Focused Read-aloud: City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:M4:U2:L2

Focused Read-aloud: City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RL.1.3: Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.2: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • L.1.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.1.1h: Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can describe the setting, characters, and major events in the text City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male. (RL.1.1, RL.1.3, SL.1.2)
  • I can answer questions about the character in City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male using evidence from the text. (RI.1.1, RL.1.3, W.1.8, SL.1.2, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During Work Times A, B, and C, monitor students' comprehension of the story to correct any misunderstandings. (RL.1.1, RL.1.3)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Learner: "Two Sides of the Story" (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Focused Read-aloud: City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male (20 minutes)

B. Role-Play Protocol: City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male (10 minutes)

C. Independent Writing: Pale Male Research Notebook (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In the Opening, students are introduced to the jazz chant "Two Sides of the Story." The chant introduces students to opinions people have about birds and to the demonstratives this, these, that, and those. In a jazz chant, there is no poetic license or artificial change to the stress and intonation patterns of natural speech. A jazz chant provides opportunities for natural and enjoyable repetition as students rehearse language and later transfer the language to other contexts. All students, and ELLs in particular, can improve their pronunciation in a nonthreatening way while developing fluency and natural speed in speaking "chunks" of language. A jazz chant has a four-beat rhythm: 1, 2, 3, 4. In the Rhythmic Beat of "Two Sides of the Story" Jazz Chant (for teacher reference), each beat is in bold print and will be either a stressed word, a stressed syllable, or a pause marked by a clap. Practice saying and clapping the rhythm of the chant to yourself before introducing it to the students.
  • In Work Time A, students engage in a focused read-aloud of the text City Hawk: A Story of Pale Male. Students describe story elements as they help create the City Hawk anchor chart. They use this chart to track important parts of the story and to help include evidence in their written responses in Work Time C. Although this story is based on facts, it is written as a story and is referred to in lessons as literature.
  • The pages of City Hawk: A Story of Pale Male are not numbered. For instructional purposes, the page that begins with "New York City is bustling with cars ..." should be considered page 1 and all pages thereafter numbered accordingly.
  • Throughout this module, consider using the routines established in Module 3 for transitioning students back to their workspaces (e.g., Bird Boogie, Feathered Friends, etc.).

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • Students learned about bird helpers in Unit 1. This lesson begins a study on Pale Male to reveal how people feel differently about birds.
  • In Unit 1, students helped create the Stories of Bird Helpers anchor chart with icons to represent story elements. In this lesson, students use new icons to create the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Unit 1 stressed the importance of students incorporating evidence in their answers. In Work Time C of this lesson, students use evidence from the text to describe Pale Male and his importance.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may need some additional direction for the role-play. Consider telling them their roles as well as the exact actions they should act out while they participate in the Role-Play protocol.
  • Students need to include evidence in their answers during Work Time C. To help them remember details, consider rereading specific pages with the details they need.

Down the road:

  • In Lesson 3, students participate in another focused read-aloud that reveals both opinions on Pale Male's nest: Should it be kept up or should it be taken down?

In Advance

  • Preview the focused read-aloud in Work Time A and consider marking pages in the book with questions.
  • Pre-distribute materials for Work Time C at student workspaces.
  • Post Learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout Modules 1-3 to create anchor charts to share with families; to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families; and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.
  • Record students as they participate in the "Two Sides of the Story" jazz chant to listen to later to remember the rhythmic beat and to use as a model for the group. Most devices (cell phones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.B.5, 1.I.B.6, 1.l.C.10, 1.I.C.12, and 1.II.C.6

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs through opportunities to learn language through a jazz chant and to engage in rigorous work with elements of story through reading quality literature and role-playing.
  • ELLs may find including evidence in their writing during Work Time C challenging (see levels of support and the Meeting Students' Needs column).

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During Work Time C, invite students to use the City Hawk anchor chart as they write about Pale Male.

For heavier support:

  • Review pages of the book to answer the questions: "Why were people so surprised to see Pale Male in the city?" and "Who was Pale Male?"

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students engage with City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male. Students need strong flexible thinking and metacognitive skills as they incorporate this new learning with prior knowledge from Unit 1. Provide scaffolds to support diverse abilities in using these skills, such as explicit highlighting of information in the text to guide students in new understandings.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): In this lesson, individual students are asked to share ideas with the whole group. As students share out, provide options for expression and communication by offering and modeling sentence frames.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Some students may need additional support in linking the information presented in the text back to the learning target. Invite students to make this connection by explicitly highlighting the utility and relevance of the text to the learning target. Include opportunities to refocus students' attention on the learning target throughout the lesson and invite students to share how each learning activity supports their instructional goal.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • demonstratives (L)
  • pale, male, dedicated (T)

Review:

  • setting, evidence, opinion, empathy (L)

Materials

  • "Two Sides of the Story" (new; teacher-created; see supporting materials)
  • Rhythmic Beat of "Two Sides of the Story" Jazz Chant (for teacher reference)
  • White board (one; used by the teacher during the jazz chant)
  • City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • City Hawk anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8 (one set to display)
  • City Hawk anchor chart (example, for teacher reference)
  • Role-Play Protocol anchor chart (begun in Unit 1)
  • Pale Male research notebook (page 1; one per student and one to display)
  • Pale Male research notebook (example, for teacher reference)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Learner: "Two Sides of the Story" (10 minutes)

  • Gather students whole group.
  • Tell them that you have a special activity to share with them today, a jazz chant!
  • Display "Two Sides of the Story" and read the title.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"How is this jazz chant similar to a two-voice poem?" (There are two columns of text.)

Conversation Cue: "Do you agree or disagree with what your classmate said? Why? I'll give you time to think." (Responses will vary.)

  • Briefly explain that similar to how a two-voice poem is written for two people to read aloud together, this jazz chant is said by two groups of people. One column represents one group, in this case the birdwatchers. The other column represents the other group, the neighbors.
  • Tell students that in a jazz chant, you say the words while keeping a 1, 2, 3, 4 beat. Show what this beat sounds like as you clap and say 1, 2, 3, 4 for each beat.
  • Read aloud the entire chant while clapping the 1, 2, 3, 4 beat. Refer to the Rhythmic Beat of "Two Sides of the Story" Jazz Chant (for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is this chant mostly about?" (birdwatchers and neighbors talking about what they think about some birds; people giving their opinion about birds)

  • Invite students to clap the beat while they listen to you say the chant again.
  • Direct students' attention back to the chant and focus them on the words that are underlined and read them out loud.
  • Tell students that the underlined words demonstrate or show what is close by and what is far away from the speaker or speakers. They are called demonstratives. In this case, the speakers are birdwatchers and neighbors.
  • Divide the class into two groups--one for the birdwatchers and one for the neighbors--and invite them to stand in front of each other a distance apart.
  • Draw a quick sketch of two birds in a nest on a white board and prop it up on the floor right in front of the neighbors group. Point to the pictures on the white board and say: "This nest is close to the neighbors. These birds are close to the neighbors."
  • Point to the lines of the chant that have the words those and that and tell students that this is what the birdwatchers are saying about the birds and the nest, which are far away from them.
  • Stand by the birdwatchers group and invite students to point at the sketch of the birds in a nest. Say:

"Point at those birds in that nest while we say the lines with the words those and that in the chant."

  • Chorally say the lines with the words those and that as you clap the 1, 2, 3, 4 beat and students point to the nest with the birds.
  • Point to the lines of the chant that have the words these and this and tell students that this is what the neighbors are saying about the birds and the nest, which are close to them.
  • Stand by the neighbors group and invite students to point at the sketch of the birds in a nest. Say:

"Point at these birds in this nest while we say the lines with the words these and this in the chant."

  • Chorally say the lines with the words these and this in the chant as you clap the 1, 2, 3, 4 beat.

Conversation Cue: "Does our discussion add to your understanding of the words these and those? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Responses will vary.)

  • As time permits, say the chant chorally one more time while clapping the 1, 2, 3, 4 beat.
  • Tell students that in the next lesson they will have a chance to work with the chant again and add moves to it!
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Annotating Jazz Chant) Annotate the chant to show major stresses, intonation, and linking (e.g., place backward slashes to show phrases and pauses, circle words that are stressed, connect words that link together and sound almost like one word). (MMR)
  • ELLs: (Pronouncing Correctly) Invite students to practice pronouncing the demonstratives this, these, that, and those.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Focused Read-aloud: City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male (20 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:

"I can describe the setting, characters, and major events in the text City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male."

  • Turn and Talk:

"What is the setting?" (where the story takes place)

  • Tell students that major events are serious or important things that happen in the story.
  • Display City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What do you notice on the cover?" (birds, buildings, etc.)

"What do you think this book will be about?" (this bird named Pale Male, an important hawk)

  • Read the story aloud.
  • Direct students' attention to the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Tell students that as you reread the text, you will ask for their help to describe the characters, setting, and major events so that you can add notes to the anchor chart.
  • Reread page 1.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is the setting of this story?" (New York City)

"How is it described?" (busy, people hurrying, lots of buildings, crowded)

  • As students respond, post Icon #1 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8 in the Settings column on the City Hawk anchor chart. Refer to the City Hawk anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Reread pages 2-3.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What do New Yorkers usually see in the park?" (people playing music, flying kites, etc.)

"What do New Yorkers not usually see?" (wildlife, animals from the forest, mountaintops)

  • Reread pages 4-5.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What character did we hear about on this page?" (Pale Male)

"What do you know about Pale Male?" (red-tailed hawk, light feathers)

  • As students respond, post Icon #2 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8in the Characters column on the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Tell students that the word pale  means lightly colored, like Pale Male's feathers.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What does male mean?" (boy, man)

  • Reread pages 6-8.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What character did we hear about on this page?" (Lola)

"What do you know about Lola?" (hawk, dark feathers, bigger size, girl)

  • As students respond, post Icon #3 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8in the Characters column on the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Reread page 10.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What important event happened on this page" (The hawks built a nest.)

  • Turn and Talk:

"Tell your partner where the hawks built the nest and what they used." (on an apartment building, near spikes; twigs and branches)

  • As students respond, post Icon #4 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8 in the Settings column on the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Reread page 12.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What other characters did we read about on this page?" (the regulars)

"How are the regulars described?" (old and young, men and women)

  • As students respond, post Icon #5 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8in the Settings column on the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Tell students that the author used the word dedicated to describe the regulars.
  • Define dedicated (very loyal).
  • Challenge students to listen for more words on the next page that show the regulars being dedicated.
  • Reread page 13.
  • Call on a few volunteers to share which words in the text show the regulars were dedicated. ("watched the action excitedly like die-hard fans viewing their favorite sporting event")
  • Read pages 14-15.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What important event has happened now?" (regulars showed up to watch, waited day after day)

  • Turn and Talk:

"Describe to your partner what the regulars did." (came before the sun was up, left after the sun was down, brought lots of equipment)

  • As students respond, post Icon #6 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8 in the Settings column on the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Reread pages 16-17.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What important event has happened now?" (The babies were born.)

"What do we know about the babies?" (They are hungry.)

  • As students respond, post Icon #7 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8 in the Settings column on the City Hawk anchor chart.
  • Reread pages 18-19.
  • Tell students that the phrase "but neither flew" tells the reader that both babies have not started to fly.
  • Reread pages 21 to the end.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What happened to the babies at the end of this story?" (They learned to fly. They grew up.)

  • As students respond, post Icon #8 from the City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8 in the Settings column on the City Hawk anchor chart.

Conversation Cue: "How does our discussion add to your understanding of major events in the story? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Responses will vary.)

  • Tell students that they will now use their bodies to help understand the story by acting some scenes.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Using Familiar Example) To prepare students to identify major events in City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male, briefly recount a familiar story to identify the major events. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: (Discussing Icons) Discuss what each picture from City Hawk Icon Set, #1-8 represents.
  • Before reading, provide white boards and white board markers as an option for students to record (in drawing or writing) their ideas. This will also help scaffold active listening for key details. (MMR, MMAE)

B. Role-Play Protocol: City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male (10 minutes)

  • Tell students they are going to use the Role-Play protocol to think more about the characters from the story City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male. Remind them that they used this protocol in Unit 1 and review as necessary using the Role-Play Protocol anchor chart. Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.
  • Guide students through the protocol using the sentence from page 5:
    • "Passersby couldn't believe their eyes when a red-tailed hawk was spotted flying over Fifth Avenue."
  • When students have finished and a pair of students has shared out, call on a few volunteers to respond whole group:

"How did people feel when they first saw Pale Male flying around in the city?" (surprised, shocked, amazed, interested)

"Why did they feel that way?" (He was wildlife; he didn't belong there; hawks do not live in cities.)

Conversation Cue: "How does our discussion add to your understanding of the text? I'll give you time to think and discuss with a partner." (Responses will vary.)

  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Describing Illustrations) To ensure that students notice how people reacted to the hawks in City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male,  describe the illustrations on page 7. (People stop on the sidewalk looking up, some people smiling, others looking surprised or amazed.) (MMR)
  • For ELLs: (Strategic Grouping) Consider pairing students with a partner who has more advanced or native language proficiency. After the protocol, invite a partnership in which there is an ELL to share their role-play with the class. Prompt the ELL to share what part of the text they acted out.

C. Independent Writing: Pale Male Research Notebook (15 minutes)

  • Tell students that they will now get to write about the character they played in the role-play.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:

"I can answer questions about the character in City Hawk: The Story of Pale Male using evidence from the text."

  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is evidence from the text?" (proof in the text)

  • Display and introduce the Pale Male research notebook.
  • Model reading aloud the cover page and writing on the "name" line.
  • Turn to page 1.
  • Point to each word as you read aloud the first sentence:
    • "Who was Pale Male?"
  • Turn and Talk:

"Who was Pale Male?" (a red-tailed hawk, boy, light colored, hawk living in New York City)

Conversation Cue: "Who can add on to what your classmate said? I'll give you time to think." (Responses will vary.)

  • Prompt students to use the City Hawk anchor chart to help them include evidence from the text.
  • Repeat the process with the second question:

"Why were people so surprised to see Pale Male in the city?" (People were surprised because he made a nest in a big city; hawks normally live in the wild.)

Conversation Cue: "Who can add on to what your classmate said? I'll give you time to think."

  • Use a routine established in Module 3 to transition students back to their workspaces.
  • Point out the Pale Male research notebooks already at their workspaces and invite students to write their name on them.
  • Invite students to open to page 1.
  • Reread the first question and invite students to write their answer.
  • Circulate to support students as necessary. Refer to the Pale Male research notebook (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Reread the second question and invite students to write their answer.
  • After a few minutes, invite students to turn to the front cover of their notebook.
  • Remind students that they will be using this special notebook for the entire unit and will need to show responsibility to take good care of their work.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with organizing ideas for written expression: (Verbal Writing Practice) Allow students to discuss and rehearse their sentences before writing. Consider providing a sentence frame to ensure that students' sentences include who Pale Male was and why people were so surprised to see him in the city. (MMAE)
  • For students who may need additional support with writing fluency: Invite students to rehearse their answer aloud twice. On the second time, invite them to draw a line for each word they will write. (MMAE)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to point to the words in the guiding question on their notebook cover as it is read aloud:
    • "Why do people have different opinions about birds?"
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What is an opinion?" (what you think about something)

"What might happen when people have different opinions?" (They might get mad, get into an argument.)

  • Tell students that they have already learned the first step in sharing opinions kindly: showing empathy.
  • Remind students that showing empathy means to try to understand how someone is feeling.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What ways have we learned to understand someone's feelings?" (body language, situation, by asking)

  • Tell students that they will have a chance to practice showing empathy as they hear more about the opinions people have about Pale Male and his nest in the next lesson.
  • For ELLs: (Strategic Grouping) Create small groups or pairs according to home language and invite them to discuss what an opinion is and what might happen when people have different opinions.
  • For students who may need additional support with comprehension: Invite students to share one way they have recently shown or been shown empathy outside the classroom. (MMR, MME)

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