Building Expertise: Characteristics of Narrative Texts | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G3:M2:U1:L2

Building Expertise: Characteristics of Narrative Texts

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.3.1: Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RL.3.2: Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.
  • RL.3.3: Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
  • RL.3.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
  • RF.3.4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • RF.3.4a: Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • RF.3.4b: Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • RF.3.4c: Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
  • L.3.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • L.3.4a: Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can fluently read a poem aloud. (RF.3.4a, RF.3.4b, RF.3.4c)
  • I can refer explicitly to the text when answering questions about the text. (RL.3.1, RL.3.2, RL.3.4, RF.3.4, L.3.1a, L.3.4a)
  • I can describe the structure of a narrative text. (RL.3.2, RL.3.3)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Choral reading: "The Polliwogs" (RF.3.4a, RF.3.4b, RF.3.4c)
  • Close Reading: "The Polliwogs" note-catcher (RL.3.1, RL.3.2, RL.3.4, RF.3.4, L.3.1a, L.3.4a)
  • Participation in analysis of "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" (RL.3.2, RL.3.3)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Reader (10 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Close Reading: "The Polliwogs" (15 minutes)

B. Shared Reading: "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Debrief: What Is a Pourquoi Tale? (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Choose and respond to a Narrative QuickWrite prompt in your Unit 1 homework packet.

B. Ask a family member to tell you a pourquoi tale or bring a written tale (in any language) from home, the library, or the research reading selection.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • This lesson begins a series of lessons in which students read poems about frogs in the first part of the lesson and analyze, plan, and draft narratives in the second part of the lesson.
  • In this lesson, students begin by practicing reading the poem "The Polliwogs" fluently (RF.3.4). Then they participate in a teacher-led close read of the poem. This close read guides students through the text's challenging vocabulary and helps them understand the meaning of the poem (RL.3.1, RL.3.2, RL.3.4, RF.3.4, L.3.1a, L.3.4a).
  • Students analyze the plot structure of "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" to begin building expertise about narrative texts and understand what a pourquoi tale is (RL.3.2, RL.3.3).
  • In this lesson, the habit of character focus is working to become an effective learner. The characteristic they are reminded of specifically is collaboration, as they will be working in partners and small groups as they read and analyze "The Polliwogs" and "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue".
  • The research reading students complete for homework helps to build both their vocabulary and knowledge pertaining to frogs and specifically frog adaptations. By participating in this volume of reading over a span of time, students will develop a wide base of knowledge about the world and the words that help describe and make sense of it.
  • Students practice their fluency in this lesson by following along and reading silently as the teacher reads and by chorally reading "The Polliwogs" in Opening A. They also whisper-read "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" in Work Time B.

How it builds on previous work:

  • In Lesson 1, students had a general introduction to narrative texts and read "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" for gist; in this lesson, they reread the text and analyze its plot structure.
  • Continue to use Goals 1 and 2 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas where students may need additional support:

  • Throughout Lessons 2-4 and Lesson 6, students should work with a reading partner. Consider how to strategically partner students so they can support one another as they read this complex text.

Assessment Guidance:

  • Throughout the teacher-led close read, call on students to share their responses with the whole group to build knowledge collectively and clarify any misconceptions. As students are writing, circulate to clarify misunderstandings and use these as teaching points for the whole group.
  • Consider using the Speaking and Listening Informal Assessment: Collaborative Discussion Checklist during students' partner discussions in Work Time A.
  • Consider using the Reading: Foundational Skills Informal Assessment: Reading Fluency Checklist to gather baseline reading fluency data from students' reading of the poem in Opening A.

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will build on their understanding of narrative structure as they plan a class narrative.
  • After closely reading the poem "The Polliwogs," students add questions to the Why? anchor chart. They will continue to generate "why" questions to add to this anchor chart throughout the unit, and these questions will guide students' research in Unit 2. The question(s) specified in the body of the lesson must be added to the chart, as several of these questions will be what students read and write about in Unit 2. Adding them in this unit gives purpose for reading and writing in the next unit.

In Advance

  • Read the Close Read Guide: "The Polliwogs" to familiarize yourself with what will be required of students.
  • Strategically pair students for partner work in Work Times A and B.
  • Prepare and display the Why? anchor chart.
  • When preparing the Narrative Texts handout, ensure the second page with the chart is printed so students can cut it apart (not double-sided), so as to not lose the bullet points about narrative texts on the first page of the handout.
  • Post: Learning targets.

Tech and Multimedia

  • Opening A and Work Time B: For students who will benefit from hearing the text read aloud multiple times, consider using a text-to-speech tool like Natural Reader, SpeakIt! for Google Chrome, or the Safari reader. Note that to use a web-based text-to-speech tool like SpeakIt! or Safari reader, you will need to create an online doc, such as a Google Doc, containing the text.
  • Work Time A: Use a search engine like Google Images or Flickr to find images or videos of tadpoles at the end of the close read. Consider that YouTube, social media video sites, and other website links may incorporate inappropriate content via comment banks and ads. Although some lessons include these links as the most efficient means to view content in preparation for the lesson, be sure to preview links and/or use a filter service, such as SafeShare.tv, for viewing these links in the classroom.
  • Work Time A: Students complete their note-catchers in a word processing document, for example a Google Doc using Speech to Text facilities activated on devices, or using an app or software like Dictation.io.
  • Work Time B: If using the text in a technology-based document such as a Word doc or a Google Doc, students can highlight each section--beginning, middle, and end--in a different color.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 3.I.B.6, 3.I.B.8, 3.III.

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs through a fluency exercise. Reading fluency is an area where ELLs may shine as they are given an opportunity to focus on a limited amount of text and practice repeatedly, perhaps with the support of a recorded model.
  • ELLs may find the fluency exercise challenging at the same time. If they struggle with reading fluency in English, reading aloud could be daunting. For this lesson, consider focusing students' attention on just one element of fluency, such as the pace of reading. Focusing their efforts will motivate them to read more fluently and reduce the chances of overwhelming them.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Before providing sentence frames or additional modeling during Work Time, observe student interaction and allow students to grapple. Provide supportive frames and demonstrations only after students have grappled with the task. Observe the areas in which they struggle to target appropriate support.
  • Invite students to create their own sentence frames that support productive and equitable conversation during Work Time. Example: "The plot structure in this part was ___________. I think so because the text said __________." They can write the frames in a speech bubble and invite students who need heavier support to hold up the speech bubbles on an ice cream stick.

For heavier support:

  • Consider playing a tape in another language that illustrates fluent reading. This will reinforce the notion that reading fluently is a skill that is used in almost every language and is not something that can be achieved only by knowing English perfectly. Alternatively, invite a bilingual student to read a text fluently for the class in his or her home language.
  • Students may more fully appreciate the pourquoi narrative if they have more experience with the genre. Remind them of pourquoi narratives they may have read in a previous lesson. Also consider reading aloud pourquoi narratives from other cultures, such as Why Mosquitos Buzz in People's Ears: A West African Tale by Verna Aardema, to build schema and foster diversity and inclusion.
  • The narrative text structure may be difficult for some students. During the read-aloud, check frequently for comprehension and reteach the parts of the narrative structure accordingly.
  • During the close read, distribute a partially filled-in copy of the Close Reading: "The Polliwogs" note-catcher. This provides students with models for the kind of information they should enter, while relieving the volume of writing required.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Hearing a complex text read slowly, fluently, and without interruption or explanation promotes fluency for students; they are hearing a strong reader read the text aloud with accuracy and expression and are simultaneously looking at and thinking about the words on the printed page. Be sure to set clear expectations that students read along silently in their heads as the text is read aloud.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): This lesson offers several opportunities for students to engage in discussion with partners. For those who may need additional support with expressive language, facilitate communication by providing sentence frames to help them organize their thoughts. This way, all students can benefit from peer interaction.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Throughout this unit, sustained engagement and effort is essential for student achievement. Some students may need support to remember the goal for the work they are doing in this and future lessons. These students benefit from consistent reminders of learning goals and their value or relevance. Recall that students who may struggle with sustained effort and concentration are supported when these reminders are built into the learning environment.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

  • explicitly, unfamiliar, fluently, narrative, structure, beginning, middle, end, establishes the situation, introduces the characters, problem, respond, solution, resolution, point, pourquoi tale (L)
  • polliwogs, wiggle, shiver, practice, opened, delicious, skilled, combined, flexible, relaxing, flick (T)

Materials

  • Lizards, Frogs, and Polliwogs (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Affix list (from Module 1; one per student)
  • Academic Word Wall (started in Module 1)
  • Vocabulary logs (from Module 1; one per student)
  • Close Reading: "The Polliwogs" note-catcher (one per student)
  • Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart (from Module 1)
  • Close Reading Guide: "The Polliwogs" (for teacher reference)
  • Domain-Specific Word Wall (started in Lesson 1)
  • Why? anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time A)
  • "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" (from Lesson 1; one per student and one for display)
  • Narrative Texts handout (one per student and one for display)
  • Scissors (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader (10 minutes)

  • Explain that throughout this unit, students will read poems about frogs. Remind them that at the end of the unit, they will have a Frog Festival, where they will share what they have been reading and writing.
  • Tell students that because they will read aloud stories about frogs during the Frog Festival, they will work on their reading fluency throughout this unit. Direct their attention to the first learning target:

"I can fluently read a poem aloud."

  • Tell students that in a moment, you will read aloud a poem about frogs. As you read, invite them to think about what it means to read something fluently.
  • Display "The Polliwogs" from Lizards, Frogs, and Polliwogs and read the poem aloud three times as indicated below, inviting students to follow along in their heads as you read. After each reading, use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What is this poem about?" (Responses will vary but may include that it is about polliwogs or baby frogs.)

"What did you notice about how I read the poem?" (Responses will vary.)

    • First read: really quickly, making and ignoring mistakes and not attending to punctuation
    • Second read: very slowly, word-by-word, sounding out every fifth word or so, again ignoring mistakes and not attending to punctuation
    • Third read: at an "appropriate rate." Make a mistake or two, but show how fluent readers would self-correct. Match your facial expression and body language to the piece. Change your rate, volume pitch, and tone to reflect an understanding of the author's intended message.

  • After reading the poem three times, use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What does it mean to read something fluently?" (to read aloud with expression and at an appropriate rate--not too fast and not too slow; changing your voice to match the meaning of the text; correcting and rereading words when mistakes are made)

  • Invite students to chorally read "The Polliwogs" aloud. Remind them to read with expression at an appropriate rate and to change their voices to match the meaning of the text.
  • Tell students they will closely reread this poem later in the lesson and will practice reading fluently throughout the unit.
  • For ELLs: Ask about the meaning of festival. Ask: "What is a festival?" (a celebration) "What will we celebrate during our frog festival?" (frogs and all of our learning about frogs)
  • For ELLs: Point out that the word fluent is related to the words fluid and flow. Example: "When you read fluently, your words flow like water."
  • For ELLs and students who may need support with reading fluency: Point out that sometimes it takes reading something more than once to be able to read aloud fluently. Example: "I read this poem a lot of times before reading it to you. The first time I read it, I figured out the words. Then I practiced reading it fluently. I get better every time I read it again."(MMR)

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Remind students that they practiced the first learning target when reading "The Polliwogs" aloud.
  • Ask for a volunteer to read the remaining learning targets:

"I can refer explicitly to the text when answering questions about the text."

"I can describe the structure of a narrative text."  

  • Explain that today they will read and analyze two texts about frogs.
  • Underline the word explicitly. Invite students to clap the syllables of the word with you as you say them. Write the syllables on the board: ex-pli-cit-ly.
  • Focus students on the vocabulary strategies listed on the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart and use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"Which strategies could we use to determine the meaning of this word?" (student responses may vary, but could include using a dictionary)

  • Invite students to look up the word in the dictionary in pairs, and to say the word definition in their own words to each other. Cold call students to share the definition with the whole group (made very clear)
  • Tell students that when they answer questions about the text, they will be thinking about the meaning of unfamiliar words.
  • Write the word unfamiliar on the board. Invite students to clap the syllables of the word with you as you say them. Write the syllables on the board: un-fa-mil-iar.
  • Focus students on the vocabulary strategies listed on the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart and use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"We have probably seen parts of this word before, so which strategies could we use to determine the meaning of this word?" (student responses may vary, but could include using known affixes or root words)

  • Cover the 'un.' Invite students to tell you in chorus what word is left (familiar).
  • Ask and use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What does familiar mean? If someone or something is familiar to you what does it mean? For example I might say "I am familiar with that song"" (know it or seen it before)

  • Point to the prefix un- and ask students to popcorn out any other words with this prefix (unable, undone, uneasy). Record the words on the board.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with vocabulary: Clarify the meaning of refer explicitly to a text. Example: "Explicitly means very clearly and exactly. So when we refer explicitly to a text, we show exactly where in the book we got our ideas. Why is it important to refer explicitly to the text?" (People may not believe us if we don't say where we found our ideas.) (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Some students may be embarrassed to indicate that they did not understand by putting their thumbs down. To assess understanding, consider cold calling students and asking them to describe one of the learning targets. Clarify and re-teach accordingly.
  • Ask and use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group. Invite students to retrieve their affix lists if they need to:
  • "What do you think un- means based on how it is used in each of these words?" (not)
  • Record on a table drawn on the board with "Prefix" and "Root" in the header row. In the "Prefix" column, write "Un- (not)" and in the "Root" column write "familiar (know it/seen it before)."
  • Invite students to say in their own words what they think this means to their elbow partner and cold call students to share with the group (don't know it, not seen it before)
  • Add unfamiliar to the academic word wall. Invite students to add translations of the words in their home languages in a different color next to the target vocabulary.
  • Invite students to also add the word to their vocabulary logs.
  • Underline the words narrative and structure and ask:

"What is a narrative text?" (a text that tells a story)

"What might we mean by the structure of a narrative text?" (the parts of narrative texts)

  • Have students give a thumbs-up, thumbs-down, or thumbs-sideways to indicate how well they understand today's learning targets.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Close Reading: "The Polliwogs" (15 minutes)

  • Pair students.
  • Display "The Polliwogs" and distribute the Close Reading: "The Polliwogs" note-catcher.
  • Point out the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart and focus students on bullets 5-11.
  • Tell students you are going to guide them through this close read. Some of the questions will be discussed as a whole group, and others will be discussed with a partner.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Effective Learners anchor chart, specifically collaboration. Remind students that as they will be working in pairs as they work, they will need to collaborate.
  • Guide students through the close read using the Close Reading Guide: "The Polliwogs" (for teacher reference).
  • Invite students to record new vocabulary in their vocabulary logs. Add new words to the academic word wall and domain-specific word wall and invite students to add translations in native languages.
  • Display the Why? anchor chart. Explain that throughout this unit, students will add questions that they have about frogs to this anchor chart. Tell them they will have a chance to research the answers to these questions in Unit 2.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite students to share "why" questions they have about frogs after reading the poem "The Polliwogs" and record them on the anchor chart.
  • Be sure to add the question "Why do polliwogs wiggle?" if students do not ask it themselves.
  • For ELLs and students who may benefit from visual supports: Provide visuals next to each bullet point on the Close Readers Do These Things anchor chart. (MMR)
  • For students who need additional support with writing fluency: Provide a partially filled-in Close Read: "The Polliwogs" note-catcher, leaving blank the portions that require students to continue to hone necessary skills. Graphic organizers and recording forms engage students more actively and provide the necessary scaffolding that is especially critical for those with lower levels of language proficiency and/or learning. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: Model and think aloud asking a "why" question and self-correcting an English error. Example: "Hmmm ... how about 'Why polliwogs small?' Is that right? No. Oh, 'why are polliwogs small?'" (MMR, MMAE)

B. Shared Reading: "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" (20 minutes)

  • Display a copy of "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" and invite students to take out their own copies.
  • Ask students to take their texts and move to predetermined partnerships. Remind them that they read this text for gist in Lesson 1 and that they will use this text to begin building expertise about narrative texts.
  • Explain that today they will reread this text and learn about what makes it a narrative.
  • Invite students to whisper-read the text with their partner. Then use a total participation technique to invite responses from the group:

"What is the gist of this text? What is it mostly about?" (It's about Kikker, a young frog who wants to win a fly-eating contest. He couldn't jump as high as the other frogs, so despite all of his practice, he could not catch any flies. He realized he could use his long tongue to catch flies, and at the contest he caught more flies than any of the other frogs.)

  • Remind students that narratives tell stories and point out that the story this narrative is telling is about Kikker and why he has a long tongue.
  • Display and distribute the Narrative Texts handout and select a volunteer to read the first two bullet points aloud:
    • Narrative texts tell a story and entertain the reader."
    • "Narrative texts have a clear sequence of events that make sense and are easy to understand."
  • Explain that narratives are structured in certain ways, and this predictable structure helps the reader to understand the story
  • Invite students to turn to the chart on the next page of their Narrative Texts handout. Point out that narratives can be broken into three parts: the beginning, the middle, and the end.
  • Tell students that in the beginning, the author establishes the situation and introduces the characters. In the middle, the author describes the problem and examines how the character(s) respond to the problem. In the end, the author provides a solution or resolution and tells the point of the narrative. Point out these sub-bullet points on the first page of the handout.
  • Distribute scissors and invite students to cut out the chart on the second page of their handouts.
  • Explain that in a moment, you will reread "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" aloud. Tell students that while you read, they should hold up one of the plot structures to indicate which part of the narrative you are reading.
  • Read the first two paragraphs of "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" aloud. Model identifying the narrative structure of establishing the situation. Point out the sentences that tell what is happening (there is going to be a fly-eating contest), when (long, long ago), and where (a sparkling blue mountain lake).
  • Then, using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What other structure is used in these paragraphs?" (introducing the character)

"What details in the text make you think so?" (The paragraph tells the name of the main character, Kikker, and describes what he is like: "smooth, lime green skin"; "his big, black eyes were rimmed in gold and bulged pleasantly"; he's very smart, kind, and tiny.)

  • If productive, cue students to listen carefully:

"Who can repeat what your classmate said?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Read the remainder of "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue," stopping as students identify the remaining plot structures. Encourage them to give details from the text to support their thinking about each structure.
  • For students who may need additional support determining the gist: Consider highlighting or underlining key phrases in their individual copy of "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" in advance. This will lift the gist up for them as they read with their partner. (MMR)
  • For students who may need additional support with fluency: Invite them to practice reading the bullet points on the Narrative Texts handout in advance and then call on them to read aloud to the class during this lesson. Giving these students an opportunity for public success will build their confidence and internal motivation. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Ask about the meaning of entertain. Example: "What does it mean to entertain the reader?" (to make the reader enjoy and have fun reading)
  • For ELLs: Ask: "What is a sequence of events?" (the order of events; what happens first, next, and last)
  • For ELLs: To further illustrate the concept of plot structure and to foster diversity and inclusion, ask students about legends and folktales that they know or that family members may have told them. Support them in thinking through the parts of the stories that exemplify the beginning, middle, and end of narratives.
  • For ELLs: Before questioning individuals, allow all students to display the Plot Structure card corresponding to the part of the text that was just read. Observe how many students understand the structure and re-teach accordingly.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Debrief: What Is a Pourquoi Tale? (10 minutes)

  • Point out that students have probably read narrative texts before in other grades and for independent reading.
  • Tell them that "Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue" is a special kind of narrative called a pourquoi tale.
  • Then, using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What makes this story different from other narratives you may have read before? (The main character is an animal, and it took place long ago.)

"What is this story explaining? What is the point of the narrative?" (It's about why frogs use their tongues to catch flies.)

"Is this story true? Could it have happened long, long ago? Why or why not?" (No, because animals do not talk.)

  • If productive, cue students to listen carefully and seek to understand:

"Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?" (Responses will vary.)

  • Explain to students that this kind of story is called a pourquoi tale. Tell them that pourquoi means "why" in French. Ask:

"What is the translation of why in our home languages?" (limadha a in Arabic) Call on student volunteers to share. Ask other students to choose one translation to silently repeat. Invite students to say their chosen translation out loud when you give the signal. Chorally repeat the translations and the word in English. Invite self- and peer correction of the pronunciation of the translations and the English.

"What makes 'Why the Frog Has a Long Tongue' a pourquoi tale?" (It explains why frogs have long tongues; it answers a "why" question.)

  • Explain that throughout this unit, students will write two pourquoi tales about frogs: one as a class, and one on their own. Tell students that these stories will be included in their frog books as part of their final performance task.
  • Focus students on the learning targets. Read each one aloud, pausing after each to use a checking for understanding protocol for students to reflect on their comfort level with or show how close they are to meeting each target. Make note of students who may need additional support with each of the learning targets moving forward.
  • Repeat, inviting students to self-assess against how well they collaborated in this lesson.
  • For students who may need support attending to class discussions: Write key words that students use during the Debrief on the board to support attention to the conversation. Consider writing or drawing a brief definition for pourquoi tales. Example: "A pourquoi tale answers a why question." (MMR, MME)
  • For ELLs: Ask students if they know the word for why in other languages. Example: "Why in Hindi is Kyo."

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs

A. Choose and respond to a Narrative QuickWrite prompt in your Unit 1 homework packet.

B. Ask a family member to tell you a pourquoi tale or bring a written tale (in any language) from home, the library, or the research reading selection.

C. Accountable Research Reading. Select a prompt to respond to in the front of your independent reading journal.

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with reading and writing: For all homework assignments in this unit, read the prompts aloud. Students can discuss and respond to prompts orally, either with you, a partner, family member, or student from Grades 1 or 2, or record an audio response. If students have trouble writing sentences, they can begin by writing words. Consider providing a sentence starter or inviting students who need lighter support to provide sentence starters. (MMAE)

Assessment

Each unit in the 3-5 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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