Writing Narrative Texts: Drafting the End of a Pourquoi Tale | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G3:M2:U1:L6

Writing Narrative Texts: Drafting the End of a Pourquoi Tale

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.3.1: Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RL.3.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
  • RL.3.5: Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.
  • RF.3.4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • RF.3.4a: Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • RF.3.4b: Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • RF.3.4c: Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
  • W.3.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  • W.3.3a: Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • W.3.3c: Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
  • W.3.3d: Provide a sense of closure.
  • W.3.4: With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.
  • W.3.5: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • L.3.3: Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  • L.3.3a: Choose words and phrases for effect.
  • L.3.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • L.3.4a: Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can fluently read a poem aloud. (RF.3.4a, RF.3.4b, RF.3.4c)
  • I can refer explicitly to the text when answering questions about the text. (RL.3.1, RL.3.2, RL.3.4, RL.3.5, RF.3.4, L.3.1a, L.3.1h, L.3.3, L.3.4a)
  • I can write the end of a pourquoi tale that provides a solution to the problem and explains the message or purpose of the narrative. (W.3.3d, W.3.4, W.3.5)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Choral reading of "The Glass Frog" (RF.3.4a, RF.3.4b, RF.3.4c,)
  • Close Reading: "The Glass Frog" note-catcher (RL.3.1, RL.3.2, RL.3.4, RL.3.5, RF.3.4, L.3.1a, L.3.1h, L.3.3, L.3.4a)
  • Participation in creation of the ending of "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" class narrative (W.3.3d, W.3.4, W.3.5)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Language Dive: "The Glass Frog" (20 minutes)

B. Analyzing a Model (15 minutes)

C. Shared Writing: Drafting the Ending of a Pourquoi Tale (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Exit Ticket (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Vocabulary. See the directions in your Unit 1 homework packet.

B. Choose and respond to a Narrative QuickWrite prompt in your Unit 1 homework packet.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students practice reading the poem "The Glass Frog" fluently (RF.3.4). Then they participate in a teacher-led Language Dive of the poem. This Language Dive guides students through the text's challenging vocabulary and language structures to help them understand the meaning of the poem (RL.3.1, RL.3.2, RL.3.4, RL.3.5, RF.3.4, L.3.1a, L.3.1h, L.3.3, L.3.4a).
  • Students will participate in a Language Dive that guides them through the meaning of a stanza from the poem "The Glass Frog." All students learn how to decipher the stanza and will use this knowledge in their further exploration of frog adaptations. Students will apply their understanding of the structure of this stanza when interpreting poetry during the mid-unit assessment in Lesson 7.
  •  In Work Time B, students continue to analyze the narrative model "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful." This text is used as a model throughout the drafting process, in addition to "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue." "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful" is an exemplar of narrative writing for students at the third-grade level.
  • In Work Time C, the teacher and students write the end of the class draft of a narrative text together, both contributing their thoughts and ideas to the process while the teacher acts as scribe (W.3.3a, W.3.4, W.3.5). Shared writing enables teachers to make the writing process concrete and visible to students. This allows students to focus exclusively on the thinking involved in writing, not the process.
  • Shared writing is also a powerful way to model and guide key skills and concepts related to the writing process (e.g., organizing, drafting, revision, mechanics, and conventions). Students gain competence and confidence in their writing skills as the teacher models and guides the thinking process writers go through. Consider modeling, revising, or editing the completed narrative "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" based on students' identified areas for improvement.
  • The research reading students complete for homework helps to build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to frogs and specifically frog adaptations. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it.
  • Students practice their fluency in Work Times A, B, and C by following along and reading silently as the teacher reads "The Wood Frog" and "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful" aloud, as well as choral reading.

How it builds on previous work:

  • Students continue to use "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful" as a model when writing their class narrative.
  • Students use the class Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" from Lesson 3 to draft the end of the class narrative in this lesson.
  • Continue to use Goals 1 and 2 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas where students may need additional support:

  • Throughout Lessons 2-4 and in this lesson, students should work with a reading partner. Consider how to strategically partner students so they can support one another well as they read this complex text.
  • For students who may need additional support with expressive or receptive language or auditory processing, provide sentence frames for them to refer to during discussions.

Assessment Guidance:

  • Throughout the teacher-led language dive, call on students to share their responses with the whole group to build knowledge collectively and clarify any misconceptions. As students are working, circulate to clarify misunderstandings and use these as teaching points for the whole group.
  • Consider using the Speaking and Listening Informal Assessment: Collaborative Discussion Checklist during students' partner discussions in Work Time A.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist during students' reading of the poem in Work Time A.
  • Consider using the Writing: Writing Informal Assessment: Observational Checklist for Writing and Language Skills as students draft the class narrative in Work Time C.
  • Collect in Narrative QuickWrite homework from Lesson 4, and check students' vocabulary homework from Lesson 4.

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will read and analyze a new poem and a new narrative about frogs as part of the Mid-Unit 1 Assessment. They will use the skills and strategies developed throughout Lessons 1-6 as they answer questions about these texts.
  • In the second half of the unit, students will choose a new "why" question and develop their own pourquoi tale about frogs to be included in their final performance task.
  • After closely reading the poem "The Glass Frog," students add questions to the Why? anchor chart. Students will continue to generate "why" questions to add to this anchor chart throughout the unit, and these questions will guide their research in Unit 2. The question(s) specified in the body of the lesson must be added to the chart, as several of these questions will be what students read and write about in Unit 2. Adding them in this unit gives purpose for reading and writing in the next unit.

In Advance

  • Preview the Language Dive Guide and consider how to invite conversation among students to address the questions and goals suggested under each sentence strip chunk (see supporting materials). Select from the questions and goals provided to best meet your students' needs.
  • Prepare the sentence strip chunks for the Language Dive.
  • Create a "Language Chunk Wall"--an area in the classroom where students can display and categorize the academic phrases discussed in the Language Dive.
  • Strategically pair students for partner work in Work Time A.
  • Post: Learning targets.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Opening A and Work Time B: For students who will benefit from hearing the text read aloud multiple times, consider using a text-to-speech tool like Natural ReaderSpeakIt! for Google Chrome, or the Safari reader. Note that to use a web-based text-to-speech tool like SpeakIt! or Safari reader, you will need to create an online doc, such as a Google Doc, containing the text.
  • Work Time A: Use a search engine like Google Images or website like Flickr to find images or videos of glass frogs at the end of the close read. Consider that YouTube, social media video sites, and other website links may incorporate inappropriate content via comment banks and ads. Although some lessons include these links as the most efficient means to view content in preparation for the lesson, be sure to preview links and/or use a filter service, such as www.safeshare.tv, for viewing these links in the classroom.
  • Work Time C: Digital narrative draft: Instead of using chart paper, record shared writing on a class Google Doc for students to refer to when working on their writing outside of class.
  • Closing and Assessment A: The exit ticket could be completed online on a Google Form, for example.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 3.I.A.4, 3.I.B.6, 3.I.C.10, 3.II.A.1, 3.II.B.3, 3.II.B.4, 3.II.C.6, 3.III.

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with an opportunity to focus on one stanza of the anchor poem, "The Glass Frog" during the Language Dive. This conversation allows students to develop the habits of mind and character they need to approach other complex texts and to develop their own academic writing skills. In addition, students have the opportunity to test their oral language skills, confirming their successful communication or "repairing" communication that is not understood by other students. These oral processing sessions are critical for language development, especially for ELLs.
  • ELLs may find writing an ending challenging. Students may struggle to grasp the concept of both a resolution and a point. During the shared writing, model thinking aloud to illuminate this process. Provide sufficient wait time for students to process and share their ideas. Also, bring attention to the fact that the Language Dive deals with a stanza from a poem and does not follow familiar syntax rules as a result. Be clear with students that the excerpt is poetic language, which is why it does not sound like the academic language they are familiar with.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Before providing sentence frames or additional modeling during Work Time, observe student interaction and allow students to grapple. Provide supportive frames and demonstrations only after students have grappled with the task. Observe the areas in which they struggle to target appropriate support.
  • During the Language Dive, challenge students to generate questions about the sentence before asking the prepared questions. Example: "What questions can we ask about this sentence? Let's see if we can answer them together."

For heavier support:

  • Continue with the text-inspired line of questioning from the previous lesson, personalizing problems and resolutions. This will help prime students to think of problems for the polliwog story. Examples: "When you have a problem, how do you finally resolve it? Think of a problem that you resolved. What did you learn from it in the end? How can our polliwog learn from the problem we are writing about?"
  • In preparation for the mid-unit assessment, remind students of the importance of referring to the text when providing opinions. During the Language Dive, probe students' ideas by asking: "Which line supports your answer, and why?" Use sentence frame to reinforce productive and equitable conversation. Write the frames in a speech bubble and hold it up with an ice cream stick during questioning. Examples: "The line that supports my answer is _________ because it says ___________." "I think _____________ because the text says ___________."

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In order to facilitate effective learning during this lesson, ensure that all students have access to the directions in each activity, and feel comfortable with the expectations. Vary the ways in which you convey expectations for each activity or task. Consider engaging in a clarifying discussion about the directions, or creating an outline of the steps for each activity.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): During the shared writing, model thinking aloud to illuminate this process. Provide sufficient wait time for students to process and share their ideas. Some students may benefit from extra modeling or practice with planning and writing the middle of a pourquoi tale.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Invite students to reflect on their learning from the previous lessons with porquoi tales.  This supports students in understanding the value and relevance of the activities in this lesson. Provide support for students who may need additional guidance in peer interactions and collaboration.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • solution, purpose, dialogue, audience (L)
  • upon a tree, part, which (T)
  • first, then, finally (W)

Materials

  • "The Glass Frog" from Lizards, Frogs, and Polliwogs (one to display)
  • Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Language Dive Guide: "The Glass Frog" (for teacher reference)
    • Language Dive Sentence strip chunks: "The Glass Frog" (for display; see supporting materials)
    • Language Dive Note-catcher: "The Glass Frog" (one per student and one to display)
  • Photographs of glass frogs (for display; see Technology and Multimedia)
  • Vocabulary logs (from Module 1; one per student)
  • Academic Word Wall (started in Module 1)
  • Domain-Specific Word Wall (started in Lesson 1)
  • Why? anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; added to in Work Time A)
  • "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful" (from Lesson 3; one per student and one to display)
  • Narrative Texts handout (from Lesson 2; one per student and one to display)
  • Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" (from Lesson 3; one per student and one for display)
  • Narrative Template: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" (from Lesson 4; one for display)
  • Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" (from Lesson 3; example, for teacher reference)
  • Exit Ticket: Narrative Endings (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Read the first two learning targets aloud to students:

"I can fluently read a poem aloud."

"I can refer explicitly to the text when answering questions about the text."

  • Explain that today students will read and analyze a new poem about frogs.
  • Ask for a volunteer to read the remaining learning target:

"I can write the end of a pourquoi tale that provides a solution to the problem and explains the message or purpose of the narrative."

  • Explain that they will then finish drafting their class narrative. Underline the words solution and purpose and ask:

"What do we mean by the solution to a problem?" (the answer to the problem, or the way it is fixed or resolved)

"What is the purpose of our narratives?" (The point is to explain the answer to a "why" question about frogs.)

  • Have students give a quick thumbs-up, thumbs-down, or thumbs-sideways to indicate how well they understand today's learning targets.
  • For students who may need additional support understanding the terms in the learning targets: Write synonyms or descriptions above key terms. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Remind students that unfamiliar vocabulary is words that you don't know. Some words can be unfamiliar to some but not to others. Invite students to look at the learning targets again and raise their hands if they see any vocabulary that is unfamiliar to them. Review any words that students mention.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Language Dive: "The Glass Frog" (20 minutes)

  • Pair students.
  • Display "The Glass Frog" and read the poem aloud, inviting students to follow along as you read.
  • Use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What is this poem about?" (Responses will vary but may include that it is about glass frogs.)

  • Read the poem a second time, inviting students to echo back each line, mimicking your pacing and inflections.
  • Point out the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart and focus students on bullets 5-11.
  • Tell students you are going to guide them through this close read. Some of the questions will be discussed as a whole group, and others will be discussed with a partner.
  • Guide students through the close read using the Language Dive Guide: "The Glass Frog" (for teacher reference), Language Dive Sentence Strip Chunks: "The Glass Frog", and photographs of glass frogs. Distribute Language Dive Note-catcher: "The Glass Frog."
  • Invite students to record new vocabulary in their vocabulary logs. Add new words to the academic word wall and domain-specific word wall and invite students to add translations in native languages.
  • Display the Why? anchor chart. Using a total participation technique, invite students to share "why" questions they have about frogs after reading the poem "The Glass Frog." Record the questions on the anchor chart.
  • Add "Why is the frog called the glass frog?" and "Why is the glass frog so hard to see?" if students do not ask the questions themselves.
  • For students who may need additional support with reading fluency: Encourage students to point to each word as it is read aloud in Opening A. Also consider allowing them to mark words or sketch on the poem to help them remember what certain words are when they come to them during the next reading. (MMR)

B. Analyzing a Model (15 minutes)

  • Display and invite students to take out their copies of "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful" and remind them that they have been analyzing this model to understand what makes a strong narrative and how to organize it.
  • Read the text aloud, inviting students to chorally read it with you.
  • Display and invite students to retrieve their Narrative Texts handout and point out the following bullet points:

"Narrative texts have a clear sequence of events that makes sense and is easy to understand. These texts have:"

"An ending that has a solution/resolution to "wrap up" the problem and explains the message or purpose of the narrative."

  • Tell students that this is the part of the class narrative they will work on today.
  • Explain that just as they did when writing the middle of their narrative, they will need to use time words and phrases to show when the events in their narrative are happening and dialogue and description to show what the characters are doing, thinking, and feeling.
  • If necessary, review what it means to include dialogue and linking words and point out examples of both in the class narrative.
  • Point out the fifth page of "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful." Use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What is the problem in this story?" (Ranna knocked over one of the torches in his cave, and it caused a fire.)

"What words did the author use to show the order of events on this page?" (then, first)

"What is the character doing, thinking, feeling, or saying?" (Ranna is thinking it's strange that the cave is getting cooler even though it is on fire.)

"How is the problem solved?" (Ranna saw a giant crack and wriggled through it with his frogs.)

  • Turn to the sixth page of the model narrative. Use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What is the character doing, thinking, feeling, or saying?" (Ranna is amazed.)

"How is the problem resolved?" (Drab, Ash, and Grey changed to bright, beautiful colors; the walls of the cave melted and coated the frogs to change them into different colors.)

  • Turn to the seventh page of the model narrative. Use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What is the message or purpose of the narrative?" (Because of Drab, Ash, and Grey's bravery, their children and grandchildren will always have beautiful skin the color of the gems in the cave; the purpose is to explain why some frogs are colorful.)

  • For students who may need additional support identifying plot structures: Use the same color-coding system established in previous lessons during this unit to clearly label plot structures on the resolution of "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful." (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Illustrate each item in the anchor chart to provide students with visual clues. Example: Next to "Narrative texts may use dialogue ..." draw a small picture of speech bubbles.
  • For ELLs: Ask about the names of the frogs. Example: "What do the words drab, ash, and gray mean?" (dull, not colorful, gray) "Why do you think the author decided to name the frogs Drab, Ash, and Grey?" (to show that they were gray and not colorful)

C. Shared Writing: Drafting the Ending of a Pourquoi Tale (15 minutes)

  • Continue the shared writing experience from Lesson 4 to write a narrative that answers the question "Why do polliwogs wiggle?"
  • Ask students to bring their Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" and gather where they can see the posted Narrative Template: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?"
  • Ask:

"Who is the audience of this narrative?" (other third- and fourth-grade students)

"What is the purpose of the narrative?" (to tell a story that explains why polliwogs wiggle)

  • Tell students that today they will finish writing their narrative: They will provide a solution and resolution for the problem and explain the point or purpose of the narrative.
  • Chorally read the beginning and middle of the narrative, written in Lessons 4 and 5.
  • Direct students' attention to the box labeled End on the Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" and select a volunteer to read the headings, questions, and notes added in Lesson 3 for the Provide a Solution/Resolution part of this box.
  • Invite students to turn to an elbow partner and describe the solution/resolution the way they would write it, using the notes on the Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?"
  • Model writing a sentence that provides a solution or resolution to the problem. Refer to the Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" (example, for teacher reference).
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is the problem in the story?'" (Responses will vary based on students' ideas in Lessons 3-5.)

"How is the problem solved or resolved?" (Responses will vary based on students' ideas in Lessons 3-5.)

  • Drawing from the ideas the students shared, continue writing the Solution/Resolution page(s) on the Narrative Template: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" Refer to the Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" (example, for teacher reference) and the domain-specific word wall. Be sure to model using linking words to show when events happen and using dialogue and description to show what the character(s) are doing, thinking, and feeling.
  • Continue this process to write The Point page on the Narrative Template: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" Refer to the Narrative Texts handout, "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue," and "Why the Poison Dart Frog Is So Colorful" as necessary. Also refer to the Narrative Planning Graphic Organizer: "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" (example, for teacher reference).
  • Invite students to chorally read the narrative that they wrote as a class.
  • Ask:

"Is our "Why Do Polliwogs Wiggle?" class narrative appropriate for the task and purpose? How do you know?" (Yes, because it includes all of the structures of plot for a narrative and answers a "why" question about frogs.)

  • If productive, cue students to listen carefully and seek to understand:

"Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Focus students on the learning targets. Read each one aloud, pausing after each to use a checking for understanding protocol for students to reflect on their comfort level with or show how close they are to meeting each target. Make note of students who may need additional support with each of the learning targets moving forward.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with written expression: To further scaffold toward independent writing, consider writing some sentences as an interactive writing experience. Example: Invite an intermediate or advanced proficiency student to write a sentence on the board. Encourage the class to support the student in self-correcting any errors. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support organizing their ideas in writing: Provide sentence frames to scaffold writing an ending and a purpose. Example: "In the end, the polliwog learned that ________________." (MMAE)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Exit Ticket (5 minutes)

  • Distribute Exit Ticket: Narrative Endings.
  • Read the questions on the exit ticket aloud. Then select students to read each option aloud and invite students to underline the answer they think is correct.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional reading support: Consider adding simple sketches to their exit ticket or reading the options aloud more than one time to ensure that they know what each one says. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Remind students that they can use clues and the process of elimination to choose the best answer, even if they don't understand every word in the question. Think aloud the process of choosing the right answer.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Vocabulary. See the directions in your Unit 1 homework packet.

B. Choose and respond to a Narrative QuickWrite prompt in your Unit 1 homework packet.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: Refer to the suggested homework support in Lesson 1. (MMAE, MMR)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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