Fluency | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G2:S1:C4:L19

Fluency

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Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can find regularly spelled high-frequency words in a list of words. (RF.2.3, RF.2.3f)
    • I can explain that single vowel letters in one-syllable words usually have short vowel sounds.
    • I can explain that vowel team spellings usually have long vowel sounds.
    • I can explain that in CVCe words, the vowel letter usually has a long vowel sound.
    • I can read second-grade words that "don't play fair" (irregularly spelled words).
  • Work Time A: I can read a text fluently (smoothly, with expression and meaning, rereading and self-correcting when necessary). (RF.2.4)
    • I can read at an appropriate rate based on the text type.
    • I can reread when something doesn't make sense or sound right.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during Opening A. Determine whether they can identify regularly spelled high-frequency words and explain what makes them "regularly spelled."
  • Exit ticket (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher)

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (3-5 minutes)

A. Snap or Trap Review: "boy," "only," "open," "once," "tree," "made," "went," "with," "by," "ever," "that," "what," "can," "will"

2. Work Time (10 minutes)

A. Fluency

3. Closing and Assessment (2 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction (40-45 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Snap or Trap Word List (write the following words on index cards: "boy," "only," "open," "once," "tree," "went," "with," "by," "ever," "that," "what," "some," "can," "will")
    • Snap or Trap T-chart
    • Interactive Word Wall
  • Enlarge the selected excerpt from the Decodable Reader: "Stuck Up High" (see supporting materials).
  • Write the following Rules of Fluency index cards: "smoothly," "with expression," "with meaning," "just the right speed."
  • Pre-determine partnerships for Opening A and Work Time A.
  • Gather materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • excerpt, expression, fluency, frequently, grapple, phrase (L)

Materials

  • Snap or Trap Word List (see Teaching Notes, "In advance," on previous page; one of each)
  • Snap or Trap T-chart (one for teacher use; see supporting materials)
  • Interactive Word Wall (one to display)
  • Enlarged selected excerpt from the Decodable Reader: "Stuck Up High" (one for display)
  • Rules of Fluency index cards (see Teaching Notes, "In advance," on previous page)
  • Individual copies of excerpt from the Decodable Reader: "Stuck Up High" (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Snap or Trap Review: "boy," "only," "open," "once," "tree," "made," "went," "with," "by," "ever," "that," "what," "can," "will"

  • Begin the Snap or Trap Review instructional practice:

1. Teacher displays the Snap or Trap Word List: "boy," "only," "open," "once," "tree," "made," "went," "with," "by," "ever," "that," "what," "can," "will" (mix of high-frequency regularly spelled words and high-frequency irregularly spelled words) and the Snap or Trap T-chart.

2. Teacher says: "We know some words are used frequently in reading and writing."

3. Teacher asks:

"Who remembers what 'frequently' means?" (a lot; often)

4. Teacher reminds students that high-frequency words need to be recognized "in a snap" (instantly) to support reading all kinds of texts.

5. Teacher invites students to share with the group or with an elbow partner how knowing a word "in a snap" supports reading all kinds of text. (frees our brains up to figure out new words; more fluent because we don't have to keep stopping for those words)

6. Teacher says: "Some words on this list are snap words, and some are trap words. Today, we are going to identify the high-frequency words on this list that are snap words."

7. Teacher asks:

"What does it mean to be a trap word?" (Trap words are irregularly spelled. They don't make their regular sounds. They don't play fair. They don't follow the rules.)

8. Teacher says: "Yes! Your job is to find the words that are high-frequency but not trap words. We will call them snap words because we can figure them out so easily, we know them in a snap!"

9. Teacher reads all words listed.

10. Teacher reads "that."

11. Teacher says: "I notice the 'a' makes the short sound because it is a closed syllable. I know all the letter sounds in this word, and it sounds just like it's supposed to sound. It's a snap! The word 'that' goes in the Snap column."

12. Teacher puts the "that" card in the Snap column on the Snap or Trap T-chart.

13. Teacher asks:

"Can anyone see any other snap words? Even if you're not sure, grapple with it until you come up with a possible answer." (Example: "with" is a snap word.)

14. Teacher asks:

"Great! Why do you think it's a snap word?" (Example: because it is a closed-syllable word, the "i" makes the sound /i/, when the "t" and "h" are together they say /th/)

15. Teacher says: "Yes! 'with' is a snap word because it follows an easily decodable pattern, it is a closed syllable so the vowel sound is short, and it has a digraph that makes the sound /th/. It belongs in the Snap column."

16. Teacher adds the second snap word to the T-chart.

17. Students and teacher repeat the process with as many of the remaining words on the Snap or Trap Word Cards as time allows.

  • Encourage students to grapple with their knowledge of letter sounds to decide if a high-frequency word is a snap or trap word.
  • Encourage students to read each high-frequency word as a whole word and analyze the word after reading it.
  • Consider color-coding snap and trap words to visually remind students of the difference between them.
  • Consider using the word "irregular" and explaining how the base word "regular" has the prefix "ir," which means "not," thereby altering the meaning of the base word.
  • To deepen analysis in step 13, consider asking students to identify the number of syllables in each word and the vowel sound(s) they hear. Because these are regularly spelled words, they provide an opportunity for students to consider the relationship between the spelling pattern and the vowel sound. Example:
    • If the word is "here," students explain that the long "e" sound is shown via the magic "e." This not only supports the goal of automaticity with spelling patterns, but also reinforces the understanding that these words are "regularly spelled."

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Fluency

  • Transition song, sung to the tune of "The Muffin Man"):

Teacher: "Can you read this fluently? Smoothly, with expression, please. Can you read it smoothly with expression and with meaning?"

Students: "Yes, we'll read it fluently. Not too fast and not too slow. Yes, we'll read it fluently at just the right speed."

All together: "So now we'll read this fluently. Think about how smooth it will be. Now we'll read this fluently at just the right speed."

  • Begin the Fluency instructional practice:

1. Teacher displays enlarged selected excerpt from the Decodable Reader: "Stuck Up High."

2. Teacher explains that this is an "excerpt" from the Decodable Reader.

3. Teacher displays the Rules of Fluency index cards ("smoothly," "with expression," "with meaning," and "just the right speed") on the board and reads them aloud.

4. Teacher reminds students that these are four important rules of fluency that were mentioned in the song and invites them to think about these elements as they listen as the teacher reads the excerpt.

5. Teacher reads the excerpt word by word in a monotone, skipping over punctuation, with little to no expression.

6. Teacher invites students to turn to an elbow partner to share what they noticed about how he or she read the excerpt.

7. Teacher invites two or three student volunteers to share what they noticed (examples: sounded word by word, sounded too slow or too fast, sounded "boring"), prompting them to name specific examples in the text (i.e., naming a place where it was word by word, where punctuation was skipped).

8. Teacher asks:

"Does anyone have any suggestions for how I could make this more fluent?" (Responses will vary. Examples: stop at the periods, pause at the comma, make it sound a little scary, say groups of words together.)

9. Teacher reads the excerpt again, incorporating students' suggestions.

10. Teacher invites students to think about the meaning of the selected text.

11. Teacher asks:

"What is happening here in this excerpt?" (Chip isn't sure how to get down. He cries out for help, but no one hears him. He tries to sleep but he can't.)

"What can we imagine Chip must be feeling based on this excerpt?" (He is scared and upset because he can't get down.)

12. Teacher points to the card labeled "with meaning" and says: "Reading this fluently includes making it match the meaning or feeling of the words. Chip is stuck up there in the tree, and it's nighttime. He can't fall asleep. So we need to read this in a way that communicates how he is feeling."

13. Teacher invites one or two student volunteers to come up and read the excerpt in a way that communicates the meaning (how Chip must be feeling).

14. Teacher reminds students of the rules of fluent reading (smoothly, with expression, with meaning, just the right speed).

15. Teacher distributes individual copies of excerpt from the Decodable Reader: "Stuck Up High."

16. Teacher pairs students up and invites them to take turns reading the excerpt fluently and giving each other one star (positive comment naming a rule of fluency that was evident) and one step (a rule of fluency that wasn't evident or could be worked on).

17. Students practice reading the Decodable Reader in pairs.

18. If time allows, consider inviting one or two students to come up and read the excerpt to the group. When they are done, consider inviting students to name one star and one step.

  • The word "excerpt" may be unfamiliar to many students. Consider modeling this vocabulary by extending one hand, palm up, and explaining that this represents the whole text in the Decodable Reader. With the other hand, model pulling out a "piece" of the text. This "piece" is the "excerpt."
  • Consider providing the entire Decodable Reader (from Lesson 17) for students to use when partnering up and practicing fluent reading.
  • Consider extending this work time by using some of the silly sentences created by the Consolidated Alphabetic phase group during small group work time in Lesson 18 to work on the rules of fluency. Partners can use these in step 16 after they are finished with the excerpt from the Decodable Reader.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners take responsibility for their own learning. Invite students to reflect on ways they took responsibility for their learning during whole group instruction or how they plan to take responsibility during differentiated small group instruction.
  • Invite a volunteer to share. Afterward, invite any students who did something similar to indicate that in an interactive way (example: give a thumbs-up).
  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • "When I read the excerpt I thought about _____, and I _____."
    • "After I got feedback about _____ from _____, I read the excerpt again and made it sound _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with students in the Partial Alphabetic and Full Alphabetic groups. If possible, teacher should also meet with the Consolidated Alphabetic group at least once per week.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work Guidance document for more details (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual).

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Students complete exit ticket:
    • Students work with an excerpt from a decodable text using patterns they are working on. (Consider using the Assessment Conversion chart to identify an appropriate Grade 1 cycle and use the Decodable Reader from that cycle).
    • Students use a highlighter to find and highlight punctuation in the text (examples: periods, question marks, exclamation points, quotation marks).
    • Teacher guides students to understand what the identified punctuation communicates to us as readers (examples: a period tells us to stop for a moment, quotation marks tell us to make it sound like someone is talking).
    • Teacher follows the process outlined in the whole group lesson work time to practice fluency with this text.
  • Use the Assessment Conversion chart to determine appropriate Grade 1 lessons and Activity Bank ideas to use in daily small group instruction.
  • Check in with Accountable Independent Reading.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Highlighters (one per student)
    • Copies of a prior Decodable Reader (using patterns students are working with)

Full Alphabetic:

  • Students complete exit ticket:
    • Consider beginning with the silly sentences produced by students in the Consolidated Alphabetic group during Lesson 18. Guide students to review the spelling pattern and then guide them to practice reading them fluently.
    • Students work with page 3 in the Decodable Reader: "Stuck Up High" (from Lesson 17).
    • Students use a highlighter to find and highlight punctuation in the text (examples: periods, question marks, exclamation points, quotation marks, commas).
    • Teacher guides students to understand what the identified punctuation communicates to us as readers (examples: a period tells us to stop for a moment, quotation marks tell us to make it sound like someone is talking).
    • Teacher follows the process outlined in the whole group lesson work time to practice fluency with this text.
  • Check in with Accountable Independent Reading.
  • See Activity Bank Fluency activities (F) for Readers Theater options.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Silly sentences produced during differentiated small group work time from Lesson 18 (optional)
    • Highlighters (one per student)
    • Copies of Decodable Reader: "Stuck Up High" from Lesson 17

Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Students complete exit ticket:
    • Students reread the Engagement Text: "Fire Chief Sparks Rescues Neighborhood Alley Cat from Tree in Sunnyside City Park," focusing on fluency.
    • Then they become television reporters and write a script to show what they would say.
    • Finally, they practice reading the script and conduct a Readers Theater.
    • This can be done individually or with a partner.
    • Look over the scripts with student(s). Analyze parts that are fluent, and provide feedback for fluency as needed. Listen to Readers Theater performances and provide feedback.
  • Use leveled readers for fluency practice. (Refer to the Independent Word Guidance document for guidance; see K-2 Skills Resource Manual).
  • Check in with Accountable Independent Reading.
  • See Activity Bank Fluency activities (F) for Readers Theater options.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Individual copies of the Engagement Text: "Fire Chief Sparks Rescues Neighborhood Alley Cat from Tree in Sunnyside City Park" (from Lesson 17)
    • Paper and writing utensils

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