Orienting the Reader: Developing a Character Profile | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G4:M2:U3:L3

Orienting the Reader: Developing a Character Profile

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.4.9: Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
  • W.4.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  • W.4.3a: Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • W.4.3d: Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  • W.4.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • W.4.5: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • SL.4.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  • SL.4.1b: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  • L.4.3: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  • L.4.3a: Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
  • L.4.3c: Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
  • L.4.6: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can listen as my peers share their informational writing and give specific praise for their work. (W.4.4, L.4.3c)
  • I can synthesize information to develop an accurate character profile supported by research. (RI.4.9, W.4.3a, W.4.3d, W.4.5, L.4.3a, L.4.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Informative page (W.4.4, L.4.3c)
  • Character Profile graphic organizer (RI.4.9, W.4.3a, W.4.3d, W.4.5, L.4.3a, L.4.6)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Writer: Sharing (10 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time 

A. Developing a Character Profile for the Millipede (10 minutes)

B. Partner Practice: Developing a Character Profile for the Millipede (5 minutes)

C. Independent Practice: Developing a Character Profile for the Expert Group Animal (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment 

A. Sharing (10 minutes)

4. Homework 

A. Reread "Powerful Polly" for the gist.

B. Choose and respond to a narrative QuickWrite prompt from your homework resources for this unit.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In the opening of the lesson, students celebrate their hard work writing informative texts by sharing and reflecting in small groups on their informative page for the performance task (completed in Unit 2 and prepared in Lesson 2). (W.4.4, L.4.3c)
  • The Author's Chair Celebration anchor chart (see supporting materials) provides steps and guidelines for students as they share their work. Grouping for this is flexible; however, the more students share in a group, the longer this portion of the lesson will be. The timing of the lesson is based on groups of three, each with a mix of expert group animals represented. Adjust as needed given your preferences and the needs of your students.
  • This is the first lesson in which students begin to develop their own narratives using their research from Unit 2. Students develop the main character of their narratives (W.4.3a) by referring to their research notebooks from Unit 2 and creating precise and accurate descriptions as they develop a character profile (RI.4.9, W.4.3d, W.4.5, L.4.3a, L.4.6).
  • The research reading students complete for homework will help to build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to animals and specifically animal defense mechanisms. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help to describe and make sense of it.
  • Students will have the opportunity to practice their fluency in this lesson by following along and reading silently as the teacher reads "Powerful Polly" aloud in Closing and Assessment A.
  • Students who finish quickly can use the Character Profile graphic organizer to plan an additional character for their main character to interact with.

How it builds on previous work:

  • Be sure students have prepared their informative pages so they can share them during the Author's Chair Celebration. If students have not finished revising their work, find time in class for them to do so before the lesson.
  • Before students develop a character profile for their expert group animal, the teacher models and students practice developing a character profile for the millipede while referring to research notes from Unit 2. As they develop profiles for their own animals, they continue to refer to and synthesize their Unit 2 research notes.
  • Continue to use Goals 1-3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas where students may need additional support:

  • Students may have difficulty determining the most important and relevant research notes to use as they develop their character profiles. Consider flagging important pages of students' research notebooks or having students use sticky notes to mark key pages or notes.
  • Students may struggle with writing a fictional piece based on their research. Remind them that although the story and character are fictional, the details must be scientifically accurate. 

Assessment Guidance:

  • The Narrative Writing Checklist introduced in Opening B and provided in the Assessment Overview and Resources is based on the Grade 4 Narrative Writing Rubric (see the Tools page), which was based on the CCSS and the SBAC and PARCC Narrative rubrics. The checklist is introduced in this lesson and discussed throughout the rest of the unit as students learn about each characteristic. The "Characteristics of My Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Narrative" column is designed to help students understand this module's specific content focus.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist during students' sharing of their informative pieces in Opening A. See the Tools page.
  • Collect in Editing for Capitalization, Punctuation and Spelling I homework (Lesson 1). See Editing for Capitalization, Punctuation and Spelling I (answers, for teacher reference).

Down the road:

  • To succeed in this lesson and in the writing of their narratives, students have to manage their materials well. Consider asking them to organize their Animal Defenses research folders before this lesson.

In Advance

  • Review, prepare, and display the Author's Chair Celebration anchor chart.
  • Create groups of three to four students for sharing in the Author's Chair Celebration. Be sure that group members represent different expert group animals.
  • Display the Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Narrative anchor chart.
  • Display the Narrative Writing Checklist.
  • Collect Unit 1 and Unit 2 research materials for modeling.
  • Post: Learning targets.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Opening A: Record students' presentations of their informational pieces using audioBoom or similar software to compile an audiobook of their presentations.
  • Work Time C: Allow students to use an online graphic organizer such as Creately or ReadWriteThink's Webbing Tool to brainstorm, record, or share initial ideas about their characters.
  • Work Time C: Students complete their graphic organizer in a word processing document, for example a Google Doc using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software like Dictation.io.
  • Closing and Assessment A: digital exit tickets: Students fill out a Google Form or record thinking on a class Google Doc or Google Spreadsheet. 
  • Closing and Assessment A: audio exit tickets: Students record their ideas in audio through free software or apps such as Audacity or GarageBand.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 4.I.A.1, 4.I.A.2, 4.I.A.3, 4.I.A.4, 4.I.B.5, 4.I.B.6, 4.I.B.8, 4.I.C.10, 4.I.C.11, 4.I.C.12, 4.II.B.5

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by giving them a lot of freedom to use their imagination to create characters. It's a rich opportunity for them to share and celebrate unique home culture. For example, tigers are often foolish and funny in Korean folklore, so students with a Korean background might choose to imbue their characters with these qualities.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to figure out when they should rely on their research (e.g., describing where their main character lives) and when they should maximize their imaginations as they introduce their main character. Discuss each of the sections on the Character Profile graphic organizer as to whether they are more research-oriented or more imagination-oriented. If students struggle to anthropomorphize an animal, read them a few samples from popular books whose animal characters have human traits. Examples: Watership Down by Richard Adams and Into the Wild by Erin Hunter.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • For Work Time A, invite students to create a bank of possible precise words or phrases that ELLs who need heavier support can choose from to describe how their character would react to different situations and what his daily life is like.

For heavier support:

  • Provide ELLs with cloze paragraphs they can fill in with new terms from today's lesson. You can write your own or search the internet for authentic samples in context. Example: "_____ is usually found between quotation marks. It's the actual spoken conversations between the _____. For the _____, you can use a real city, but you need to look at maps." (Dialogue/characters/setting)

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students are introduced to learning targets that may contain unfamiliar vocabulary terms. As you introduce each learning target, consider writing synonyms or sketching a visual above each key term to scaffold students' understanding. Additionally, invite students to share ways in which they worked toward similar targets from previous lessons.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): Support students who need additional writing help by meeting with them in advance to go over the bullet points on the Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Narrative anchor chart. They will benefit from discussing what will be expected of them in an environment that is more individualized and allows them to ask more questions. Carefully consider how much of the task to reveal to these struggling writers during each lesson. Allowing them to focus on smaller chunks of the task may help them do their best writing.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Invite students to reflect on their learning from Units 1 and 2.  This supports students in understanding the value and relevance of the activities in this lesson. Provide support for students who may need additional guidance in peer interactions and collaboration. For example, offer prompts or sentence frames that support students in asking for help or clarification from classmates. To support students who may need additional support in sustaining effort and/or attention, provide opportunities for restating the goal. In doing so, students are able to maintain focus for completing the activity. 

Vocabulary

Key: (L): Lesson-Specific Vocabulary; (T): Text-Specific Vocabulary; (W): Vocabulary used in writing

  • information, facts, details, character profile, physical description, personality traits, daily life, behavior, family, habitat description (L)

Materials

  • Editing for Capitalization, Punctuation and Spelling I (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Author's Chair Celebration anchor chart (new; teacher-created)
  • Sticky notes (three or four per student)
  • Narrative Writing Checklist (one per student and one to display)
  • Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Narrative anchor chart (from Lesson 1)
  • Animal Defenses research notebook (from Unit 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Expert Group Animal research notebook (from Unit 2; one per student and one to display)
  • Character Profile graphic organizer (one per student and one to display)
  • Millipede Character Profile graphic organizer (completed, for teacher reference)
  • Research texts (from Units 1 and 2; one per student and one to display)
    • Animal Behavior: Animal Defenses (book; from Unit 1, Lesson 2; pages 10-11, 22-26, 38, 49-52, and 55-58; one per student)
    • "Fight to Survive!" (from Unit 2, Lesson 2; one per student)
    • Expert Group Animal web page (from Unit 2, Lesson 3; one per student)
  • Vocabulary log (one per student; begun in Module 1)
  • Index cards (one per student)
  • "Powerful Polly" pufferfish narrative (one per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Writer: Sharing (10 minutes)

  • Collect in Editing for Capitalization, Punctuation and Spelling I homework. See Editing for Capitalization, Punctuation and Spelling I (answers, for teacher reference).
  • Tell students that they have come a long way as writers. Remind them that at the beginning of the year, they were working on writing strong paragraphs in Module 1. Now they have also built expertise as writers of informative texts. Tell them that you are proud of the progress they have made and would like to celebrate with them by holding an Author's Chair Celebration.
  • Post the Author's Chair Celebration anchor chart. Explain that an Author's Chair Celebration is an event similar to a book signing, which authors sometimes hold at bookstores to celebrate publishing their work. Tell students that at these events, authors read their work to an audience and sign copies of their books. 
  • Explain that at the end of the module, students will have an opportunity to celebrate with a small audience at their own Author's Chair Celebration to read their finished choose-your-own-adventure animal defense narrative.
  • Go on to explain that today, they will practice by sharing the informative page they prepared for homework with a small group.
  • Review the steps on the Author's Chair Celebration anchor chart and direct students to read the first learning target: "I can listen as my peers share their writing and give specific praise for their work."
  • Explain that as they share their informative pages about their expert group animals, they should focus on the strengths of their group members' work. They will write this praise on a sticky note for their group member after each share. Clarify or model kind praise as needed.
  • Split students into their groups (three or four, with a mix of informative pages on different expert group animals). Tell students that they will have a few minutes for each person in their group to read, reflect, and receive praise. 
  • Circulate as students share their work, reflect, and give each other praise. Make sure students are taking turns every few minutes. Write the following prompt on the board, and if a group finishes early have members discuss it:
    • "How have we grown as writers since the beginning of the year?"
  • For students who may need additional support with writing: Provide sentence frames on their sticky notes. Examples: "I thought you did a great job explaining ..." or "__________ was a juicy word you used that helped me understand your animal better." (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Provide sentence frames to bolster participation. Example: 

For heavier support:

    • "I am most proud of _____." (the new words I learned/finishing my informative page/learning a lot about an animal's defense mechanisms)
    • "My biggest challenge was _____." (using English well/reading a lot of books/remembering new words)
    • "I handled my challenge by _____." (getting help from friends/getting help from dictionaries or the internet/studying harder)

For lighter support:

      • "The _____ makes me really proud because _____."
      • "I think my biggest difficulty was _____." 
      • "I handled my challenge by _____."

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Display and distribute the Narrative Writing Checklist and invite students to read the following characteristic to themselves as you read it aloud:
    • W.4.9
  • Review vocabulary from this criterion by asking:

"What do we mean by the phrase from what I have read in the criterion?" (The narrative has to have information from research in it.)

"What do we mean by information?" (scientifically accurate facts and details from research)

  • Refer to the last bullet point on the Choose-Your-Own-Adventure Narrative anchor chart: "Is realistic fiction/narrative--based on facts and research; includes characters, plot, setting, description, dialogue."
  • Underline "characters, plot, setting, description, dialogue" and tell students these must be based on facts and details from their research to meet these criteria on the checklist.
  • Ask and select volunteers to share their answers with the whole group:

"Knowing we have to use information from our research to create the characters, setting, or events in the story to write an effective narrative, what does this mean for our Choose-Your-Own-Adventure narratives?" (We need to use details from our research to describe ways our expert group animals defend themselves.)

  • If productive, cue students to expand the conversation by giving an example:

"Can you give an example?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Record student thinking in the "Things to remember in this piece" column of the checklist next to the characteristic of effective narratives. 
  • Continue with the following characteristics: 
    • W.4.3a
    • W.4.3d, L.4.3b
  • Clarify for students that although this narrative is based on research, it is still fiction, so students will also include many details from their imagination. Explain that they will read a model of a narrative based on research for their homework and that the class will talk more about the balance between facts and fiction in their stories after examining this model.
  • Post the second learning target: "I can synthesize information to develop an accurate character profile supported by research." Explain that today students will take the first steps toward developing an animal character based on their research from Units 1 and 2.
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Highlight and discuss language structures that are critical to understanding the Narrative Writing Checklist and the learning target. Examples: from what I have read; the narrator, setting, and situation; to help readers imagine what they might see ... (if they were there); synthesize information; develop an accurate character profile. Work on comprehension of these structures, for example, by eliciting paraphrases of them. Ask questions such as: 
    • "What does from what mean in the first criterion?" (part of a whole/some but not all of, the information out of all of the books I read) 
    • "What does what mean in the third criterion?" (things)
    • "When else do we use what?" (beginning of a question to ask for specific information)
  • For ELLs: Allow students to add new terms to their vocabulary log.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Developing a Character Profile for the Millipede (10 minutes)

  • Have your Animal Defenses research notebook and Expert Group Animal research notebook, with your modeled notes on the millipede, close at hand.
  • Tell students that the main character is one of the most important elements of a fictional story, so today they will start planning their narratives by thinking about who their characters will be.
  • Ask and cold call students to share their responses with the whole group:

"Who is the audience of the narrative part of your animal defense mechanisms book?" (Other students, teachers, and parents will read our writing.)

  • Review the purpose of the narrative part of the performance task. Ask:

"What is the purpose of the narrative?" (to entertain the reader)

  • Ask:

"Knowing the task, purpose, and audience for our narratives, should the narrative sound formal or informal?" (It should sound more informal because it is a story.)

  • Ask students to watch as you begin to develop a research-based character of a millipede. Explain that they will then do the same with their own character for their expert group animal.
  • Tell students that using their research notes will be really important in helping them do this. Display the Character Profile graphic organizer. (Do not distribute it yet.)
  • Think aloud and model recording in the Physical Description box of the graphic organizer using your research notes and the class Word Wall. Explain that this section will help you to better describe your character when writing. Refer to the Millipede Character Profile graphic organizer (completed, for teacher reference).
  • Explain that this section will also be based on your research, so students should choose precise words and phrases they want to use to describe their characters. Remind them that they have been using precise words and phrases throughout their research notes. Ask:

"Are there any sections of your research notes that have precise words and phrases that you can refer to when planning and writing your narratives?" (vocabulary log, the Movement Words note-catcher in research notebooks, and the Domain-Specific Word Wall)

  • Tell students that because this is for a fictional story, you will have to do some imagining as well. For example, you might say something like: "After reviewing my research notes, vocabulary log, and Word Wall (display notes), I am beginning to get a picture of my character in my mind. I see a millipede that is long and skinny. He has a hard exoskeleton and 60 segments. I also know that millipedes have two legs on each segment, so that means my character will have 120 legs." Model recording the information, using at least two sources, and the sources. 
  • Next, tell students that you would like them to imagine your character's personality. Have them turn to a partner and share their thoughts about what traits this millipede may have. Have a few pairs share out. 
  • Encourage students, as they move into developing their own character, to think about who their character might have been had he or she been a real animal in this situation. Ask:

"How would she/he have reacted to different situations in his/her world? What words or phrases can I use to describe this precisely?" 

"How would he/she have reacted to noticing a predator is approaching? What words or phrases can I use to describe this precisely?" 

"Would he/she have been brave, scared, or nervous? What words or phrases can I use to describe this precisely?"

  • Tell students that these thinking questions help them develop a more realistic and complex character.
  • Next, model recording in the Personality Traits box of the Character Profile graphic organizer. For example, you might say: "After reviewing my research notes, vocabulary log, and Word Wall, I imagine him to be curious but also cautious because he avoids predators. He's also hard-working, always looking around for food to eat." Jot notes about his personality: curious, hard-working, cautious. Be sure to model choosing precise words and phrases and to cite sources for factual details.
  • Next, model recording in the Daily Life box of the graphic organizer. For example, you might say: "After reviewing my research notes, vocabulary log, and Word Wall, I imagine him to be walking around the forest looking for food to eat but being careful to stay away from predators while he does that." Jot notes about his daily life/behaviors: looks for food, walks around. Be sure to model choosing precise words and phrases and to cite sources for factual details.
  • For students who may need additional support with information processing: Allow for creativity in note-taking. Some students may be able to capture their ideas more effectively by drawing in the boxes. Consider giving them blank paper to draw on. Other students may be able to capture their ideas better by voicing them aloud to either a scribe or a voice recorder. Still others may benefit from using small figurines of their expert group animal and/or its habitat and predators to "act out" situations that help them describe their character. MMAE)
  • Fore ELLs and writers who may need additional support: Ask: "Which ideas in the graphic organizer should come more from your research?" (e.g., physical description) "Which ideas can come more from your imagination?" (e.g., personality traits)
  • For ELLs: Repeat and rephrase questions. Allow students to briefly discuss responses with a partner, possibly in home language groups, before returning to the whole group.
  • For ELLs: In preparation for the Mid-Unit 3 Assessment and to support this phase of the lesson, use sentence frames and multiple choice questions to prompt students to use more precise words.

"Polly watched as a sea anemone gently moved in the current."

The writer wants to replace the underlined word to make her meaning clearer. 

Which would be a better choice for the underlined word? Explain why. 

A. dived
B. waved
C. jumped
D. changed

Provide ELLs with the language to explain why a, c, and d are vague or incorrect and why waved is better. Examples:

    • "A, C, and D are weak because _____." (They have a different meaning, and They don't describe a sea anemone well.)
    • "B is effective because _____." (It describes a sea anemone well, and It helps you imagine precisely how the sea anemone is moving.)

B. Partner Practice: Developing a Character Profile for the Millipede (5 minutes)

  • Point to the final three boxes of the graphic organizer: Family/Habitat Description, Fun Facts, and Other. Tell students you would like them to give it a try. Give them a few minutes to brainstorm:

"What could we add to these final boxes?"

  • If productive, cue students to expand the conversation by saying more, and to listen carefully and seek to understand:

"Can you say more about that?" (Responses will vary.)

"Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Remind students to refer to the research that supports their thinking and to choose precise words and phrases. Call on a few pairs to share. Add their comments to complete the final boxes of the graphic organizer. Notes might look like: 
    • Lives outdoors on the damp forest floor
    • Lives by a stream
    • Favorite sound is birds chirping
    • Favorite color is brown
    • Scared of ants and toads
    • Often mistaken for a centipede

C. Independent Practice: Developing a Character Profile for the Expert Group Animal (20 minutes)

  • Ask students to take a moment to get their materials organized: 
    • Animal Defenses research notebook (from Unit 1)
    • Expert Group Animal research notebook (from Unit 2)
    • Research texts
  • Distribute the Character Profile graphic organizer to each student.
  • Remind them to read through their research, vocabulary log, and Word Wall before they complete their profiles. 
  • Circulate to support students, reminding them to do the following:
    • Choose precise and scientifically accurate words and phrases to describe their character.
    • Use and cite at least two sources from their research.
  • If some students finish early, consider these options:
    • Encourage them to reread their texts or notes to add details.
    • Ask them to pair up to share and give informal feedback.
    • Ask them to draw a character sketch to help them visualize their character.
  • For students who may need additional support with sustained effort: Strategically group students in their small expert groups or with a partner, or pull together a small group for more direct instruction and support. (MME)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Sharing (10 minutes)

  • Focus students on the learning targets. Read each one aloud, pausing after each to use a checking for understanding protocol for students to reflect on their comfort level with or show how close they are to meeting each target. Make note of students who may need additional support with each of the learning targets moving forward.
  • Have students meet with a partner from a different expert group and share their profiles. Ask them to give each other one specific piece of praise:

"What do you think is most interesting about your partner's character? Why?"

  • Distribute index cards and have them record their name and reflect and respond to the following:
    • Front: "What helped you create your character?" 
    • Back: "What was difficult about creating your character?" 
  • Distribute "Powerful Polly" and tell students that they will refer to this text throughout the unit as a model of an effective narrative. Invite them to follow along as you read it aloud. Explain that for homework, they should reread this text for gist.
  • For ELLs: Allow students to discuss what helped them and what was most difficult before writing on the index cards.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reread "Powerful Polly" for the gist.

B. Choose and respond to a narrative QuickWrite prompt from your homework resources for this unit.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)
  • For ELLs: Make sure students understand the directions and prompts for the narrative QuickWrite prompt homework.
  • For ELLs and students who need reading support. Use jigsaw reading. Allow students to be responsible for different, small portions of "Powerful Polly" (e.g., Choice #1 vs. Choice #2) and then report back to the larger group about what they learned. If each group is responsible for a different small portion, then all students should be able to understand the entire text after the groups assemble to report on the smaller portions that they read.
  • For ELLs: Provide illustrative pictures and highlight language structures that are critical to understanding the gist of "Powerful Polly," particularly:
    • "A tiger shark!" she thought. Her spines trembled with fear. That was her worst enemy! She had to do something to protect herself from being eaten, and fast!
    • "Thinking quickly, Polly swallowed the ocean water into her stomach until it was completely full. Her stretchy skin and stomach inflated until she was huge, as big as a beach ball, nearly three times her normal size!
    • "One of Polly's sharp spines left a tiny, red drop of blood on the shark's nose. The shark pulled back, surprised."

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