Chaining | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:S2:C10:L51

Chaining

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Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can segment and blend CCVC words with the phonemes (sounds) /f/, /l/, /a/, /g/, /d/, /s/, /i/, /p/, /r/. (RF.1.2)
    • I can say a three-phoneme word and segment (break apart) into individual phonemes (sounds) in order.
    • I can blend three phonemes to form a spoken word.
  • Opening B: I can write the graphemes (letters) that match the phonemes (sounds) "f," "l," "a," "g," "d," "s," "i," "p," "r." (RF.K.3, L.1.2a)
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the consonant sounds I hear.
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the short vowel sounds I hear.
    • I can look at each consonant and say its sound.
  • Work Time: I can read and spell CCVC words with the phonemes (sounds) /f/, /l/, /a/, /p/, /s/, /i/, /o/, /d/, /r/, /t/, /g/. (RF.1.3, L.1.2)
    • I can decode regularly spelled one-syllable words by mapping graphemes and phonemes.
    • I can use what I know about common spelling patterns to correctly spell words with those common patterns.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during work with whiteboards.
    • Determine whether they can blend CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words using the patterns for the week.
    • Determine whether they can spell CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words from memory.

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (3-5 minutes)

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /f/, /l/, /a/, /g/, /d/, /s/, /i/, /p/, /r/

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: "f," "l," "a," "p," "g," "s," "i," "d," "r"

2. Work Time (10-15 minutes)

A. Chaining: Decoding /f/, /l/, /a/, /p/, /s/, /i/, /o/, /r/, /d/, /g/, /t/

B. Chaining: Encoding "f," "l," "a," "p," "g," "s," "i," "o," "d," "r" ("flap," "slap," "slip," "flip," "flop," "flops," "drop," "drip," "grip," "trip")

3. Closing and Assessment (3-5 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Letter Formation chart with visuals (for teacher reference)
    • "l" Clusters anchor chart (see supporting materials)
    • "r" Clusters anchor chart (see supporting materials)
    • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)
  • Gather materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, decode, proficient (L)

Materials

  • Letter Formation chart (for teacher reference)
  • "l" Clusters anchor chart
  • "r" Clusters anchor chart
  • Whiteboards or sheet protectors with white cardboard inside (one per student or pair)
  • Whiteboard markers (one per student)
  • Whiteboard erasers (or tissues, socks, etc.; one per student)
  • Movable letters (magnetic letters, Letter Cards in a pocket chart, or other letters that can be displayed and moved; one each for teacher modeling: /f/, /l/, /a/, /p/, /s/, /i/, /o/, /r/, /d/, /g/, /t/; from Lesson 26)
  • Articulatory Gestures chart
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /f/, /l/, /a/, /g/, /d/, /s/, /i/, /p/, /r/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Sit down and come together, together, together. Sit down and come together, together, right now. It's time to make four sounds and blend them together. Let's listen to each sound now, and blend them to make a word."

  • Begin the Phonemic Blending and Segmentation instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "We will make words using sounds that we know. Listen carefully while I do the first one."

2. Teacher says the phonemes (sounds) in the first word--"flag" (/f//l//a//g/)--using the thumb-tapping technique.

3. Teacher says: "When I blend the sounds together, they make the word 'flag.'" Teacher models blending the phoneme to make the word.

4. Students repeat the thumb-tapping technique, pronouncing each phoneme: /f//l//a//g/.

5. Students blend the word: "flag."

6. Repeat steps 2-5 with remaining words: "glad," "slip," "slid," "drip," and "grip."

  • The "dr-" consonant cluster is often heard as /j/ and represented with a "j." In turn, the "tr-" cluster is often heard as /ch/ and represented with "ch." Invite students to say each sound in these clusters slowly. Have students use a mirror to see how the mouth moves when making these sounds.
  • For students who have difficulty with the dexterity needed for the thumb task, encourage them to tap the thumb on the opposite hand.
  • Consider facing the board while modeling and looking over a shoulder at students so writing is modeled from left to right.
  • Consider facing the students when modeling how to skywrite and instructing them to mirror you.

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: "f," "l," "a," "p," "g," "s," "i," "d," "r"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters and write them. Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters, let's go!"

  • Begin the Writing the Letter to Match the Sound instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "You will write the letters that match each sound you hear. These letters will help us write words!"

2. Teacher says the word: "flag."

3. Teacher pronounces the phonemes (sounds): /f/ /l/ /a/ /g/.

4. Students repeat: /f/ /l/ /a/ /g/.

5. Teacher repeats the phonemes, writing the grapheme (letter) for each phoneme as he or she says it and inviting students to repeat by skywriting (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter).

6. Repeat steps 2-5 for the remaining words: "glad," "slip," "slid," "drip," and "grip."

7. Teacher asks:

"What do you notice at the beginning of these words?" (consonant followed by "l" and/or "r"; cluster)

8. Teacher says: "Right; each of these words begins with a cluster. The blends we notice in these words are 'fl,' 'gl,' 'sl,' 'dr,' and 'gr.' A cluster is two consonants that travel together while each making their own sound. And we noticed that the word 'cluster' even has the 'cl' blend in it to help us remember!"

9. Teacher shows students the "l" Cluster and "r" Cluster anchor charts.

10. Teacher writes "flag," "glad," "slip," "slid," "drip," and "grip" on the anchor charts, underlining the consonant cluster to indicate where we hear the sounds in the word.

11. Teacher says: "'Flag,' 'glad,' 'slip,' 'slid,' 'drip,' and 'grip' are words that begin with a consonant cluster. We will continue to collect words that begin with these sounds and add them to the chart throughout the year."

  • Consider contrasting a digraph with a cluster for students who may confuse the two. Remind them that the word "digraph" contains the "ph" digraph, as the word "cluster" contains the "cl" cluster.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Chaining: Decoding /f/, /l/, /a/, /p/, /s/, /i/, /o/, /r/, /d/, /g/, /t/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to decode words using the letter sound connections; now it's time to decode words; be careful, watch for a change."

  • Distribute whiteboards, whiteboard markers, and whiteboard erasers.
  • Begin the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher shows the word with movable letters: "flap."

2. Teacher points to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "flap."

3. Students write the word on their whiteboards: "flap." Emphasize proper letter formation (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter).

4. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word: "flap."

5. Teacher removes the "f" and replaces it with an "s." Teacher asks:

"How has the word changed?" (The first letter is an "s" instead of an "f.")

6. Teacher asks:

"How has the word stayed the same?" ("-lap" is the same.)

7. Students erase the "f" and write an "s" in its place to form the new word: "slap."

8. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word: "slap."

9. Repeat steps 5-8 with remaining words: "slip," "flip," "flop," "flops," "drop," "drip," "grip," "trip."

10. After teacher adds the last word to the list and students decode it, teacher guides them to read the entire list of words (as a group and/or individual volunteers) and asks:

"What do you notice about all of the words?" (They all have a cluster at the beginning, some with 'l' and some with 'r.' They all have a short vowel sound. They are all one-syllable words.)

  • Consider extending this activity to include more words once students are familiar with more letter combinations. Examples:
    • "black," "bless," "spill," "speck," "flick," "flint"

B. Chaining: Encoding "f," "l," "a," "p," "g," "s," "i," "o," "d," "r" ("flap," "slap," "slip," "flip," "flop," "flops," "drop," "drip," "grip," "trip")

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to spell the words, using letter sound connections. Now it's time to spell the words; be careful, listen for the sounds."

  • Continue the Chaining instructional practice, now focusing on the encoding portion:

1. Teacher says the first word: "flap."

2. Students say: "flap."

3. Teacher writes the letters that correspond to each sound on the board, emphasizing proper letter formation (see Letter Formation chart for suggested formation of each letter): f-l-a-p.

4. Teacher covers the word: "flap."

5. Students write the word on their whiteboards from memory: "flap."

6. Teacher uncovers the word: "flap."

7. Students check their spelling.

8. Students erase their whiteboards.

9. Repeat steps 1-8 with remaining words: "slap," "slip," "flip," "flop," "flops," "drop," "drip," "grip," "trip."

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners keep track of and reflect on their own learning. Point out that they are doing this each time they consider how what they did today helps them to become more proficient readers.
  • Invite students to reflect and share with a partner (or whole group). Ask:

"What did you do today that is helping you become a more proficient reader?" (Responses will vary. Examples: "I matched sounds to letters to blend sounds together to make a word.")

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • "When I made the sounds for the word _____, I _____."
    • "When I wrote the letter _____, I _____."
    • "When I blended the sounds _____, I _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. Teacher may meet briefly with the Full and Consolidated groups to provide a weekly Word List and exit ticket or possibly set up a management system allowing these students to find the list and exit ticket and begin work independently.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work Guidance document for more details (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual).

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Aim small group instruction at building students' knowledge and skills of letter identification and phonological awareness.
  • Use the Assessment Conversion chart to determine appropriate Kindergarten lessons and Activity Bank ideas to use in daily small group instruction.

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Use the assessment from Cycle 9, Lesson 50 to determine whether students in this group have mastered decoding and encoding one-syllable short-vowel words.
  • If students have not mastered short vowels, work on chaining and spelling from memory with short-vowel CVC words. Consider using previously introduced consonants as well as the clusters from Cycle 9 if students can manage. Review any consonant sounds and letter formation that may not be automatic.
  • Related Activity Bank suggestions:
    • An Activity Bank activity from the Phonological Manipulation (PM) category

Full and Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Establish weekly Word Lists and exit tickets for independent work time.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word List Guidance (for teacher reference)
    • Word List (one for each student or per pair)
    • Word Card Template (example; can be revised based on needs of group; one per student or per pair)
    • Sorting Words Template (one per student or per pair)

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