Focused Read-aloud and Writing, Session 1: Pierre the Penguin | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:M4:U1:L4

Focused Read-aloud and Writing, Session 1: Pierre the Penguin

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RL.1.3: Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.2: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • L.1.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.1.1g: Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
  • L.1.1.j: Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
  • L.1.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can describe the characters, setting, and problem in the text Pierre the Penguin. (RL.1.1, RL.1.3, SL.1.2)
  • I can write about the problem in Pierre the Penguin using evidence from the text. (W.1.8, L1.1g, L1.1j)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the Opening and Work Time B, continue to use the Language Standards Checklist to track student progress toward L.1.1 and L.1.1j (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • Collect students' Stories of Bird Helpers response journals and use the Reading Literature Checklist and Language Standards Checklist to track student progress toward RL 1.1, RL 1.3, RL 1.9, and L.1.1j (see Assessment Overview and Resources).

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Developing Language: Compound Sentences (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: Pierre the Penguin, Pages 1-12 (15 minutes)

B. Role-Play Protocol: Pierre the Penguin (10 minutes)

C. Independent Writing: Stories of Bird Helpers Response Journal (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Icon Sentences Protocol: Working to Become Ethical People (10 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In the Opening, students begin to learn about the purpose and structure of compound sentences. Students first practice orally and then move on to form and write compound sentences in response to a text-based question during Work Time C.
  • This lesson follows a similar structure to Lesson 2 as students engage in Session 1 of a focused read-aloud of a new narrative text based on a true story, Pierre the Penguin. They continue to answer text-based questions as they identify the character, setting, and problem of the story. Students also build more competence with determining the meaning of unknown words using multiple vocabulary strategies (L.1.4).
  • The pages of Pierre the Penguin are not numbered. For instructional purposes, the page that begins with "Down in the Big African Hall ..." should be considered page 1 and all pages after numbered accordingly.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • Students extend their learning about simple sentences from Lessons 2-3 as they learn about compound sentences.
  • Students continue to respond in writing to a text-based question in their response journals; however, the rigor of the task increases in this lesson as they are pushed to write a compound sentence in response to the question.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may find the concept of a compound sentence tricky. They have multiple opportunities to practice forming compound sentences through both oral language and in writing, so offer support and encouragement to build students' confidence and competence for future work with this standard.
  • Support students in the Closing by modeling creating a sentence with the icon set using a specific classroom example. Invite students to touch each icon and repeat the word it represents, if necessary.

Down the road:

  • Students will compare and contrast the experiences of the characters in The Lion and the Bird and Pierre the Penguin in Lesson 6.
  • In Lesson 6, students will learn about two-voice poetry as they engage with a poem about a bird and a bird helper. Consider asking another adult to help read the poem aloud and record it so that students can listen to it through multiple lessons.

In Advance

  • Prepare the Classroom Icon Sets and place them in plastic sandwich bags for easier distribution and cleanup during the Closing.
  • Distribute materials for Work Time C at student workspaces.
  • Strategically pair students with at least one strong reader per pair for Work Time B and the Closing.
  • Preview page 3 of the Stories of Bird Helpers response journal to familiarize yourself with what will be required of students.
  • Post: Learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout Modules 1-3 to create anchor charts to share with families; to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families; and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.
  • Make a video of the read-aloud of Pierre the Penguin during Work Time A and post for families to watch at home to discuss vocabulary and practice reading fluently. Reference this video for the next lesson.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.B.6, 1.I.B.8, 1.l.C.10, and 1.II.C.6

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to engage in rigorous work with compound sentences and story elements through reading quality literature and role-playing.
  • ELLs may find the work with compound sentences challenging. Particularly, they may have difficulty determining when to use the conjunctions and, so, and because (see levels of support and the Meeting Students' Needs column).

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During Work Time A, before reading Pierre the Penguin, invite students to review the elements of story by recalling the characters, setting, and problem in The Lion and the Bird.
  • During Work Times A and B, invite students to work as the experts in home language groups with classmates who need heavier support. The experts can support their classmates as they use the conjunctions and, but, and so. Provide the experts with simple sentences to link as a demonstration for other students.

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time B, add the base word gent and the suffix -ly to the Base Words and Word Parts 2 chart begun in Lesson 3. Remind students that adding -ly shows how the action was done (in a gentle way).
  • Add the words brayed, shivered, observing, and examined to the Base Words and Word Parts 1 chart started in Lesson 1.
  • Create sentence strips with each simple sentence and write conjunctions on cardstock for students to practice making simple sentences in support of this lesson and complex sentences throughout the unit.
  • Write the words Pierre, because, so, and, and he and the phrases lost his feathers, can't swim, and is cold onto cardstock to make sentence construction cards. Help students make compound sentences orally by manipulating the cards with these words and phrases. Remind them that instead of using the word Pierre twice, they can use the word he (see Tactile Writing Practice in the Meeting Students' Needs column in Work Time C).

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Continue to support comprehension by activating prior knowledge and scaffolding connections for students. Continue to provide visual display of questions and student responses on chart paper or the board during discussions.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): Continue to support strategy during independent writing by modeling how to physically touch the words/spaces on the sentence frame and draw lines for the words to be written. This helps students recall their original ideas in the writing process.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): Continue to provide targeted feedback that encourages sustained effort during each activity and encourages the use of specific supports and strategies, such as the Word Wall and peer support.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • compound, conjunction (L)
  • aquatic biologist, shivered, brayed (T)

Materials

  • Types of Sentences anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Types of Sentences anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; example, for teacher reference)
  • Pierre the Penguin (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Chart paper (one piece; used by the teacher to record sentences)
  • "African Penguins" song (one to display)
  • Stories of Bird Helpers anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; added to during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • L.4 Vocabulary Strategies anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Pierre the Penguin Icon Set, #1-7 (one to display)
  • Stories of Bird Helpers anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; example, for teacher reference)
  • Role-Play Protocol anchor chart (begun in Module 2)
  • Stories of Bird Helpers response journal (from Lesson 2; added to during Work Time C; page 3; one per student and one to display)
  • Stories of Bird Helpers response journal (begun in Lesson 2; example, for teacher reference)
  • Icon Sentences Protocol anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Classroom Icon Set (from Lesson 2; one set per pair)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Developing Language: Compound Sentences (10 minutes)

  • Gather students whole group.
  • Tell students that they will learn about a new type of sentence today.
  • Direct students' attention to the Types of Sentences anchor chart and briefly remind them about the simple sentences they have been working on in the past couple of lessons.
  • Say:

"When we connect two simple sentences, we make a compound sentence. A compound sentence is two simple sentences or two parts of sentences put together to make a longer one." Refer to the Types of Sentences anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.

  • Invite students to say the word compound aloud.
  • Tell students that a special connecting word links the two simple sentences or parts of sentences. Point to the icon on the Types of Sentences anchor chart and say the word conjunction.
    • Say:

"A conjunction is the special type of connecting word used in compound sentences. One conjunction you learned about in the last lesson is but. Some familiar conjunctions are and, so, and because."

  • Invite students to say the word conjunction aloud.
  • Briefly explain that when we use compound sentences when we write and talk, our ideas can sound a bit more interesting.
  • Tell students that they are now going to try making a compound sentence.
  • Display pages 3-4 of Pierre the Penguin.
  • Invite students to look at the illustrations.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite students to form a complete sentence in response to the question:

"What are the penguins doing?" (The penguins are swimming.)

  • Write this sentence on a blank piece of chart paper.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite students to generate a complete sentence in response to the question:

"Why are the penguins swimming?" (Responses will vary, but may include: The penguins like the water or The penguins find food in water.)

Conversation Cue: "Do you agree or disagree with what your classmate said? Why? I'll give you time to think." (Responses will vary.)

  • Write this new sentence on the same piece of chart paper as before.
  • Say and think aloud:

"Now we are going to practice connecting these two sentences with a conjunction to form a compound sentence!"

"I have two simple sentences: 'The penguins are swimming. The penguins find food in the water.' I can connect those two using the word because, and it sounds like this: 'The penguins are swimming because penguins find food in the water.'"

"I do not need to say the word penguins two times, so I will say they instead. My compound sentence now sounds like this: 'The penguins are swimming in the water because they find food in the water.'"

  • Write this compound sentence on the Types of Sentences anchor chart.
  • Invite students to read the compound sentence aloud as you point to each word.
  • Ask students to stand up and act out the compound sentence as you read it aloud.
  • Tell students that they will practice writing a compound sentence on their own later in the lesson.
  • Tell students that they will learn a fun new song today about a new kind of bird.
  • Display "African Penguins"song and sing it once, pointing at the words as students follow along.
  • Invite students to stand up and sing the song through once.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Explaining Simple Sentences) Display a couple of simple sentences from pages 15-16 of The Lion and the Bird and invite students to explain why they are simple sentences and to identify the who/what and the action in each. (Examples: The lion is reading. The bird is sleeping.) (MMR)
  • For ELLs: (Illustrating Conjunctions) Using the last picture on page 16 of The Lion and the Bird, slowly and fluently say the simple sentences "The lion is sleeping" and "The bird is sleeping" and then orally combine both sentences to make the compound sentence "The lion and the bird are sleeping," stressing the conjunction and. Display the two sentences and demonstrate visually how they are combined using a conjunction.
  • For students who may need additional support with comprehension: Scaffold reading skills by adding sketched illustrations above key words in "African Penguins." (MMR)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: Pierre the Penguin, Pages 1-12 (15 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:

"I can describe the characters, setting, and problem in the text Pierre the Penguin."

  • Direct students' attention to the Stories of Bird Helpers anchor chart and tell them that today they will add information about a new text to this chart. Review the chart as necessary.
  • Display Pierre the Penguin. Share that today they will listen to a part of the story read aloud and will continue to add icons to the Stories of Bird Helpers anchor chart for this particular text.
  • Tell students they should listen for information that identifies the characters, setting, and problem.
  • Draw students' attention to the title of the book and read it aloud.
  • While still displaying the text, complete a first read of pages 1-12.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What was this part of the book mostly about?" (a penguin named Pierre who had no feathers and was too cold to swim; the other penguins were scared of him)

  • Circulate as students talk and pre-select a few students to share out:

Conversation Cue: "Who can add on to what your classmate said? I'll give you time to think." (Responses will vary.)

  • Direct students' attention to the L.4 Vocabulary Strategies anchor chart and review as needed. Tell students that they will continue to work on using these strategies to figure out the meaning of unknown words. Display pages 7-8 and read aloud the text on page 7.
  • While referencing the L.4 Vocabulary Strategies anchor chart, tell students to use the first strategy on the chart to figure out the meaning of the words aquatic biologist on page 7:
    • "Look for clues in other words around the sentence."
  • Reread the first sentence on page 7, prompting students to listen for the meaning of the words aquatic biologist in the text.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What do the words aquatic biologist mean?" (a scientist who studies animals that live in water)

"How do you know?" (The text says Pam observed the penguins and noticed one was in a jam. She examined Pierre and noticed his feathers were gone.)

  • Think aloud to confirm understanding:
    • "This part of the text says that Pam is an aquatic biologist. I can tell she is a scientist who studies animals that live in water because the penguins she is observing are animals that live in the water. I can tell she was observing the penguins, which is something scientists do, and she noticed that Pierre was in a difficult situation. She examined him, which is also what a scientist does, and realized that he didn't have any feathers."
  • While referencing the L.4 Vocabulary Strategies anchor chart, tell students to use the first strategy on the chart again to figure out the meaning of the word bare on page 7:
    • "Look for clues in other words around the sentence."
  • Reread the last two sentences on page 7, prompting students to listen for the meaning of bare in the text.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What does the word bare mean?" (wearing no clothing or covering; naked)

"How do you know?" (The text says Pam noticed Pierre's feathers were gone.)

  • Ask students to think about the characters and setting of this story and ask:

"Who is the main character in the story?" (Pierre)

"Where does Pierre live (setting)?" (in an aquarium in the African Hall of the California Academy of Sciences)

  • Display pages 9-10 and read aloud the text on page 10.
  • Point to the word shivered on page 10.
  • While referencing the L.4 Vocabulary Strategies anchor chart, tell students to watch as you model using the second strategy on the chart to figure out the meaning of the word shivered on page 10:
    • "Look for base words."
  • Think aloud: "I see a base word there that I know. It's shiver. Shiver means to shake when you're cold. Sometimes parts are added to base words to tell when the action happened. The extra word part is -ed, and that means that it happened in the past. So shivered means that Pierre shook his body because he was cold."
  • Invite students to briefly act out the word shivered.
  • Display pages 11-12 and read aloud the text on page 11.
  • Point to the word brayed on page 11 and tell students that braying is a loud, harsh sound that some animals, such as donkeys, make.
  • Refocus students on the text and continue reading pages 11-12 aloud. Prompt them to listen for information about the problem Pierre faces.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What happened to Pierre?" (His feathers are gone. Pam tries a heater and pills, but nothing works.)

"Who helps him?" (Pam)

  • Direct students' attention back to the Stories of Bird Helpers anchor chart and focus their attention on the first three columns.
  • Turn and Talk:

"Who are the main characters?" (Pierre and Pam)

"Where does the story take place?" (in an aquarium in the African Hall of the California Academy of Sciences)

"What is the bird's problem?" (Pierre's feathers are gone, and he is cold.)

Conversation Cue: "Do you agree or disagree with what your classmate said? Why? I'll give you time to think." (Responses will vary.)

  • Invite a student volunteer to come up and place icons 1-4 from the Pierre the Penguin Icon Set, #1-7 in the corresponding columns.
  • Review the three columns once completed. Refer to the Stories of Bird Helpers anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Tell students that in the next lesson they will listen to find out how Pierre was helped and how the story is resolved.
  • Tell students they will also work together to complete the last three columns of the chart in the next lesson.
  • For ELLs: (Annotating Text Context Clues) Write the sentences "One day aquatic biologist Pam, observing the penguins, saw one in a jam" and "Gently, gently, she examined Pierre" on the board and annotate them as you think aloud about clues in other words in the sentences to figure out the meaning of the words aquatic biologist. (Examples: Circle the words aquatic biologist and connect them with an arrow to the word Pam; write the word scientist by aquatic biologist; underline the words observing and examined and say: "This is what scientists do.")
  • For ELLs: (Discussing Icons) Discuss what each picture from the Pierre the Penguin Icon Set represents.
  • Before reading, provide white boards and dry-erase markers as an option for students to record (in drawing or writing) their ideas. This will also help scaffold active listening for key details. (MMR, MMAE)
  • For students who may need additional support with language: Consider writing the base word (shiver) and the ending (-ed) on index cards and visually demonstrating adding the ending to the base word while explaining the function of the ending (means that it happened in the past). (MMR)

B. Role-Play Protocol: Pierre the Penguin (10 minutes)

  • Refocus whole group.
  • Tell students they are going to use the Role-Play protocol to act out a portion of the story so that they better understand Pierre's problem. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lessons 2-3 and review as necessary using the Role-Play Protocol anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Guide students through the protocol using page 7 of Pierre the Penguin.
  • Refocus whole group and invite one or two pairs to share their role-play.
  • Give students specific, positive feedback on following specific steps of the Role-Play protocol.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with comprehension: (Describing Illustrations) To ensure that students notice major events in the picture, invite them to describe the illustration on pages 7-8 of Pierre the Penguin. (Pam is observing the penguins; Pierre is in trouble; she is bending down to reach for Pierre; she is examining him gently; the other penguins are looking at Pierre; they are far from Pierre.) (MMR, MMAE)
  • For ELLs: (Strategic Grouping) Consider pairing students with a partner who has more advanced or native language proficiency. After the protocol, invite a partnership in which there is an ELL to share their role-play with the class. Prompt the ELL to share what part of the text they acted out.

C. Independent Writing: Stories of Bird Helpers Response Journal (15 minutes)

  • Refocus students and remind them that readers often write about the text after they have read, thought, and talked about it. When learners read, think, talk, and write about a text, they understand it better.
  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:

"I can write about the problem in Pierre the Penguin using evidence from the text."

  • Follow the same routine from Work Time C of Lesson 2 to guide students through completing page 3 of their Stories of Bird Helpers response journal. Note: Students will write their response in the form of a compound sentence.
    • Display page 3 of the response journal and Think-Pair-Share:

"What happens to Pierre?" (Pierre loses his feathers.)

"Why is this a problem?" (Pierre is cold and can't swim.)

Conversation Cue: "Do you agree or disagree with what your classmate said? Why? I'll give you time to think." (Responses will vary.)

    • As students share out, capture these two sentences on the board so students can refer to them as they generate a compound sentence.
    • Say:

"We have written two simple sentences about what happens to Pierre and why this is a problem. Remember how we can turn two simple sentences into a compound sentence? Let's practice!"

    • Remind students that a conjunction, or linking word, will help connect their ideas. Point out the word so and tell them this might be a helpful conjunction to use here.
    • Turn and Talk:

"What compound sentence will you write in your response journal?" (Pierre loses his feathers, so he is cold and can't swim.)

    • Transition students to their workspaces by having them waddle like penguins and invite them to complete page 3.
    • Circulate to support students as they write. Refer to the Stories of Bird Helpers response journal (example, for teacher reference) as necessary
    • When 1 minute remains, invite one or two pre-selected students to read aloud their sentences.
  • Invite students to transition to the whole group area by singing the "African Penguins" song.
  • For ELLs and students who may need additional support with expression: (Tactile Writing Practice) Help students make compound sentences orally by manipulating the sentence construction cards (see Supporting English Language Learners). (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: (Clarifying Meaning: Conjunctions) Clarify the meaning and function of the conjunction so. Tell students that so is used to show purpose or reason. Provide examples from the story The Lion and the Bird. (Examples: Lion put Bird in his hat so he could stay warm. Lion watered his garden so it would grow.)
  • For students who may need additional support with organizing ideas for written expression: Allow students to discuss and rehearse their sentences before writing. (MMAE)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Icon Sentences Protocol: Working to Become Ethical People (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to stand up and sing the "African Penguins" song through once.
  • Tell students they are going to use the Icon Sentences protocol to think about how they have shown habits of character. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lessons 2-3 and review as necessary using the Icon Sentences Protocol anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
    • Move students into pairs and distribute the Classroom Icon Set.
    • Guide students through the protocol using the following prompt:
      • "What is an example of a time when you had to show compassion and respect toward someone?"
  • Give students specific, positive feedback on following specific steps of the Icon Sentences protocol.
  • Tell students that in the next lesson they will think about how the characters in Pierre the Penguin show respect and compassion. 
  • For ELLs: (Clarifying Meaning) Clarify the meaning of the line "On fish they like to snack" from the "African Penguins" song. Tell students that another way to say this would be "They like to snack on fish" and that the word on refers to what they like to eat, or snack on.
  • Support communication and engagement by pairing students with strategic partners to ensure that they have a strong, politely helpful partner to support their efforts at making a sentence. (MME)

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