Chaining | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:S2:C9:L46

Chaining

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Daily Learning Target

  • Opening A: I can segment and blend CVCC words with the phonemes (sounds): /s/, /z/, /f/, /b/, /c/, /a/, /u/, /l/, /m/. (RF.1.2)
    • I can say a three-phoneme word and segment (break apart) into individual phonemes (sounds) (in order).
    • I can blend three phonemes (sounds) to form a spoken word.
  • Opening B: I can write the graphemes (letters) that match the phonemes (sounds): “ss,” “zz,” “ff,” “b,” “c,” “a,” “u,” “ll,” “m,” “f.” (RF.K.3, L.1.2a)
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the consonant sounds I hear.
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the short vowel sounds I hear.
    • I can look at each consonant and say its sound.
  • Work Time: I can read and spell CVCC words with the phonemes (sounds): /f/, /l/, /s/, /m/, /t/, /i/, /e/, /a/, /p/, /d/, /u/, /w/, /o/. (RF.1.3, L.1.2)
    • I can decode regularly spelled one-syllable words by mapping graphemes and phonemes.
    • I can read words with an “-ed” ending.
    • I can use what I know about common spelling patterns to correctly spell words with those common patterns.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during work with white boards.
    • Determine whether they can blend CVC and CCVC words using the patterns for the cycle.
    • Also determine whether they can spell CCVC and CVC words from memory.

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (3–5 minutes)

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /s/, /z/, /f/, /b/, /c/, /a/, /u/, /l/, /m/

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: “ss,” “zz,” “ff,” “b,” “c,” “a,” “u,” “ll,” “m,” “f”

2. Work Time (10–15 minutes)

A. Chaining: Decoding /f/, /l/, /s/, /m/, /t/, /i/, /e/, /a/, /p/, /d/, /u/, /w/, /o/

B. Chaining: Encoding “m,” “a,” “l,” “b,” “w,” “s,” “p,” “d,” “e,” “i,” “u,” “f,” “t,” “o” (“toss,” “moss,” “mall,” “small,” “wall,” “well,” “spell,” “yell,” “yelled,” “pass,” “passed,” “pill,” “skill,” “still,” “stuff”)

3. Closing and Assessment (3–5 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Letter Formation chart with visuals
    • Double Consonants anchor chart (Twin Power) (see supporting Materials)
    • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)
  • Gather Materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, decode, proficient (L)

Materials

  • Letter Formation chart (for teacher reference)
  • Double Consonants anchor chart (Twin Power)
  • White boards or sheet protectors with white cardboard inside (one per student or pair)
  • White board markers (one per student)
  • White board erasers (or tissues, socks, etc.; one per student)
  • Movable letters (magnetic letters, Letter Cards in a pocket chart, or other letters that can be displayed and moved; one each for teacher modeling: /f/, /l/, /s/, /m/, /t/, /i/, /e/, /a/, /p/, /d/, /u/, /w/, /o/; from Lesson 26)
  • Articulatory Gestures chart
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /s/, /z/, /f/, /b/, /c/, /a/, /u/, /l/, /m/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of “The More We Get Together”):

“Sit down and come together, together, together. Sit down and come together, together, right now. It’s time to make three sounds and blend them together. Let’s listen to each sound now, and blend them to make a word.”

  • Begin the Phonemic Blending and Segmentation instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: “We will make words using sounds that we know. Listen carefully while I do the first one.”

2. Teacher says the phonemes (sounds) in the first word—“ball” (/b//a//l/)—using the thumb-tapping technique.

3. Teacher says: “When I blend the sounds together, they make the word ‘ball.’” Teacher models blending the phoneme to make a word.

4. Students repeat the thumb-tapping technique, pronouncing each phoneme: /b//a//l/.

5. Students blend the word: “ball.”

6. Repeat steps 2–5 with remaining words: “fuzz,” “cuff,” and “mass.”

  • For students who have difficulty with the dexterity needed for the thumb task, encourage them to tap the thumb on the opposite hand.
  • Consider facing the board while modeling and looking over a shoulder at students so writing is modeled from left to right.
  • Consider facing the students when modeling how to “skywrite” and instructing them to mirror you.

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: “ss,” “zz,” “ff,” “b,” “c,” “a,” “u,” “ll,” “m,” “f”

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of “The More We Get Together”):

“Now it’s time to match these sounds to their letters and write them. Now it’s time to match these sounds to their letters, let’s go!”

  • Begin the Writing the Letter to Match the Sound instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: “You will write the letters that match each sound you hear. These letters will help us write words!”

2. Teacher says the word: “ball.”

3. Teacher pronounces the phonemes (sounds): /b/ /a/ /l/.

4. Students repeat: /b/ /a/ /l/.

5. Teacher repeats the phonemes, writing the grapheme (letter) for each phoneme as he or she says it and inviting students to repeat by “skywriting” (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter).

6. Repeat steps 2–5 for the remaining words: “fuzz,” “cuff,” and “mass.”

7. Teacher asks:

“What do you notice at the end of these words?” (double consonants)

8. Teacher says: “Right, each of these words ends with two of the same consonants. They act as twins because they are two of the same letters that make one sound. This is known as ‘twin power’ because the double consonants have the power to protect the short vowel sound in the middle. The consonants with ‘twin power’ are ‘ll,’ ‘zz,’ ‘ff,’ and ‘ss.’ When a single-syllable word ends in ‘f,’ ‘l,’ ‘s,’ or ‘z,’ we have to double the letters to make ‘twin power’ to protect the short vowel sound.”

9. Teacher shows students the Double Consonant anchor chart (Twin Power). Teacher writes “fuzz,” “ball,” “cuff,” and “mass” on the anchor chart, underlining the double consonants to indicate where those sounds are heard.

10. Teacher says: “‘fuzz,’ ‘ball,’ ‘cuff,’ and ‘mass’ are words that end in a double consonant. We will continue to collect words that end with these sounds and add them to the chart throughout the year.”

  • Consider teaching students the FLOSS rule. When a single-syllable short-vowel word ends in /f/, /l/, or /s/, double it. This sometimes applies to /z/. The word “floss” follows this rule.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Chaining: Decoding /f/, /l/, /s/, /m/, /t/, /i/, /e/, /a/, /p/, /d/, /u/, /w/, /o/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of “The More We Get Together”):

“Now it’s time to decode words using the letter sound connections; now it’s time to decode words; be careful, watch for a change.”

  • Distribute white boards, white board markers, and white board erasers.
  • Begin the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher shows the word with movable letters: “toss.”

2. Teacher points to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word: “toss.”

3. Students write the word on their white boards: “toss.” Emphasize proper letter formation (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter).

4. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word: “toss.”

5. Teacher removes the “t” and replaces it with an “m.”

6. Teacher asks:

“How has the word changed?” (The first letter is an “m” instead of a “t.”)

“How has the word stayed the same?” (“-oss” is the same.)

7. Students erase the “t” and write an “m” in its place to form the new word: “moss.”

8. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word: “moss.”

9. Repeat steps 5–8 with remaining words: “mall,” “small,” “wall,” “well,” “sell,” “spell,” “yell,” “yelled,” “pass,” “passed,” “pill,” “skill,” “still,” “stuff.”

10. After teacher adds the last word to the list and students decode it, teacher records the words and guides them to read the entire list of words (as a group and/or individual volunteers) and asks:

“What do you notice about all of the words?” (They all have a vowel. They end with a double consonant. They are all one syllable.)

  • Explain to students that the suffix “-ed” makes the /t/ sound after the voiceless /s/ in “passed,” while the suffix “-ed” makes the /d/ sound in the voiced /l/ in “yelled.” The “-ed” sound makes three different sounds (/t/, /id/, and /d/), depending on the word.
  • Consider extending this activity to include the suffix “-ing” once students have mastered one-syllable words with short vowels. Examples:
    • “stuffing,” “hissing,” “spilling,” “selling,” “buzzing”
  • Because the sound of “a” in words such as “mall” isn’t the sound that students may expect, contrast it with words such as “man.” Have students listen carefully for the difference.

B. Chaining: Encoding “m,” “a,” “l,” “b,” “w,” “s,” “p,” “d,” “e,” “i,” “u,” “f,” “t,” “o” (“toss,” “moss,” “mall,” “small,” “wall,” “well,” “spell,” “yell,” “yelled,” “pass,” “passed,” “pill,” “skill,” “still,” “stuff”)

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of “The More We Get Together”):

“Now it’s time to spell the words, using letter sound connections. Now it’s time to spell the words; be careful, listen for the sounds.”

  • Continue the Chaining instructional practice, now focusing on the encoding portion:

1. Teacher says the first word: “toss.”

2. Students say: “toss.”

3. Teacher writes the letters that correspond to each sound on the board, emphasizing proper letter formation (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter): t-o-s-s.

4. Teacher covers the word: “toss.”

5. Students write the word on their white boards from memory: “toss.”

6. Teacher uncovers the word.

7. Students check their spelling.

8. Students erase their white boards.

9. Repeat steps 1–8 with remaining words: “moss,” “mall,” “small,” “wall,” “well,” “spell,” “yell,” “yelled,” “pass,” “passed,” “pill,” “skill,” “still,” and “stuff.”

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners keep track of and reflect on their own learning. Point out that they are doing this each time they consider how what they did today helps them to become more proficient readers.
  • Invite students to reflect and share with a partner (or whole group). Ask:

“What did you do today that is helping you become a more proficient reader?” (Responses will vary. Example: “I matched sounds to letters to blend sounds together to make a word.”)

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • “When I made the sounds for the word _____, I _____.”
    • “When I wrote the letter _____, I _____.”
    • “When I blended the sounds _____, I _____.”

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. Teacher may meet briefly with the Full and Consolidated groups to provide a weekly Word List and exit ticket or possibly set up a management system allowing these students to find the list and exit ticket and begin work independently.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work Guidance document for more details (see K–2 Skills Resource Manual).

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Aim small group instruction at building students’ knowledge and skills of letter identification and phonological awareness
  • Use the Assessment Conversion chart to determine appropriate kindergarten lessons and Activity Bank ideas to use in daily small group instruction.

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Use the assessment from Cycle 8, Lesson 45 to determine whether students in this group have mastered decoding and encoding one-syllable short-vowel words.
  • If students have not mastered short vowels, continue to work on chaining and spelling from memory with short-vowel CVC words. Consider using previously introduced consonants as well as the blends from Cycle 8 if students can manage. Review any consonant sounds and letter formation that may not be automatic.
  • Related Activity Bank suggestions:
    • Blending Boxes
    • What’s My Word?

Full and Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Establish weekly Word Lists and exit tickets for independent work time.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word List Guidance (for teacher reference)
    • Word List (one for each student or per pair)
    • Word Card Template (example; can be revised based on needs of group; one per student or per pair)
    • Sorting Words Template (one per student or per pair)

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