Chaining | EL Education Curriculum

You are here

ELA G1:S1:C4:L21

Chaining

You are here:

Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can segment and blend CVC and CCVC words with the phonemes (sounds): /t/ /n/, /u/, /s/, /sh/. (RF.1.2)
    • I can say a three-phoneme word and segment (break apart) into individual phonemes (sounds) in order.
    • I can blend three phonemes to form a spoken word.
    • I can identify the sound that corresponds to "sh."
  • Opening B: I can write the graphemes (letters) that match the phonemes (sounds): "p," "n," "u," "s," "sh," "t". (RF.K.3, L.K.2)
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the consonant sounds I hear.
    • I can write the letter or letters for most of the short vowel sounds I hear.
    • I can look at each consonant and say its sound.
    • I can identify the sound that corresponds to "sh."
  • Work Time: I can read and spell VC, CVC , and CCVC words with the phonemes (sounds): /i/, /qu/, /s/, /t/, /f/, /k/ (as "c"), /r/. (RF.1.3; L.1.2)
    • I can decode regularly spelled one-syllable words by mapping graphemes and phonemes.
    • I can use what I know about common spelling patterns to correctly spell words with those common patterns.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during work with whiteboards.
    • Determine whether they can blend VC and CVC words using the patterns for the week.
    • Also determine whether they can spell VC and CVC words from memory.

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (3-5 minutes)

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /t/ /n/, /u/, /s/, /sh/

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: "p," "n," "u," "s," "sh," "t"

2. Work Time (10-15 minutes)

A. Chaining: Decoding: /i/, /qu/, /s/, /t/, /f/, /k/ (as "c"), /r/

B. Chaining: Encoding /sh/, /u/, /qu/, /p/, /a/, /i/, /t/, /z/, /n/, /s/ ("quit," "pits," "up," "cup," "cut," "rut," "run," "fun")

3. Closing and Assessment (3-5 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Letter Formation chart with visuals
    • Short "u" anchor chart with keyword illustration (see supporting materials)
    • "qu" anchor chart with keyword illustration (see supporting materials)
    • "sh" Digraph anchor chart with keyword illustration (see supporting materials)
    • Snapshot Assessment (optional)
  • Gather Materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, decode, digraph, noun, plural, proficient (L)

Materials

  • Letter Formation chart (from Cycle 2, Lesson 6)
  • Whiteboards or sheet protectors with white cardboard inside (one per student or pair)
  • Whiteboard markers (one per student)
  • Whiteboard erasers (or tissues, socks, etc.; one per student)
  • "The Story of Lonely Q" (one for teacher read-aloud)
  • Movable letters (magnetic letters, Letter Cards in a pocket chart, or other letters that can be displayed and moved; one each for teacher modeling: "sh," "a," "p," "n," "I," "s," "z," "t," "u," "qu," "r," "f," "c"; from Lesson 6)
  • "sh" Digraph, "qu" and short "u" anchor charts
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: /t/, /n/,/u/, /s/, /sh/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Sit down and come together, together, together. Sit down and come together, together, right now. It's time to make three sounds and blend them together. Let's listen to each sound now, and blend them to make a word."

  • Begin the Phonemic Blending and Segmentation instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "We will make words using sounds that we know. Listen carefully while I do the first one."

2. Teacher says the phonemes (sounds) in the first word--"nut" (/n/ /u/ /t/)--using the thumb-tapping technique (spread index, middle, and ring fingers, touching each with the thumb for each phoneme, beginning with the index finger; run the thumb under all three fingers to blend together).

3. Teacher says: "When I blend the sounds together, they make the word 'nut.'" Teacher runs a thumb under all three fingers to model blending the phonemes to make the word.

4. Students repeat the thumb-tapping technique, pronouncing each phoneme: /n/ /u/ /t/.

5. Students run a thumb under all three fingers to blend the word: "nut."

6. Repeat steps 2-5 with the next word: "shut."

  • For students who may have difficulty with the dexterity needed for the thumb task: Encourage them to tap the thumb on the opposite hand.
  • Consider arranging left-handed students on the left side of the room and right-handed students on the right side to avoid arm clashing.
  • Consider facing the board while modeling and looking over a shoulder at students, so writing is modeled from left to right.
  • Considering facing the students when modeling how to "skywrite" and instructing them to mirror you.
  • For students who may be ready, consider extending the understanding of "ship" from noun to verb. If necessary, review the concept of a noun as students discuss the difference between ship as an object (a boat) versus the action of sending something off.

B. Writing the Letter to Match the Sound: "p," "n," "u," "s," "sh," "t"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters and write them. Now it's time to match these sounds to their letters, let's go!"

  • Begin the Writing the Letter to Match the Sound instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "You will write the letters that match each sound you hear. These letters will help us write words!"

2. Teacher says the word: "nut."

3. Teacher pronounces the phonemes (sounds): /n/ /u/ /t/.

4. Students repeat: /n/ /u/ /t/.

5. Teacher repeats the phonemes, writing the grapheme (letter) for the first two phonemes as he or she says it and inviting students to repeat by "skywriting" (refer to the Letter Formation chart in the supporting Materials for the suggested formation of each letter).

6. Repeat steps 2-5 for the remaining words: "up" and "shun."

  • For students who may need additional support with the pronunciation of /sh/: Consider using a mirror so they can see how the mouth moves when forming the sound.
  • Explain that "shun" is a word, but not one that is common. It is an action word that means ignore or leave out. Consider using it in a sentence, such as: "I don't like to shun people. People feel sad when they're left out."

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Chaining: Decoding /i/, /qu/, /s/, /t/, /f/, /k/ (as "c"), /r/

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to decode words using the letter sound connections; now it's time to decode words; be careful, watch for a change."

  • Distribute whiteboards, whiteboard markers, and whiteboard erasers.
  • Ask:

"What do you know about the letters 'q' and 'u'?" (They are married. They are always together. They are best friends.)

  • Explain that the letters "q" and "u" are "stuck like glue." This rhyme is easy to remember so that students recall the need to always add "u" to lonely "q."
  • Display and share the story of "The Story of Lonely Q."
  • Model the sound that "qu" makes: (/k/ /w/). Remind students that "q" and "u" are stuck like glue, making two sounds heard as /k/ /w/. Explain that when the letter "u" is with "q," it doesn't make the /u/ sound that one would expect.
  • Begin the Decoding (reading) part of the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher shows the word with movable letters: "quit."

2. Teacher points to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "quit."

3. Students write the word on their whiteboards: "quit." Emphasize proper letter formation. (Refer to the Letter Formation chart for the suggested formation of each letter.)

4. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "quit."

5. Teacher removes the "t" and replaces it with a "z." Teacher asks:

"How has the word changed?" (We removed the "t" and replaced it with "z.")

"How has the word stayed the same?" ("Qu" is the same.)

6. Students erase "t" and write "z" at the end of "qui" to form the new word: "quiz."

7. Students point to each letter from left to right, making each sound and blending to pronounce the word "quiz."

8. Teacher clears the board and builds "up" with movable letters.

9. Explain that "u" is no longer stuck to the "q," so it makes its usual sound: /u/.

10. Repeat steps 2-5 with the remaining words: "cup," "cut," "rut," "run," "fun."

11. After the teacher adds the last word to the list and students decode it, the teacher guides students to read the entire list of words (as a group and/or individual volunteers).

  • Consider extending this activity to include more words once students are familiar with more letter combinations. Examples:
    • "quick," "quack," etc.

B. Chaining: Encoding /sh/, /u/, /qu/, /p/, /a/, /i/, /t/, /z/, /n/, /s/ ("quit," "pits," "up," "cup," "cut," "rut," "run," "fun")

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "The More We Get Together"):

"Now it's time to spell the words using letter sound connections. Now it's time to spell the words; be careful, listen for the sounds."

  • Continue with the Chaining instructional practice, now focusing on the encoding portion:

1. Teacher says the first word: "quiz."

2. Students say "quiz."

3. Teacher writes the letters that correspond to each sound on the board, emphasizing proper letter formation (refer to the Letter Formation chart for the suggested formation of each letter): q-u-i-z. Teacher asks students to recall the rule for "q" and "u." (They are stuck like glue.)

4. Teacher covers the word: "quiz."

5. Students write the word on their whiteboards from memory: "quiz."

6. Teacher uncovers the word: "quiz."

7. Students check their spelling.

8. Students erase their whiteboards.

9. Repeat steps 1-8 with the remaining words: "quit," "pits," "up," "cup," "cut," "rut," "run," "fun."

10. Add words to appropriate ongoing anchor charts as you use them. Example: Add "cut" to the Short "u" anchor chart. Add "shut" to the Short "u" and "sh" Digraph anchor charts, etc.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners keep track of and reflect on their own learning. Point out that they are doing this each time they consider how what they did today helps them to become more proficient readers.
  • Invite students to reflect and share with a partner (or whole group). Ask:

"What did you do today that is helping you become a more proficient reader?" (Responses will vary. Examples: "I matched sounds to letters to blend sounds together to make a word," "I remembered the story of Lonely Q to help me.")

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • "When I made the sounds for the word _____, I _____."
    • "When I wrote the letter _____, I _____."
    • "When blended the sounds _____, I _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. Teacher may meet briefly with the Full and Consolidated groups to provide a weekly Word List and exit ticket or possibly set up a management system allowing these students to find the list and exit ticket and begin work independently.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work Guidance document for more details (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual).

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Aim small group instruction at building students' knowledge and skills with letter identification and phonological awareness.
  • Use the Assessment Conversion chart to determine appropriate kindergarten lessons and Activity Bank ideas to use in daily small group instruction (see Assessment Overview and Resources).

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Use the assessments from previous cycles to determine whether students in this group have mastered decoding and encoding VC and CVC words with /a/ and /i/.
  • If students have not mastered those short vowels, continue to work on chaining and spelling from memory with short-vowel words that do not contain digraphs. Start with VC until mastery using real and nonsense words (examples: "am," "ap"). Consider using previously introduced consonants as well as those introduced in today's whole group lesson if students are able to manage. Review any consonant sounds and letter formation that may not be automatic.
  • Related Activity Bank suggestions:
    • An Activity Bank activity from the Decoding and Encoding category (DE)

Full and Consolidated:

  • Establish weekly Word Lists and exit tickets for independent work time.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word List Guidance (for teacher reference)
    • Word List (one per student or per pair)
    • Word Card Template (one per student or per pair
    • Sorting Words Template (one per student or per pair)

Get updates about our new K-5 curriculum as new materials and tools debut.

Sign Up