Writing a Literary Essay: Proof Paragraph 2 | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G4:M1:U2:L12

Writing a Literary Essay: Proof Paragraph 2

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • W.4.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • W.4.2a: Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • W.4.2b: Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • W.4.2c: Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
  • W.4.5: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • L.4.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • L.4.2b: Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can plan and write Proof Paragraph 2 for my essay. (W.4.2a, W.4.2b, W.4.2c, W.4.5)
  • I can use commas and quotation marks to mark quotations from a text. (L.4.2b)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Proof Paragraph 2 of literary essay (W.4.2a, W.4.2b, W.4.2c, W.4.5)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. The Painted Essay: Sorting and Color-Coding the Parts of Proof Paragraph 2 (15 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Mini Lesson: Using Punctuation to Mark Direct Quotes from a Text (10 minutes)

B. Independent Writing: Writing Proof Paragraph 2 (25 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Sharing Our Work (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

B. Complete the Marking Quotes practice in your Unit 2 Homework.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students write Proof Paragraph 2 of their essays. As with Lesson 11, this is written in pieces with students saying each part aloud before writing. A template has also been provided for those students who may need it (W.4.2a, W.4.2b, W.4.2c, W.4.5).
  • Before writing their second proof paragraphs, students participate in a mini lesson about using punctuation to mark direct quotes from a text (L.4.2b).
  • Students who require an extension can write their own proof paragraph rather than using the sentence stems.
  • In this unit, the habit of character focus is on working to become an effective learner. The characteristic they collect in this lesson is perseverance, because this is their first time writing a full essay this school year.
  • The research reading that students complete for homework will help build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to poetry and what inspires people to write. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In the previous lessons, students analyzed the structure of the model literary essay using The Painted EssayO template and wrote their introductory and first proof paragraphs. They build on those foundations in this lesson.
  • Throughout Unit 1, students were introduced to various total participation techniques (for example, cold calling, equity sticks, Think-Pair-Share, etc.). When following the directive to "Use a total participation technique, invite responses from the group," use one of these techniques or another familiar technique to encourage all students to participate.
  • Continue to use Goal 1 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • A writing template has been provided for students who may need additional support writing their second proof paragraph.

Assessment guidance:

  • Review student paragraphs to ensure they include all of the necessary information. Where you notice common issues, use them as teaching points for the whole group as they are working.
  • Consider using the Writing Informal Assessment: Writing and Language Skills Checklist during independent writing in Work Time B (see the Tools page).

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will write the conclusion of their literary essay.

In Advance

  • Strategically pair students for work during Opening A, with at least one strong reader per pair.
  • Prepare the Organizing the Model: Proof Paragraph 2 strips (see supporting materials).
  • Review the Red Light, Green Light protocol. See Classroom Protocols.
  • Post: Learning targets, Literary Essay anchor chart, and Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time B: Students write their second proof paragraph on a word-processing document--for example, a Google Doc.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 4.I.A.4, 4.I.C.1o, 4.I.C.11, and 4.II.A.1.

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to work closely with essay structure, building on their understanding one paragraph at a time. In this lesson, students focus exclusively on the second proof paragraph of their literary essays. Students continue to benefit from the color-coding system established in prior lessons for visual support.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to keep pace with the class as they work through each sentence of Proof Paragraph 2. Consider providing additional writing time to accommodate students who may need more time to process language.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During Work Time A, invite intermediate and advanced proficiency students to write their own examples of sentence with quoted text on the board. Students who would benefit from heavier support can practice applying punctuation sticky notes (described below) to the sentences.

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time A, provide a partially filled-in version of the Proof Paragraph 2 Writing Template. Students can complete the paragraph as a cloze exercise, while focusing on comprehending the paragraph and its purpose within the essay structure.
  • During Work Time A, display sticky notes with quotation marks and commas written on them. Display examples of sentences using quoted text, omitting punctuation. Invite students to take turns placing the punctuation sticky notes in the correct places within the sentence. Ask the class to evaluate with an elbow partner whether or not the punctuation was placed correctly.
  • If students who need heavier support are grouped in the same expert group, consider working closely with this group during Work Time B. Consider completing their second proof paragraphs together as a shared or interactive writing session.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Some students may require additional support with the expectations for Proof Paragraph 2. Consider reviewing and clarifying the Informative Writing Checklist with a small group. Also consider facilitating more in-depth discussion about using direct quotes in your writing. This will provide additional opportunities for comprehension.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): This lesson provides 25 minutes of writing time. Some students may need additional support to build their writing stamina. Support students in building their stamina and focus by providing scaffolds that build an environment that is conducive to writing (see Meeting Students' Needs column).
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Students who need additional support with writing may have negative associations with writing tasks based on previous experiences. Help them feel successful with writing by allowing them to create feasible goals and celebrate when these goals are met. For instance, place a sticker or a star at a specific point on the page (e.g., two pages) that provides a visual writing target for the day. Also, construct goals for sustained writing by chunking the 25-minute writing block into smaller pieces. Provide choice for a break activity at specific time points when students have demonstrated writing progress. Celebrate students who meet their writing goals, whether it is length of the text or sustained writing time.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • elaborated, proof paragraph, commas, quotation marks, quotations from a text, connecting, linking words (L)
  • for example, another example, also (W)

Materials

  • Organizing the Model: Proof Paragraph 2 strips (one set per pair)
  • Painted Essay(r) template (from Lesson 9; one per student)
  • Model literary essay (from Lesson 9; one per student and one to display)
  • Literary Essay anchor chart (begun in Lesson 10; added to during Opening A)
  • Literary Essay anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Informative Essay Prompt: What Inspires Poets? (from Lesson 6, one per student and one to display)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (begun in Lesson 1)
  • Marking Direct Quotes handout (one per student and one to display)
  • Informative Writing Checklist (from Lesson 9; one per student and one to display)
  • Literary essay draft (begun in Lesson 10; added to during Work Time B; one per student)
  • Expert group poet biographies (from Lesson 7; one per student in each expert group)
  • Close Read Note-catcher: Expert Group Poet (from Lesson 7; one per student)
  • Blue markers (one per student)
  • Proof Paragraph 2 Writing template (optional; for students need additional support)
  • Domain-Specific Word Wall (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 3)
  • Red, yellow, and green objects (one of each per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. The Painted Essay: Sorting and Color-Coding the Parts of Proof Paragraph 2 (15 minutes)

  • Move students into pre-determined pairs.
  • Distribute Organizing the Model: Proof Paragraph 2 strips and invite students to retrieve their Painted Essay(r) template.
  • Invite students to spend 1 minute quickly reviewing where Proof Paragraph 2 fits into the structure of the essay.
  • Invite students to work with their partner to read and organize the strips, putting them in the correct order for Proof Paragraph 2 of the model literary essay.
  • Tell students to when they have finished, they can check their work against the model literary essay.
  • Invite students to begin working and circulate to support them as they work in pairs.
  • Refocus whole group. Invite students to help you record the parts of Proof Paragraph 2 on the Literary Essay anchor chart. Refer to Literary Essay anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary. Ensure students recognize the difference in the structure of Proof Paragraphs 1 and 2.
  • Point out that within the second proof paragraph the author has elaborated on the focus of the writing, or explained how the evidence he or she has chosen supports the focus statement.
  • Provide differentiated mentors by purposefully pre-selecting student partnerships. Consider meeting with the mentors in advance to encourage them to share their thought process with their partner. (MMAE)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and select a volunteer to read them aloud:

"I can plan and write Proof Paragraph 2 for my essay."
"I can use commas and quotation marks to mark quotations from a text."

  • Remind students that they wrote the first proof paragraph for their essays in the previous lesson and tell them that today they will work on the second proof paragraph. Invite students to refer to their Painted EssayO template to see what it says about Proof Paragraph 2.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is the purpose of Proof Paragraph 2?" (to give evidence and reasons to support point 2)

  • Circle the words commas, quotation marks, and quotations from a text. Tell students that when they write their second proof paragraphs, they will probably use specific quotes from their expert group poet's poems. Tell students they will learn how to correctly punctuate these quotes.
  • Invite students to retrieve their Informative Essay Prompt: What Inspires Poets? and review as necessary.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart and remind them of perseverance, as they will be working to plan and write an essay for the first time this year, which may be challenging.
  • For ELLs: Be aware that students who are learning English may need significant support with writing even as they persevere. Remind students that an important part of persevering is knowing that sometimes we need to ask for help. Remind students that as they work on their paragraphs, they can ask others in their expert groups for help and that they can also refer to anchor charts if they get stuck.
  • Help students to generalize across lessons by reviewing the previous lesson on Proof Paragraph 1 and how it relates to today's learning targets. (MMR)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Mini Lesson: Using Punctuation to Mark Direct Quotes from a Text (10 minutes)

  • Tell students that as they are writing today, they will likely use quotations from poems by their expert group poet. Point out that in formal writing, they will need to correctly mark these quotations so their reader knows the words come from someone other than the writer of the essay.
  • Display and distribute the Marking Direct Quotes handout and read the example sentence:
    • "In this poem, he says, 'I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox" and explains how they tasted delicious, sweet, and cold.'"
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Who is he in he says?" (William Carlos Williams)

"In this sentence, what words did William Carlos Williams write?" ("I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox")

"In this sentence, what words did the writer of the essay write?" (In this poem, he says and and explains how they tasted delicious, sweet, and cold.)

  • Underline the words William Carlos Williams wrote:
    • "I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox"
  • Tell students that the writer of the essay used punctuation to mark the words of William Carlos Williams. Circle the quotation marks and point out that these come right before and right after the exact words from the poem, and invite students to do the same on their copy.
  • Put a box around the comma and point out that this comes right before the first quotation mark. Invite students to do the same on their copy.
  • Underline he says and point out that the writer used this phrase to show the words that are coming next are someone else's.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"How can we say he says in a different way?" (Responses will vary, but may include: he writes; William Carlos Williams writes; the author describes; in the text, he writes.)

  • As students share out, capture their responses on the displayed Marking Direct Quotes handout, inviting students to do the same on their copies.
  • Invite students to Think-Write-Pair-Share, leaving adequate time for each partner to think, ask each other the question, and share:

"Write a complete sentence using a quotation from a poem by your expert group's poet. Use a comma and quotation marks to correctly mark the quotation from the text."

  • Select volunteers to share out.
  • Refocus students whole group. Tell them you will be looking for their use of quotations from their expert group poet's poems in their literary essay. Reassure students that they will have more opportunities to practice this in the next lesson.
  • Use a different color marker for each part of the punctuation in your example. Provide students with colored pencils so that they can use the same color-coding strategy. (MMR, MMAE)
  • Create an individual checklist for using punctuation with direct quotes that students can refer to as they write. You may want to coordinate the checklist if you used the color-coding strategy. Make sure to provide examples on the checklist as well. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: To visually represent the concept of directly quoting text, draw a stick figure labeled as William Carlos Williams. Draw a speech bubble coming from the stick figure with this text: "I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox." If students are unfamiliar with speech bubbles, briefly explain their significance. Write the sentence frame on the board: "In this poem, he says, '__________.'" Invite students to transfer the text from the speech bubble into the sentence frame, or model doing so.
  • For ELLs: Some students who have learned writing conventions within a different cultural context may be unfamiliar with the purpose of quoting text in writing. Ask:

"Why is it important to use quotes?" (to help show the evidence for our ideas; so that the reader knows that it is not our words)

"Why is it important to use correct punctuation for our quotes?" (so the reader knows exactly what he or she is reading and exactly where the words come from)

B. Independent Writing: Writing Proof Paragraph 2 (25 minutes)

  • Display and invite students to retrieve their Informative Writing Checklist. Remind students that this checklist is something they will use a lot in their English Language Arts work.
  • Remind students of the criteria they focused on in the previous lesson and tell students they will be referring to the same criteria today, as well as some additional criteria:
    • W.4.2a
    • W.4.2b
    • W.4.4
    • L.4.3, L.4.6, W.4.4
  • Remind students that the task and purpose is a literary essay about what inspired their expert group poet, and their audience is other students and teachers.
  • Read aloud the following criteria, pausing after each one for students to turn and talk to their partner about what each one means in their own words. Then invite students to mark these criteria on their checklist (using a different color or symbol from the ones they used in Lessons 10 and 11):
    • W.4.2c
    • W.4.4
  • Tell students that one way they can make sure their ideas are clearly presented is by connecting them from one paragraph to another using linking words.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is the information in Proof Paragraph 1 that is connected to the information in Proof Paragraph 2?" (Proof Paragraph 1 explains what inspired our poets, and Proof Paragraph 2 gives evidence of this from his or her poems.)

  • Model how to record this (using words or sketches) on the displayed Informative Writing Checklist. Invite students to do the same.
  • Remind students that Proof Paragraph 2 of their essay elaborates on point 2, or gives evidence and reasons of the poet's inspiration in his or her poems.
  • Focus students on the first criterion of Proof Paragraph 2 on the Literary Essay anchor chart.
  • Read the first sentence stem from the writing template:
    • "(Poet's name)'s poems show us _____."
  • Invite students to turn to their partner to say aloud their first sentence linking Proof Paragraph 1 to Proof Paragraph 2 using the sentence stem provided.
  • Invite students to write this sentence on their literary essay draft. Remind students that because this is a new paragraph, they will start on a new line, and remind them to leave lines between each line of writing.
  • Circulate to support students in writing.
  • Invite students to take out their expert group poet biographies and Close Read Note-catcher: Expert Group Poet and move to sit with their expert groups.
  • Distribute blue markers. Invite students to skim their Close Read Note-catcher: Expert Group Poet and underline information they will use in Proof Paragraph 2 in blue on their note-catcher.
  • Distribute and display the Proof Paragraph 2 Writing template as necessary.
  • Focus students on the next criterion of the Proof Paragraph 2 on the Literary Essay anchor chart.
  • Read the second sentence stem from the writing template:
    • "For example, _____."
  • Invite students to turn to an elbow partner in their expert group to say aloud their first sentence describing what inspired their poet using the sentence stem provided.
  • Invite students to write this sentence on their literary essay draft.
  • Circulate to support students in writing.
  • Repeat with the next criterion on the Literary Essay anchor chart with the sentence stem:
    • "This poem helps us understand _____."
  • Invite students to use the model literary essay, the criteria recorded on the Literary Essay anchor chart, the Informative Writing Checklist, and the domain-specific word wall to write Proof Paragraph 2.
  • Circulate to support students as they write. Remind them to write in complete sentences, to use punctuation to mark direct quotes from their poet's poems, and to leave a line between each line of their writing.
  • Distribute red, yellow, and green objects. Tell students they are now going to use the Red Light, Green Light protocol to show how close they feel they are to meeting the first learning target. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lesson 4 and review what each color represents as necessary (red = stuck or not ready; yellow = needs support soon; green = ready). Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the protocol using the first learning target. Scan student responses and make a note of students who may need more support with this moving forward.
  • Repeat, inviting students to self-assess against how well they persevered in this lesson.
  • Invite students to record 'Y' for 'Yes' and the date in the final column of their Informative Writing Checklist if they feel the criteria marked on their checklists have been achieved in their writing in this lesson.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: While reviewing the checklist criteria, some students may need additional clarification about the language of each criterion. Example: "What does it mean to use accurate and relevant facts?" (When I write, I make sure my facts are true and that they help prove my focus statement.) (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with writing: Suggest or ask students about specific language for writing details about their poets' inspirations. Use the model literary essay as a guide. Record the language on chart paper so students can refer to it as they complete their templates. Examples:
    • "The poem says, '________.' That tells us _______."
    • "[Poet] was inspired by ________ because [poem] is about ________." (MMR)
  • For ELLs and students who may need support with writing: Briefly review some common linking words and their meanings. Example: "Also is a linking word. What does the word also tell us?" (We are about to add new information or another detail about a similar topic.) (MMR)
  • Build a supportive and inclusive classroom community by reminding students that everyone is working on building reading skills. Each person will have different skills he or she needs to work on, but what is most important is that they are constantly developing. (MME)
  • Consider offering lined paper where every other line has an X or is highlighted in order to remind students to skip lines. (MMR)
  • For students who may need additional support with writing stamina: Before they begin writing, create a writing goal that is appropriate for the individual student (e.g., two pages). Place a star or a sticker at the goal point so that they can self-monitor their progress as they write. (MME)
  • For students who may need additional support with fine motor skills: Consider offering them supportive tools (e.g., pencil grip, slanted desk, or the use of a word processor). (MMAE)
  • Minimize distractions by offering students supports such as dividers or sound-canceling headphones. (MMAE)
  • For students who may need additional support with writing stamina: Consider offering breaks at pre-determined time points. Place a timer on the students' desks to help them monitor their own time. Provide students reasonable choice around what they do during the break (e.g., get a drink of water, stretch). (MMAE, MME)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Sharing Our Work (5 minutes)

  • Move students into groups of three or four and invite them to reread the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart.
  • Invite students to reflect on the process of planning and writing by discussing the following:

"What did you do to work toward becoming an effective learner as you worked today?" (Responses will vary.)

"What were your challenges as you worked today?" (Responses will vary.)

"What were your successes?" (Responses will vary.)

  • If productive, cue students to expand the conversation by giving an example:

"Can you give an example?" (Responses will vary.)

  • For students who may feel uncomfortable sharing their successes or challenges publicly: Provide an option where students can write their response and share only with the teacher or a trusted partner. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Invite advanced proficiency students to facilitate the discussion in their groups. Instruct them to try to make sure everybody's ideas are heard and to help other students if they have trouble comprehending the discussion prompts. Encourage them to use Conversation Cues.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt and respond in the front of your independent reading journal.

B. Complete the Marking Quotes practice in your Unit 2 Homework.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)

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