Chaining | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:S2:C5:L26

Chaining

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Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can segment and blend CVC words with the phonemes (sounds): /o/, /b/, /j/, /w/, /ks/ ("x"), /sh/, /p/, /g/. (RF.1.2)
    • I can say a three-phoneme word and segment (break apart) into individual phonemes (sounds) in order.
    • I can blend three phonemes to form a spoken word.
    • I can identify the sound that corresponds to "sh."
  • Opening B: I can write the graphemes (letters) that match the phonemes (sounds): "o," "b," "j," "w," "x," "sh," "p," "g." (RF.K.3, L.1.2a)
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the consonant sounds I hear.
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the short vowel sounds I hear.
    • I can look at each consonant and say its sound.
  • Work Time: I can read and spell VC and CVC words with the phonemes (sounds): /j/, /ks/ ("x"), /w/, /b/, /o/, /f/, /h/, /sh/, /u/, /i/, /g/, /p/, /t/. (RF.1.3, L.1.2)
    • I can decode regularly spelled one-syllable words by mapping graphemes and phonemes.
    • I can use what I know about common spelling patterns to correctly spell words with those common patterns.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during work with whiteboards.
    • Determine whether they can blend CVC short vowel words using the patterns for the cycle.
    • Also determine whether they can spell CVC and VC words from memory.

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening (3–5 minutes)

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /o/, /b/, /ks/ (“x”), /j/, /sh/, /p/, /g/, /w/

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: “o,” “b,” “x,” “j,” “sh,” “p,” “g,” “w”

2. Work Time (10–15 minutes)

A. Chaining: Decoding /j/, /ks/ (“x”), /w/, /b/, /o/, /s/, /h/, /sh/, /u/, /i/, /g/, /p/, /t/, /ŋ/ ("ng")

B. Chaining: Encoding  /j/, /ks/ (“x”), /w/, /b/, /o/, / f/, /s/, /sh/, /u/, /i/, /g/, /p/, /t/ (“fox,” “box,” “pox,” “pot,” “got,” "jot," “shot,” “shop,” "ship," "shin," "win," "wing," "sing," "song," "sang," "hang," "hung")

3. Closing and Assessment (2 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40 minutes)

  • Prepare:
    • Letter Formation chart with visuals
    • Short "o" anchor chart, using the letter "o" keyword illustration (see supporting Materials)
    • "ow" Diphthong anchor chart (Cow Words!) (see supporting Materials)
    • Snapshot Assessment (optional)
  • Gather Materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, decode, proficient (L)

Materials

  • "ow" Diphthong anchor chart (Cow Words!)
  • Letter Formation chart (for teacher reference)
  • Short "o" anchor chart
  • Whiteboards or sheet protectors with white cardboard inside (one per student or per pair)
  • Whiteboard markers (one per student)
  • Whiteboard erasers (or tissues, socks, etc.; one per student)
  • Movable letters (magnetic letters, Letter Cards in a pocket chart, or other letters that can be displayed and moved; one each for teacher modeling: /j/, /ks/("x"), /w/, /b/, /o/, /s/, /h/, /sh/, /u/, /i/, /g/, /p/, /t/
  • Articulatory Gestures chart
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /o/, /b/, /ks/ ("x"), /j/, /sh/, /p/, /g/, /w/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Sit down and come together, together, together. Sit down and come together, together, right now. It's time to make three sounds and blend them together. Let's listen to each sound now, and blend them to make a word."

  • Begin the Phonemic Blending and Segmentation instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "We will make words using sounds that we know. Listen carefully while I do the first one."

2. Teacher says the phonemes (sounds) in the first word--"box" (/b//o//ks/)--using the thumb-tapping technique.

3. Teacher says: "When I blend the sounds together, they make the word 'box.'" Teacher models blending the phoneme to make the word.

4. Students repeat the thumb-tapping technique, pronouncing each phoneme: /b//o//ks/.

5. Students blend the word: "box."

6. Repeat steps 2-5 with remaining words: "shop," "jog," "now," and "wow."

7. Teacher shows students the "ow" Diphthong anchor chart (Cow Words!) and pronounces the "ow" in "wow" and "now." Teacher writes "wow" and "now" on the anchor chart, highlighting the "ow" to indicate where we hear the /ou/ phoneme (sound) in these words.

8. Teacher says: "'wow' and 'now' are words that end with the /ou/ sound. We will continue to collect words that have this sound and add them to the chart throughout the year."

  • For students who have difficulty with the dexterity needed for the thumb task, encourage them to tap the thumb on the opposite hand.
  • Consider facing the board while modeling and looking over a shoulder at students so writing is modeled from left to right.
  • Consider facing the students when modeling how to skywrite and instructing them to mirror you.

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: "o," "b," "x," "j," "sh," "p," "g," "w"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters and write them. Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters, let's go!"

  • Begin the Writing the Letter to Match the Sound instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "You will write the letters that match each sound you hear. These letters will help us write words!"

2. Teacher says the word: "box."

3. Teacher pronounces the phonemes (sounds) /b/ /o/ /ks/.

4. Students repeat: /b/ /o/ /ks/.

5. Teacher repeats the phonemes, writing the grapheme (letter) for each phoneme as he or she says it and inviting students to repeat by skywriting (see the Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter).

6. Repeat steps 2-5 for the remaining words: "shop," "bop," "ox," "wow," "now."

7. Teacher asks:

"What is the middle letter in all of these words?" ("o")

8. Teacher says: "Right; 'o' is in every word. Every word in the English language has a vowel in it. 'o' is the vowel in all of these words, and it makes the short vowel sound /o/ in all of these words."

9. Teacher directs students' attention to the Short "o" anchor chart and reminds them of the story of the octopus (see Learning Letters book). Teacher writes "ox" on the anchor chart, underlining the "o" to indicate the /o/ sound in the word.

10. Teacher says: "'ox' is a word that begins with the short /o/ sound. We will continue to collect words that begin with this sound and add them to the Short "o" anchor chart throughout the year."

  • Notice that the phoneme (sound) matching the grapheme "x" is unique: /ks/. As a result, students may think that the word "box" is spelled: b-o-k-s rather than b-o-x. Explain that this letter makes a special sound. Encourage them to notice that the reader blends the /k/ and /s/ sounds quickly together to form the "x" sound. Consider showing and reading an additional example, such as "fox."

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Chaining: Decoding /j/, /ks/(“x”), /w/, /b/, /o/, / s/, /h/, /sh/, /u/, /i/, /g/, /p/, /t/, /ŋ/ ("ng")

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of “The More We Get Together”):

“Now it’s time to decode words using the letter sound connections; now it’s time to decode words; be careful, watch for a change.”

  • Distribute whiteboards, whiteboard markers, and whiteboard erasers.
  • Begin the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher shows the word with movable letters: “box.”

2. Teacher points to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word “box.”

3. Students write the word on their whiteboards: “box.” Emphasize proper letter formation (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter).

4. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word: “box.”

5. Teacher removes the “b” and replaces it with a “p.”

6. Teacher asks:

“How has the word changed?” (The first letter is a “p” instead of an “b.”)

“How has the word stayed the same?” (“-ox” is the same.)

7. Students erase the “b” and write a “p” in its place to form the new word: “pox.”

8. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word: “pox.”

9. Repeat steps 5–8 with remaining words: "pot," "got," "jot," "shot," "shop," "ship," "shin," "win," "wing," "sing," "song," "sang," "hang," "hung."

10. After teacher adds the last word to the list and students decode it, teacher guides them to read the entire list of words (as a group and/or individual volunteers). Teacher asks:

“What do you notice about all of the words?” (Many have the letter “o” and the sound /o/. They all end with a consonant. They are all one-syllable words.)

  • The words "sing" and "sang" and "hang" and "hung" provide an opportunity to talk about present and past tense. Be sure to use all the words in the chaining activity in a spoken sentence so that they understand the meaning of each word.
  • Have students feel and describe what is happening with their tongue and throat when pronouncing the sound /ŋ/ as they decode words such as "wing" and "song." Consider extending the chaining work with words with "-ng"
    (/ŋ/) 
    when meeting with students during Differentiated Small Group: Work with Teacher time.
  • Consider extending this activity to include more words once students are familiar with more letter combinations. Examples:
    • “job,” “sob,” “lob,” “mob,” “mop,” “hop,” “top,” “pop,” “pot,” “dot,” “hot,” “hog,” “frog,” “jog,” “clog,” “flog,” “flop,” “plop”

B. Chaining: Encoding /j/, /ks/("x"), /w/, /b/, /o/, / s/, /h/, /sh/, /u/, /i/, /g/, /p/, /t/ ("box," "pox," "pot," "got," "jot," "shot," "shop," "ship," "shin," "win," "wing," "sing," "song," "sang," "hang," "hung")

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to spell the words, using letter sound connections. Now it's time to spell the words; be careful, listen for the sounds."

  • Continue the Chaining instructional practice, now focusing on the encoding portion:

1. Teacher says the first word: "box."

2. Students say: "box."

3. Teacher writes the letters that correspond to each sound on the board, emphasizing proper letter formation (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter): b-o-x.

4. Teacher covers the word: "box."

5. Students write the word on their whiteboards from memory: "box."

6. Teacher uncovers the word: "box."

7. Students check their spelling.

8. Students erase their whiteboards.

9. Repeat steps 1-8 with remaining words: "box," "pox," "pot," "got," "jot," "shot," "shop," "ship," "shin," "win," "wing," "sing," "song," "sang," "hang," "hung."

  • Notice that step 9 includes some words with vowel sounds other than short /o/, the focus for this lesson. If using these words, consider guiding students to notice the change in the medial sound of the word and visually notice the grapheme change at first, gradually releasing the responsibility to them to notice on their own.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners keep track of and reflect on their own learning. Point out that they are doing this each time they consider how what they did today helps them to become more proficient readers.
  • Invite students to reflect and share with a partner (or whole group). Ask:

"What did you do today that is helping you become a more proficient reader?" (Responses will vary. Example: "I matched sounds to letters to blend sounds together to make a word.")

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • "When I made the sounds for the word _____, I _____."
    • "When I wrote the letter _____, I _____."
    • "When I blended the sounds _____, I _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. Teacher may meet briefly with the Full and Consolidated groups to provide a weekly Word List and exit ticket or possibly set up a management system allowing these students to find the list and exit ticket and begin work independently.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work guidance document for more details (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual).

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Aim small group instruction at building students' knowledge and skills of letter identification and phonological awareness.
  • Use the Assessment Conversion chart to determine appropriate Kindergarten lessons and Activity Bank ideas to use in daily small group instruction.

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Use the assessment from Cycle 3, Lesson 25 to determine whether students in this group have mastered decoding and encoding VC and CVC words with the short "u."
  • If students have mastered the short "u," work on chaining (decoding and encoding) using the short "o." Start with VC until mastery is achieved using real and nonsense words (examples: "op," "og"). Emphasize articulatory gestures: how the sounds feel and how the mouth changes position from one sound to the next.  Consider adding words with -ng such as "song" and "long."
  • If students have not mastered the short "u," continue to work on chaining and spelling from memory with short "u" words only. Start with VC until mastery is achieved using real and nonsense words (examples: "ud," "ur"). Consider using previously introduced consonants as well as those introduced in today's whole group lesson if students can manage. Review any consonant sounds and letter formation that may not be automatic.
  • Related Activity Bank suggestions:
    • An Activity Bank activity from the Decoding and Encoding category (DE)

Full and Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Establish weekly Word Lists and exit tickets for independent work time.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word List Guidance (for teacher reference)
    • Word List (one per student or per pair)
    • Word Card Template (example, can be revised based on needs of group; one per student or per pair)
    • Sorting Words Template (one per student or per pair)

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