Voices of Upstanders: Carl Lutz | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2019 G8:M3:U3:L2

Voices of Upstanders: Carl Lutz

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Focus Standards: These are the standards the instruction addresses.

  • RI.8.1, RI.8.2, W.8.4, L.8.1b, L.8.1d, L.8.2a, L.8.2b

Supporting Standards: These are the standards that are incidental—no direct instruction in this lesson, but practice of these standards occurs as a result of addressing the focus standards.

  • RI.8.10, W.8.10

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can determine a central idea and analyze its development in the article "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust." (RI.8.2)
  • I can write a text reflection about "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust." (RI.8.1, RI.8.2)
  • I can use commas, dashes, and ellipses to indicate a pause, break, or omission. (L.8.2a, L.8.2b)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Opening A: Entrance Ticket
  • Work Time A: Track Central Idea: Voices of Upstanders note-catcher (RI.8.1, RI.8.2)
  • Work Time B: Text Reflection: "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from the Holocaust" (RI.8.1, W.8.4)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engage the Learner - L.8.1d (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Read "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust," and Identify Central Idea - RI.8.2 (15 minutes)

B. Write a Text Reflection - RI.8.1 (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Mini Lesson: Punctuation - L.8.2 (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Practice Punctuation and Verb Voice and Mood: Students answer selected response questions on punctuation and verb voice and mood.

Alignment to Assessment Standards and Purpose of Lesson

  • L.8.1b – Opening A: Students read a text reflection and answer a selected response question about forming active voice.
  • L.8.1d – Opening A: Students read a text reflection and answer a selected response question about forming the conditional and indicative moods.
  • L.8.1d – Opening A: Students read a text reflection and answer selected response questions to correct inappropriate shifts from active to passive voice and from the conditional to the indicative mood.
  • RI.8.2 – Work Time A: Students determine the central idea of “The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust” and analyze its development over the course of the text.
  • RI.8.1 – Work Time A: Students cite evidence from the text that supports the central idea.
  • W.8.4 – Work Time B: Students write a clear and coherent text reflection on “The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust.”
  • RI.8.1 – Work Time B: Students use evidence from “The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust” to support their text reflection.
  • L.8.2a – Closing and Assessment A: Students analyze the use of commas and dashes to indicate a pause or break.
  • L.8.2b – Closing and Assessment A: Students analyze the use of ellipses to indicate an omission within a quotation.

Opportunities to Extend Learning

  • Students may conduct research on Carl Lutz and write a text reflection about other upstander characteristics Carl Lutz exhibited in his work.
  • Students may research Raoul Wallenberg and how he expanded upon Carl Lutz’s efforts to save Jewish victims. Consider having students write a text reflection about how Wallenberg was a Holocaust upstander.
  • Create additional selected and constructed response questions for students to practice using commas, dashes, and ellipses to indicate a pause, break, or omission.
  • An optional Mini Language Dive, intended for use after the mini grammar lesson on punctuation in Closing and Assessment A, is available in the Teacher's Guide for English Language Learners. ▲
  • To extend learning about comma usage, students can research and generate a list of other ways that commas are used in writing. Students can also look for examples of varied comma usage in different texts, including the two articles they have read so far in this unit, texts they read in the previous unit, Maus I, and other texts they have read for independent research reading.
  • Invite students to generate a list of wonders they have about punctuation. Students can work together to find and analyze examples in texts to try to reach conclusions about usage.

How It Builds on Previous Work

  • In the previous lesson, students wrote a text reflection about Holocaust upstanders. Students will continue this work by reading about a new Holocaust upstander and writing a text reflection about how this person demonstrates upstander characteristics.
  • Students will also continue to develop their language skills by learning how to use commas, dashes, and ellipses to indicate a pause, break, or omission.

Support All Students

  • Some students may have difficulty determining the central idea of a new text. Ask prompting questions to support students in identifying the central idea in Work Time A. ▲
  • Some students may need support in identifying examples of upstander characteristics and choosing the most relevant supporting evidence. Support students in annotating the text for the most significant details to include in their text reflection. ▲
  • Some students may benefit from choosing how they will read the text. Read aloud the text with some students, have student-led groups read amongst themselves, and allow other students to read independently. ▲

Assessment Guidance

  • Review student text reflections after the lesson to check whether they are on the right track. Use common issues as teaching points for the whole group in the next lesson.

Down the Road

  • In the next lesson, students will read about a new Holocaust upstander and write a text reflection about the upstander characteristics the person exhibits in the text. Students will also continue to develop their use of punctuation with commas, dashes, and ellipses to indicate a pause, break, or omission.

In Advance

  • Prepare Entrance Ticket: Unit 3, Lesson 2.
  • Ensure there is a copy of Entrance Ticket: Unit 3, Lesson 2 at each student's workspace.
  • Post the learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout previous modules to create anchor charts to share with families; to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families; and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 8.I.B.6, 8.I.B.7, 8.I.B.8, 8.I.C.12, and 8.II.C.6.

Important Points in the Lesson Itself

  • To support ELLs, this lesson includes continued work with understanding the experience of upstanders from the Holocaust and instruction and practice with punctuation and L.8.2a. Students read a new nonfiction text on a Holocaust upstander and write a text reflection. In Closing and Assessment A, students will participate in a mini lesson on punctuation and then answer selected and constructed response questions about punctuation in text reflection.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to recall the difference between active and passive voice when completing the entrance ticket. Students may also struggle to comprehend the text they read during Work Time A. In all cases, encourage those students who need additional support to take time to review what they already know about topic, tasks, and language skills to apply that knowledge to the learning in this lesson. Pair students strategically throughout the lesson, and allow ample time for oral processing to help students work together to think through information and concepts.

Vocabulary

  • assassinated, consulate, diplomat, envoy, neutral (A)

Key

(A): Academic Vocabulary

(DS): Domain-Specific Vocabulary

Materials from Previous Lessons

Teacher

Student

  • Academic word wall (one for display; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Opening A)
  • Track Central Idea: Voices of Upstanders note-catcher (example for teacher reference) (from Module 3, Unit 3, Lesson 1, Work Time A)
  • Characteristics of Upstanders anchor chart (example for teacher reference) (from Module 3, Unit 3, Lesson 1, Work Time B)
  • Characteristics of Upstanders anchor chart (one for display; from Module 3, Unit 3, Lesson 1, Work Time B)
  • Criteria for an Effective Text Reflection anchor chart (one for display; from Module 3, Unit 3, Lesson 1, Closing and Assessment A)
  • Vocabulary logs (one per student; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Opening A)
  • Track Central Idea: Voices of Upstanders note-catcher (one per student; from Module 3, Unit 3, Lesson 1, Work Time A)

New Materials

Teacher

Student

  • Entrance Ticket: Unit 3, Lesson 2 (answers for teacher reference)
  • Text Reflection: "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust" (example for teacher reference)
  • Punctuation anchor chart (example for teacher reference)
  • Punctuation anchor chart (one for display; co-created during Closing and Assessment A)
  • Homework: Practice Punctuation and Verb Voice and Mood (answers for teacher reference) (see Homework Resources)
  • Entrance Ticket: Unit 3, Lesson 2 (one per student)
  • "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust" (one per student and one for display)
  • Text Reflection: "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust" (one per student)
  • Homework: Practice Punctuation and Verb Voice and Mood (one per student; see Homework Resources)

Assessment

Each unit in the 6-8 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize students' understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningLevels of Support

A. Engage the Learner - L.8.1d (5 minutes)

  • Repeated routine: As students arrive, invite them to complete Entrance Ticket: Unit 3, Lesson 2.
  • After students have completed the entrance ticket, review the correct response as a class. Remind students that when a sentence has more than one clause, it is usually preferable to write both clauses in active voice. Point out that unless we have a specific reason for using passive voice to emphasize the object of a sentence, we want to write most sentences in active voice. Often, writers need to revise their writing to correct inappropriate shifts within sentence from active to passive voice to maintain consistency.
  • Repeated routine: Follow the same routine as the previous lessons to review learning targets and the purpose of the lesson, reminding students of any learning targets that are similar or the same as in previous lessons.

For Lighter Support

  • N/A

For Heavier Support

  • Before students complete the entrance ticket, consider reviewing passive voice construction (be + verb + -ed/-en) to reactivate students' knowledge. Students have previously studied active and passive voice (L.8.1b, L.8.3a) and will be assessed on L.8.1b again on the Mid-Unit 3 Assessment.

Work Time

Work Time

A. Read "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust," and Identify Central Idea - RI.8.2 (15 minutes)

  • Review the appropriate learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

"I can determine a central idea and analyze its development in the article 'The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust.'"

  • Display and distribute "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust."
  • Instruct students to read the text with a partner, and have students think about the central idea of the article.
  • With students' support, record the meanings of diplomat (an official representing a country abroad), envoy (a messenger or representative), consulate (the place or building in which a diplomat carries out their duties), neutral (not helping or supporting either side in a conflict), and assassinated (when an important person is murdered in a surprise attack for political or religious reasons) on the academic word wall. Write synonyms or sketch a visual above the key term to scaffold students' understanding. Invite students to record this word in their vocabulary logs, and encourage them to record the definition in both English and their home languages.
  • Think-Pair-Share, and remind students of the habits of an ethical person, particularly empathy and compassion, as they discuss the character of Carl Lutz:

"What did Carl Lutz do?" (He issued protective passports and created safe houses for Jews.)

"What risks did he take?" (He risked death; the Nazis planned to assassinate him.)

"Why did Switzerland condemn him?" (Switzerland was supposed to be neutral in the war, but he took sides.)

"Why did Carl Lutz show compassion and empathy to the Jews?" (He believed the deportation and murder of the Jews was wrong.)

"What impact did Lutz have on other diplomats?" (He inspired them to help the Jews, too.)

"How did you feel about Carl Lutz as you read his story? Why?" (Responses will vary, but may include the following: inspired because he used his power to help those without power.)

"What additional habits of character did Carl Lutz demonstrate? Explain any habits of character connected to his life experiences, and use evidence from the text to support your thinking." (Responses will vary, but may mention that he showed integrity by standing up for what he believed in and using his power to help those without power.)

"What habits of character did you practice while reading and discussing 'The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust'?" (Responses will vary, but may mention that they practiced using compassion as they worried about Jews being deported and respect as they deepened their understanding of the actions an upstander took to show integrity.)

  • Display and distribute Track Central Idea: Voices of Upstanders note-catcher.
  • Instruct students to work in pairs to record key details from the text, the central idea, and evidence that supports the central idea in the note-catcher. Refer to Track Central Idea: Voices of Upstanders note-catcher (example for teacher reference) if necessary.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"What are the key details of the text?"

  • As students share, highlight or underline the key details in the displayed note-catcher.
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share about the central idea by asking the following questions:

"What do you think is the central idea of the text?"

"What evidence in the text supports the central idea you determined?"

  • As students share, record responses on the displayed Track Central Idea: Voices of Upstanders note-catcher. Instruct students to follow along and record these notes as needed in their note-catcher.
  • Repeated routine: Invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning targets.

B. Write a Text Reflection - RI.8.1 (15 minutes)

  • Review the appropriate learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

"I can write a text reflection about 'The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust.'"

  • Display the Characteristics of Upstanders anchor chart.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"What examples of these characteristics did Carl Lutz demonstrate?" (He issued protective passports, and intervened even though Switzerland was a neutral nation; other diplomats followed his lead.)

  • As students share, record their responses in the second column of the anchor chart.
  • Explain to students that they will write another text reflection that explains how Carl Lutz was a Holocaust upstander. Remind them that in the second half of this unit, they will write a narrative interview at the end of the unit about an imagined Holocaust upstander based on the upstanders they read about in this unit.
  • Display Criteria for an Effective Text Reflection anchor chart. Ask a volunteer to read the criteria aloud for the class to review.
  • Display and distribute Text Reflection: "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust." Read the directions aloud.
  • Instruct students to begin writing their text reflections independently using the Criteria for an Effective Text Reflection anchor chart to guide them.
  • Circulate to support students as they write to ensure they are on task.
  • Remind students to use key details from "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust" to determine how Carl Lutz was a Holocaust upstander. Refer to Text Reflection: "The Forgotten Swiss Diplomat Who Rescued Thousands from Holocaust" (example for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Repeated routine: Invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning targets.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingLevels of Support

A. Mini Lesson: Punctuation – L.8.2 (10 minutes)

  • Review the appropriate learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

“I can use commas, dashes, and ellipses to indicate a pause, break, or omission.”

  • Display the Punctuation anchor chart. Tell students that they are going to be analyzing how commas, dashes, and ellipses are used by writers to indicate a pause or break or to omit information. Tell students that there are many ways that we can use commas, dashes, and ellipses, but that in this unit, they will be focusing on only some of the ways each is used in writing.
  • Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share:

“What are some ways we use commas in our writing?”

  • After 1 minute, refocus the group. Direct students’ attention to the Punctuation anchor chart. Invite students to share out, and with students’ support, add responses to the first row of the anchor chart. Cue students to provide examples:

“Can you give an example of that?”

  • Tell students that while there are many ways that writers use commas, they will focus on analyzing how writers use commas to indicate a pause before coordinating conjunctions when combining two independent clauses and when indicating a pause between list items.
  • Add the following examples to the first row of the anchor chart:
    • Commas indicate a pause or a break, and it’s important to know how to use them in our writing.
    • Today we are learning about commas, dashes, and ellipses.
  • Draw students’ attention to the comma in the first sentence. Explain that in the first sentence, a comma is used to indicate a pause before the coordinating conjunction and. Call on student volunteers to name other coordinating conjunctions that can be used to connect two independent clauses (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Remind students that they can use the word fanboys to remember these seven coordinating conjunctions.
  • Draw students’ attention to the comma in the second sentence. Explain that in the second sentence, a comma is used to indicate a pause between items in a list. Remind students that we also include a comma before that and or or that precedes the final list item.
  • Add the following example to the second row of the anchor chart:
    • Dashes indicate a pause or a break—sometimes we use them between two independent clauses.
  • Invite students to Turn and Talk:

“What do you notice and wonder about the way the dash is used in this example?”

  • After 30 seconds, refocus the group. Invite students to share out their notices and wonders. Help students to understand that one way we can use a dash is to indicate a break between two independent clauses. Dashes can be used in a similar way to a comma and coordinating conjunction. Emphasize to students that it is much more common to use a comma and coordinating conjunction to connect two independent clauses, but that sometimes we use a dash to do so instead for specific reasons: to introduce a change or interruption in the thought or tone of a sentence or to introduce an afterthought or summary at the end of a sentence. Caution students not overuse dashes, as this can break up the flow of writing and make it choppy and disjointed.
  • Add the following examples to the third row of the anchor chart:
    • Original quote: “Writers use ellipses to shorten quotations when there is additional, unnecessary information that isn’t directly relevant to the point they are supporting. An ellipsis is three periods used in a row to indicate that information has been omitted from a quotation.”
    • Quote with an ellipsis: “Writers use ellipses to shorten quotations. . . . An ellipsis is three periods used in a row to indicate that information has been omitted from a quotation.”
  • Invite students to Turn and Talk:

“What do you notice and wonder about the way the ellipsis is used in this example?”

  • After 30 seconds, refocus the group. Invite students share out their notices and wonders. Help students to understand that one way we can use an ellipsis is to indicate that information has been omitted from a quotation. Caution students that when using an ellipsis to omit information in a quotation, they must avoid removing portions of the quotation that would change the meaning from the one the author intended.
  • Repeated routine: Invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning targets.

For Lighter Support

  • Before or after Closing and Assessment A, invite students to participate in a Mini Language Dive in small groups to explore a sentence from the reading that uses a dash to indicate a pause between clauses. In the practice portion of this Mini Language Dive, students will have the opportunity to apply their learning to connect two clauses using a dash.
  • In the next lesson, students will participate in a Language Dive using a sentence from the "Marek Edelman Obituary" Excerpt to explore punctuation. Consider providing ELLs with the Language Dive sentence ahead of time. Invite students who need lighter support to predict some of the questions that the Language Dive may ask. This will improve students' metacognition and challenge their awareness of the most interesting or meaningful elements of the sentence. Students may also choose to carry out one of the following:
    • Paraphrase the sentence using your own words.
    • Underline all noun phrases, circle all verb phrases, and star all adjective and adverb phrases. What words do you have left? What are the functions of these phrases?

For Heavier Support

  • In the next lesson, students will participate in a Language Dive using a sentence from the "Marek Edelman Obituary" Excerpt to explore punctuation. Consider providing ELLs with the Language Dive sentence ahead of time. Encourage students who need heavier support to independently reflect on this sentence and its meaning before the next lesson. Students may also choose to carry out one of the following:
    • Make a guess about what the chunks of the sentence might be.
    • Use a dictionary to look up the words partisan and conniving, and select the best definition for the word as it is used in this sentence.

Homework

Homework

A. Practice Punctuation and Verb Voice and Mood

  • Students complete Homework: Practice Punctuation and Verb Voice and Mood to answer selected response questions on punctuation and verb voice and mood.

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