  • Continue to use Goals 1-3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas where students may need additional support:

  • Students may struggle with writing a fictional piece based on their research. Remind them that although the story and character are fictional, the details must still be scientifically accurate. For instance, the defense mechanism an animal uses should be based on research, but what the animal thinks or says can come from the student's imagination.

Assessment Guidance:

  • Refer to the Narrative Writing Checklist when assessing students' work in this lesson.
  • Consider using the Writing Informal Assessment: Writing and Language Skills Checklist (Grade 4) during students' planning and writing in Work Times B and C.
  • Collect in annotated "How the Monkey Got Food When He Was Hungry" homework (Lessons 4 and 5). See Annotated "How the Monkey Got Food When He Was Hungry" (answers, for teacher reference).

Down the road:

  • The completed Practice Narrative Writing Sheet: The Millipede in the supporting materials is intentionally missing characteristics of effective narratives (for example, dialogue) that will be used to model revision skills in later lessons. If you decide to write your own example, be sure to include similar mistakes so revisions can be made for adding dialogue, precise language, and supporting details.
  • Students will follow this same process--expanding their introductions and writing a draft--for the mid-unit assessment in the next lesson.

In Advance

  • Display the Narrative Texts and Steps for Planning and Drafting My Narrative anchor charts.
  • Post: Learning target.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Times B and C: Students complete their graphic organizer and draft in a word processing document, for example a Google Doc using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software like Dictation.io.
  • Work Time C: Allow students to type their first drafts using Google Docs or other word processing software.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 4.I.A.1, 4.I.A.2, 4.I.A.3, 4.I.B.5, 4.I.B.6, 4.I.B.7, 4.I.C.10, 4.I.C.11, 4.I.C.12, 4.II.A.1, 4.II.B.5

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to continue to build language to describe the characteristics of narrative fiction as well as help them write their own narrative fiction.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to clarify the distinctions between all of the new language they are encountering. Invite students to categorize the language from anchor charts and vocabulary logs. Suggested categories: "Language to describe narrative characteristics"; "Sensory detail language"; "Informational page language"; "Transitional words." Make it a game by writing these words on sticky notes and writing the categories on different pieces of chart paper around the room. Teams of students can stick the sticky notes to the correct category chart paper. The team who works most quickly and accurately wins.
  • In Work Time A, ELLs are invited to participate in a Language Dive (optional) that guides them through the meaning of a sentence from the model narrative text "Powerful Polly." It also gives them practice using the language structure of the sentence to discuss their expert group animal. Students may draw on this sentence when writing introductions to narratives in this lesson and in the Mid-Unit Assessment. Prepare the sentence strip chunks for use during the Language Dive. Preview the Language Dive Guide and consider how to invite conversation among students to address the questions and goals suggested under each sentence strip chunk (see supporting materials). Select from the questions and goals provided to best meet your students' needs. Create a "Language Chunk Wall"--an area in the classroom where students can display and categorize the academic phrases discussed in the Language Dive. 

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • In preparation for the mid-unit assessment, invite students to explain the meaning of this standard: "Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely." Invite them to identify examples of how "Powerful Polly" meets the standard and explain this to students who need heavier support.

For heavier support:

  • Prepare recordings of the sensory details listed on the Introduction Expansion graphic organizer. Play them as the class fills out the organizer to support comprehension: crunching of leaves, birds chirping, wind blowing, water flowing, toad ribbiting; stream bubbling over rocks. Also consider preparing pictures of damp ground and moss on tree roots.
  • In preparation for the mid-unit assessment, make sure students understand the meaning of this standard: "Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely." Highlight the phrases in the standard and ask questions about their meaning. 
  • Invite ELLs to draw pictures of some of the precise, sensory phrases used in "Powerful Polly": "trembling with fear," "bright blue, green, and yellow coral reef," "gently waved in the current," "as big as a beach ball," "needle-sharp, prickly spines shined."

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Consider meeting with a small group of students who need additional writing support to review the characteristics of the Narrative Writing Checklist in advance of this lesson. Discuss and provide examples for each of these targets. Use "Powerful Polly" to have students highlight descriptions, examples of informal voice, and transitional words in three different colors as a check that they understand what each of these three expectations look like in writing. Additionally, review the ideas of topic sentence, supporting details, and concluding sentence as they pertain to narrative writing rather than informative writing.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): Revisit "Powerful Polly" to look for how the author describes the characters, setting, and plot with precise words. Create a "Show/Tell" T-chart that lists some of the descriptive words or phrases used in the story on one side. Have students fill in the other side to "tell" what these descriptions share with the reader. Example: On one side of the T-chart, write, "Her spine trembled with fear." On the other side of the chart, write, "shows how Polly was feeling" (instead of telling the reader "Polly was scared"). Consider having students use this T-chart to analyze their own writing. For instance, you could fill in the "Tell" column with words and phrases from their draft narrative and have them complete the "Show" column to think about how to add more description to their narrative.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): When students share their work with a partner, this is a good opportunity to foster community and support students to provide each other with positive feedback. Before students share their journal pages, discuss strategies for how to give a compliment to a peer about her or his work.

Vocabulary

Key: (L): Lesson-Specific Vocabulary; (T): Text-Specific Vocabulary; (W): Vocabulary used in writing

  • introduction, characters, setting, plot, informative, narrative, expansion (L)

Materials

  • Annotated "How the Monkey Got Food When He Was Hungry" (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Narrative Writing Checklist (distributed in Lesson 3; one per student and one to display)
  • "Powerful Polly" pufferfish narrative (from Lesson 3; one per student and one to display)
  • Sticky notes (two per student)
  • Equity sticks
  • Language Dive Guide: "Powerful Polly" (optional; for ELLs; for teacher reference; see supporting materials)
    • Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: "Powerful Polly" (optional; for ELLs; one to display, see supporting materials)
    • Language Dive Note-catcher: "Powerful Polly" (optional; for ELLs; one per student and one to display, see supporting materials)
  • Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Narrative anchor chart (begun in Lesson 1; added to in this lesson)
  • Introduction Expansion graphic organizer (one per student and one to display)
  • Millipede Narrative Planning graphic organizer (from Lesson 4; one per student and one to display)
  • Vocabulary log (begun in Module 1; one per student)
  • Practice Narrative Writing Sheet: The Millipede (one per student and one to display)
  • Practice Narrative Writing Sheet: The Millipede (completed, for teacher reference)
  • Steps for Planning and Drafting My Narrative anchor chart (begun in Lesson 4)
  • Animal Defenses research notebooks (from Unit 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Expert Group Animal research notebooks (from Unit 2, Lesson 2; one per student and one to display)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Target and Engaging the Writer: Understanding the Narrative Writing Checklist (10 minutes)

  • Collect in annotated "How the Monkey Got Food When He Was Hungry" homework. See Annotated "How the Monkey Got Food When He Was Hungry" (answers, for teacher reference).
  • Invite students to take out their copies of the Narrative Writing Checklist and read the follow criteria as you read them aloud:
    • W.4.3c
    • W.4.3b, L.4.6
    • W.4.4
  • Review vocabulary from these criteria by asking:

"What do we mean by organize events?" (the order that things happen in the narrative)

"What do we mean by transitional words?" (linking words like first, then, suddenly)

"What do we mean by description?" (words that describe what the character does, thinks, or feels instead of simply telling the reader what the character is doing, thinking, or feeling)

"What do we mean by narrative voice?" (more informal, like we're telling a story)

  • Post the learning target: "I can plan and draft a compelling introduction that establishes a situation by introducing and describing the characters, setting, and plot of my narrative." Explain that today students will take the first steps toward meeting these criteria by developing a plan for and writing the introduction to the millipede narrative, focusing on using transitional words and description when drafting a narrative.
    • For students who may need additional support with vocabulary: Support students' understanding of the word compelling. Provide them with a non-example of a compelling introduction for "Powerful Polly" (missing description, transitional words, and narrative voice) and invite them to point out specific areas this introduction is lacking as compared to the real introduction for "Powerful Polly." (MMR)
    • For ELLs: Using their vocabulary log, word clusters, and word maps for support, students can explore their knowledge of the word appropriate, which is key to understanding the lesson and assessment tasks, as well as language in the world outside the classroom. Example:
      • appropriate, appropriately, appropriateness: word and forms
      • right for the situation; suitable for the circumstances: definition or teacher's explanation
      • good to write it in the narrative but not in the informative page: my explanation
      • translation and cognate
      • [ah-PROPE-ree-et]: pronunciation
      • right, proper, suitable, *wrong, *unsuitable: synonym or antonym
      • : sketch or icon
      • appropriate to; appropriate for; appropriate time and place: collocations
      • Narrative voice is appropriate to "Powerful Polly.": showing sentences
    • For ELLs: Remind students that transitional words like first, then, and suddenly help put events in the order they happen in the story. Provide an example or allow students to put the events in sequence and fill in an appropriate transitional word: First, Nemo swims to the surface. Suddenly, a diver catches him. Then, Marlin and Dory search for him.
    • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Highlight and discuss the meaning of language structures that are critical to understanding the learning target. Examples: I can plan (a compelling introduction [that establishes a situation]) (by introducing and describing the characters, setting, and plot of my narrative). Ask questions such as:

"What kind of introduction?"

"What will the introduction do?"

"How will you plan the introduction?"

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Examining a Model: An Introductory Paragraph for the Pufferfish Narrative (10 minutes)

  • Display "Powerful Polly" and invite students to take out their copies. Tell them that you will read the beginning aloud and they should listen for what makes up the introduction of a narrative. 
  • Clarify that in Module 1 and the first parts of this module, they have been practicing writing informative paragraphs--to summarize or explain--but for this part of the performance task, they will be writing narrative paragraphs. Explain that when writing a narrative paragraph, they will have to be sure that the events they are describing are in an order the reader can understand.
  • Their narrative paragraphs should have the same characteristics as other paragraphs: topic sentence, supporting details, and concluding sentence. Review these characteristics if necessary.
  • Tell students that the first time you read the beginning of the narrative, you would like them to just listen and follow along on their copies. Remind them that using this model will help them determine what to include in their own narratives and how to organize it. Read the text aloud, stopping at: "In a panic she thought, "What should I do? How can I defend myself?"
  • Next, invite students to take notes on what they notice and wonder about the introduction of a narrative.
  • Read the beginning of the text aloud again. Pause briefly at the end of each paragraph so students can take notes.
  • Have students share with a partner the notes they captured. Use equity sticks to call on students to share.
  • Display the Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Narrative anchor chart. Ask:

"What did you notice about the beginning of a narrative after listening to the example?"

  • Give students a moment to think and review their notes. Then use equity sticks to select students to share their thinking. Add their responses by the bullet points about introductions and add your own as necessary.
  • Add notes to the bottom of the anchor chart that contain something such as: "A narrative's introduction (beginning) ..."
    • Starts in an engaging way
    • Leads into the rest of the story in a logical way 
    • Describes the character, setting, and problem
  • Explain that students will now have an opportunity to expand their plans for the introduction of the millipede narrative.
  • For ELLs: During Work Time A, lead students through Language Dive: "Powerful Polly" (see supporting materials). Refer to the Language Dive Guide: "Powerful Polly" (for Teacher Reference). Distribute and display Language Dive Note-catcher: "Powerful Polly" and Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: "Powerful Polly."
  • For students who may need additional support in organizing their ideas: Offer choice by allowing them to take notes in varied ways. (Examples: Drawing, writing single words that they hear, or manipulating index cards with key words written on them in advance.) (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Consider that the concept and interpretation of what's logical in a narrative can vary around the world. Different cultures sometimes have different ways of building narrative--ways that are logical to one person but may seem surprising to another. Allow ELLs to share their logic if anyone is confused by the events in their narratives.

B. Guided Practice: Planning the Millipede Narrative Introduction (15 minutes)

  • Tell students that now that they have a clearer picture of how the introduction of a narrative is developed, they will practice planning an introduction using the millipede.
  • Display and distribute Introduction Expansion graphic organizers to each student. Tell students they will use this graphic organizer to record their ideas for the introduction of the millipede narrative. 
  • Point out the word expansion in the title of this graphic organizer and explain that the organizer will help them expand, or add to, their current narrative plans for their introduction.
  • Tell students that the first step will be to review their plan on their Millipede Narrative Planning graphic organizer. Display the teacher copy and distribute students' graphic organizers from Lessons 4-5.
  • Model reading the notes for the Introductory Paragraphs and Problem Paragraph(s), completing the Setting the Stage: Engaging Way to Start Your Narrative, Introducing the Character, and Introducing the Setting boxes of the Introduction Expansion graphic organizer.
  • Remind students that they should also be thinking about important vocabulary words they should include in their writing. Model using a vocabulary log and the Domain-Specific Word Wall to find precise vocabulary words, recording them in the Important Words to Use box on the Introduction Expansion graphic organizer. See the supporting materials for a model of the Introduction Expansion graphic organizer for the millipede narrative. Ask students to record notes along with you.
  • As a class, plan the rest of the introduction. Explain to students that they first need to think about how they will introduce the problem of this narrative. Ask:

"What is the problem in all of our narratives?" (A predator is coming close to the animal.)

  • Next, explain to students that they will plan how they will lead the reader into the rest of the story. Tell students that this is also where they will mention the two choices the reader has.
  • As a class, use your research notes and imaginations to plan and record notes in the Introducing the Problem and Leading the Reader On: Engaging and Natural Way to Lead into the Rest of the Story boxes. Encourage students to be creative but to keep their plans based on facts and details from their research. During the discussion, prompt students by asking questions like:

"How will you introduce the setting to the reader?"

"How will you introduce the character(s) to the reader?" 

"How will you introduce the problem to the reader?" 

"How will you make the reader want to keep reading?"

  • For students who may need additional support with comprehension: Many students will benefit from hearing examples of "leading the reader into the rest of the story." Consider rereading that portion of "Powerful Polly" or Can You Survive the Wilderness? so students understand exactly what is meant to go in the box "Engaging and Natural Way to Lead into the Rest of the Story." (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Consider playing recordings of the sensory details on the Introduction Expansion graphic organizer to support comprehension.

C. Guided Writing: Drafting the Introduction for the Millipede Narrative (20 minutes)

  • Remind students that they have planned how their narratives will be organized, the plot, and the introduction. Tell them they are now ready to begin drafting their narratives.
  • Explain that today students will practice drafting the millipede narrative and that in Lesson 8, they will draft their expert group animal narrative as part of the Mid-Unit 3 Assessment.
  • Tell students that before they get started drafting, you are going to reread the introduction of "Powerful Polly" one more time. Point out that an effective narrative does not just tell the reader who the character is, what the setting is, or what the problem is. Instead, the author uses precise words and phrases to describe the character, setting, and plot.
  • Display and read aloud "Powerful Polly," inviting students to follow along in their copies and stopping at, "In a panic she thought, "What should I do? How can I defend myself?" As you read, invite students to mark stars by sections of the text where the author used precise words and phrases to describe the characters, setting, and plot.
  • Use equity sticks to call on students to share the words and phrases they marked. Listen for students pointing out words and phrases like "warm tropical morning," "bright blue, green, and yellow coral reef," "spines trembled with fear," and "Polly floated by." As students share, ask:

"What is the author describing to the reader?" 

  • If productive, cue students with a challenge:

"Can you figure out why the author writes, "Her spines trembled with fear" instead of "Polly was scared."? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Point out that the author uses words to show the reader what is happening in the story instead of simply telling the reader. If necessary, use the following as an example: The author writes, "Her spines trembled with fear" to show the reader how Polly was feeling, instead of telling the reader "Polly was scared.")

  • Tell students that you have already begun to draft your narrative and would like them to help you complete the introduction, focusing on introducing the character, setting, and plot.
  • Using your Millipede Narrative Planning graphic organizer, point out that your draft will be several paragraphs long. Remind students that they learned the characteristics of a strong paragraph in Module 1. Ask them to help you recall:

"What are the characteristics of a strong paragraph?" (topic sentence, detail sentences, and concluding sentence)

  • Remind students that the drafts they will be writing are narratives. Ask:

"How will the tone of our narratives be different from the informative pieces we wrote in Unit 2?" (The narratives will have a more informal tone.)

  • If productive, cue students to provide reasoning:

"Why do you think that?" (They will be more informal because they are stories.)

  • If necessary, review the task, purpose, and audience of the narratives with students. Listen for them to identify the task as a narrative about an animal using its defense mechanisms; the purpose is to both entertain readers and to teach them about the animal's defense mechanisms; and the audience is teachers, parents, and students.
  • Display and distribute the Practice Narrative Writing Sheet: The Millipede. Read the paragraph aloud. Ask:

"What facts and details from our research do you notice in the first paragraph of this narrative?"

  • Have students turn to a partner and share one thing they heard that was based on your research about the millipede. Have a few pairs share out and underline parts of the text that are based on your research.
  • Ask them to look at your plans in the first box of your Introduction Expansion graphic organizer and see if they can identify the sentences in your paragraph that are connected to your plans. (They should notice that the character and setting are introduced.) 
  • Point out the sequence of events in your paragraph: First, we hear the sounds of the forest. Then, our character is walking along looking for a leaf. And then, he finds one and starts eating it. 
  • Explain that this sequence of events makes sense to the reader. If the character was eating a leaf and then looking for a leaf, readers would be confused. Tell students that the importance of putting events in an order that makes sense is something you would like them to keep in mind as they are writing today. 
  • Ask students to help you continue the introduction. Remind them that they are using "Powerful Polly" as a mentor text to write their own choose-your-own-adventure narratives, and to refer to their planning documents, research notes, vocabulary log, and Word Wall as they help you write.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to a partner. Ask them to reread the beginning paragraph together and use equity sticks to select students to share with the whole group:

"Think about your ideas: What will happen and be described in this next paragraph?" (The problem needs to be introduced, or the toad sees the millipede and hops closer.)

  • Drawing from ideas the students shared, craft and write a sentence that develops the plot and events. See Practice Narrative Writing Sheet: The Millipede (completed, for teacher reference) in the supporting materials. Continue this process to write the rest of the introductory and problem paragraphs. As you write, prompt students by asking:

"Is that information from what we have read?"

What details and description can we use to introduce the reader to the narrator, setting, and situation?"

"What precise words and phrases can we use to help the reader imagine what they might see, hear, taste, smell, or feel if they were there?"

"What precise words and phrases can we use to show what the characters are doing, thinking, and feeling and how they respond to what happens?"

"Do the events make sense? Are they easy to understand?"

"Are we using a narrative voice that is appropriate to the story? Does it engage the reader?"

  • Invite students to chorally read the finished introduction of the millipede narrative draft they wrote as a class.
  • Focus students on the learning targets. Read each one aloud, pausing after each to use a checking for understanding protocol for students to reflect on their comfort level with or show how close they are to meeting each target. Make note of students who may need additional support with each of the learning targets moving forward.
  • For students who may need additional support with writing fluency: Provide Introduction Expansion graphic organizers that have important vocabulary words to include already filled in. This will allow them more time to focus on writing. Consider adding writing lines or enlarging the page for those students who need support organizing their ideas. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Buy or ask for large paint chips from a local hardware or paint store, or print them online. Write the words searching for, fish around for, root around for, look for gaze at, and inspect, each one on a different shade of some paint chips. Place them on the wall and discuss the shades of meaning in preparation for the Mid-Unit 3 Assessment. Ask them why searching for is the most precise phrase to use to convey the millipede's experience with the leaf. 
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of the verbs in the millipede sequence of events. Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Example:

"Marty the millipede listened to the sounds of the forest as he crawled along. He was searching for a good, crunchy, fresh leaf to eat. His 120 legs marched slowly across the ground. He heard the rustling of the leaves in the trees around him, and the water of the stream tumbling by. Marty noticed a small, tasty, green leaf on the ground and started nibbling it."

Ask questions like: 

    • "What differences do you see in these words?" (Some end in -ed; one ends in -d; some end in -ing and have two words.)
    • "When did the -ed and -d words happen?" (in the past/yesterday/last year)
    • "How long did they happen?" (a limited time) 
    • "These are past tense verbs. We use them for an action happening in the past for a limited time."
    • "When did the was + verb-ing word happen?" (in the past)
    • "How long did it happen?" (a longer time, at the same time the other things were happening)
    • "This is a past continuous verb. We use it for an action happening in the past for a longer time, at the same time other things happened."
    • "You can use these -ed, -d, and was + verb-ing words in your narrative, too. They will help you tell when things happened in the past, and for how long."

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Debriefing (5 minutes)

  • Post the Steps for Planning and Drafting My Narrative anchor chart.
  • Have students add the steps for their work from this lesson. They should now include some version of the following:
  • Gather resources: 
    • Performance Task Prompt, Animal Defenses research notebooks (from Unit 1), Expert Group Animal research notebooks (from Unit 2), vocabulary log, and Character Profile graphic organizer.
    • Plan: Use above resources and your imagination to write notes planning each component of the Narrative Planning graphic organizer and Introduction Expansion graphic organizer.
    • Write: Use your Narrative Planning graphic organizer and Introduction Expansion graphic organizer to write each paragraph for your narrative. Be sure to include all the information from your notes in your paragraphs.
    • Each time you finish a paragraph, reread the narrative from the start to make sure your sequence of events makes sense; you're using precise words and phrases to describe characters and what they're doing, thinking, and feeling and to describe the events in the story to help the reader imagine they were there; your narrative voice is appropriate to the story and engages the reader.
  • Consider adding visuals to the Steps for Planning and Drafting My Narrative anchor chart to support student understanding of this important process. (MMR)

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Create a short comic strip based on the plans for Choice #1 of your story by drawing a picture for each section of your Narrative Planning graphic organizer. Add a sentence describing each picture at the bottom. Do not worry about how beautiful your pictures are. The purpose is just to visualize the sequence of events that you want to write about.

B. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

C. For ELLs: Complete the Language Dive Practice in your Unit 3 Homework.

Note: Students will need to have their Narrative Planning graphic organizer for the next lesson, the mid-unit assessment. If you are worried about these coming back to school after homework, you may consider collecting the graphic organizer and asking students to complete the homework from memory.

  • Consider giving students a quick mini lesson to model how to create a simple comic strip or show them an example of this format.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)

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