Maus I: Dialogue, Tone, and Character (cont.) | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2019 G8:M3:U1:L6

Maus I: Dialogue, Tone, and Character (cont.)

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Focus Standards: These are the standards the instruction addresses.

  • RL.8.1, RL.8.2, RL.8.3, RL.8.4

Supporting Standards: These are the standards that are incidental—no direct instruction in this lesson, but practice of these standards occurs as a result of addressing the focus standards.

  • RL.8.10, L.8.3, L.8.4, L.8.6

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can analyze how dialogue between characters and incidents in Maus I reveal aspects of character or provoke a decision. (RL.8.1, RL.8.3)
  • I can analyze how specific word choices impact meaning and tone in Maus I. (RL.8.1, RL.8.4)
  • I can track gist, plot, characterization, and emerging theme ideas in order to track the development of theme in Maus I. (RL.8.2)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Opening A: Entrance Ticket (L.8.4, RL.8.4)
  • Work Time A: Gist on sticky notes, Maus I, chapter 3
  • Work Time B: Text-Dependent Questions, Maus I, chapter 3 (RL.8.3, RL.8.4)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engage the Learner - L.8.4 (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Read Maus I, Chapter 3: Track Gist and Plot - RL.8.1 (15 minutes)

B. Text-Dependent Questions: Character and Theme - RL.8.3 (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Sketch Graphic Panels (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Revise Graphic Panels: Students continue to sketch out their ideas for their graphic panel representing them asking Vladek a question.

B. Preread Anchor Text: Students preread chapter 4 in Maus I in preparation for reading the chapter in the next lesson.

Alignment to Assessment Standards and Purpose of Lesson

  • L.8.4 – Opening A: Students determine the meaning of the word pogrom and discuss its application to their own life and to the characters in Maus I.
  • RL.8.2 – Work Time A: Students discuss and track characters, plot, and emerging themes in Maus I as they read chapter 3 to track the development of theme over the course of the text.
  • RL.8.3 – Work Time B: Students answer text-dependent questions analyzing how particular lines of dialogue and incidents reveal aspects of a character or provoke a decision in Maus I, chapter 3.
  • RL.8.4 – Work Time B: While answering their text-dependent questions, students analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone in Maus I, chapter 3.
  • L.8.1b – Work Time B: Students answer text-dependent questions analyzing how the passive voice is formed.
  • In this lesson, students focus on working to become ethical people by showing respect and empathy as they reflect on Vladek’s life in Maus I and working to become effective learners by collaborating as they work in pairs throughout the lesson.

Opportunities to Extend Learning

  • Continue to encourage students to read another graphic novel on their own in order to further explore this medium.
  • As students read and learn more about the events of the Holocaust in Maus I, invite students to research particular aspects of this time period that are of interest to them. Students can share their findings with small groups or with the whole class.
  • After students have answered the text-dependent questions in Work Time B, invite students to write a one-page reflection on how Art Spiegelman uses dialogue in Maus I. Give students one of the following prompts to address:
    • How does the dialogue between Art and his father in Maus I help us to better understand Vladek’s character? Cite specific examples of how dialogue reveals the nature of the relationship between father and son and how Vladek’s past experiences have shaped their interaction.
    • How does the use of dialogue within flashback scenes help the reader to understand Vladek’s experience during the Holocaust? Cite specific examples of how the author’s use of dialogue enhances plot or theme.
  • Challenge students to experiment with rewriting sentences from Maus I, chapter 3 from active to passive voice and vice versa. Students can discuss how doing so changes the meaning of each sentence and consider the effects and emphasis achieved by using active or passive voice.
  • An optional Mini Language Dive, intended for use after students read chapter 3 of Maus I in Work Time A, is available in the supporting materials. ▲

How It Builds on Previous Work

  • In this lesson, students continue the work they started in Lesson 5, discussing and tracking information on characters and plot in Maus I with more independence. They begin tracking the emerging themes in the book. They also continue deepening their understanding of tone, looking closely at dialogue as a way of revealing additional aspects of character and provoking decisions.

Support All Students

  • Pair students (especially ELLs) thoughtfully for pair share to build supportive and safe exchange. Vary these partners throughout the unit to expose students to diverse perspectives one-on-one. ▲
  • Presenting learning targets in writing, orally, and if possible, accompanied by symbols will help students to understand the language within them. ▲
  • Note that chapter 3 of Maus I brings up potentially sensitive topics such as war, torture, starvation, death, and imprisonment. Some students and their families may find these topics to be upsetting or in conflict with their values. Allow for time to process and respond to these topics during individual, small group, or full class discussion, and reach out to families as needed.
  • Students may need additional support with the selected and constructed response questions in Work Time B. Consider spending time discussing how to tackle these types of questions and provide supportive groupings with easy access to additional support when necessary.
  • The non-standard dialect in dialogue may be difficult for some students to interpret or may be misleading for ELLs. Be clear about Vladek’s use of English and that it is not his home language. ▲
  • Provide choice in how to carry out the reading portion of the lesson: some students may prefer to read independently and silently, while others (especially ELLs) may wish to read aloud in groups, while others may wish to read silently for a few pages and then process with a group. This format of choice could potentially be built into the reading time within each lesson. ▲

Assessment Guidance

  • Review gist notes to ensure students understand important aspects of gist, plot, character, and emerging theme from chapter 3 in Maus I.
  • Review text-dependent questions from Work Time B, looking for a deepening understanding of how dialogue and incidents in the book reveal aspects of character or provoke a decision.

Down the Road

  • In the next lesson, students will complete their mid-unit assessment. Students will apply what they have learned in previous lessons, tracking gist, plot, character, and emerging themes, analyzing how particular lines of dialogue and incidents in a story reveal aspects of a character or provoke a decision, and analyzing the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.

In Advance

  • Prepare
    • Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 6
    • Synopsis: Maus I, Chapter 3
    • Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3
  • Ensure there is a copy of Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 6 at each student's workspace.
  • Review Maus I chapter 3, the Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart and the Text Guide: Maus I to become familiar with important content and themes students will be discussing in Work Time A and B.
  • Post the learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Continue to use the technology tools recommended throughout previous modules to create anchor charts to share with families; to record students as they participate in discussions and protocols to review with students later and to share with families; and for students to listen to and annotate text, record ideas on note-catchers, and word-process writing.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 8.I.C.11 and 8.I.C.12.

Important Points in the Lesson Itself

  • To support ELLs, this lesson follows a format similar to previous lessons; students will engage in supported in-class reading of Maus I and then answer text-dependent questions that are closely aligned with the types of questions that students will encounter on the Mid-Unit 1 Assessment in the next lesson. Students will also spend time creating graphic panels, generating dialogue and an illustration. This task requires deep thinking about the events and dialogue in the text and also serves as a scaffold for the Module 3 performance task, in which students will create a series of graphic panels.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to read chapter 3 in its entirety during the time available and may also find it difficult to keep track of all of the information that is presented. Encourage students to stop often to track gist, annotating their copies of the text pages by page and in individual panels, as needed. This will help students not only during this lesson, but at the end of the unit as students prepare to write a whole-text summary of the book on the End of Unit 1 Assessment.

Vocabulary

  • pogrom (DS)

Key

(A): Academic Vocabulary

(DS): Domain-Specific Vocabulary

Materials from Previous Lessons

Teacher

Student

  • Domain-specific word wall (one for display; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Opening A)
  • Text Guide: Maus I (for teacher reference) (from Module 3, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Work Time C)
  • Work to Become Ethical People anchor chart (one for display; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 1, Work Time D)
  • Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart (example for teacher reference) (from Module 3, Unit 1, Lesson 4, Closing and Assessment A)
  • Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart (one for display) (from Module 3, Unit 1, Lesson 4, Closing and Assessment A)
  • Graphic Novel Format anchor chart (one for display; from Module 3, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Work Time A)
  • Vocabulary logs (one per student; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Opening A)
  • Maus I (text; one per student; from Module 3, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Opening A)
  • Holocaust Glossary (one per student; from Module 3, Unit 1, Lesson 3, Work Time A)

New Materials

Teacher

Student

  • Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 6 (answers for teacher reference)
  • Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3 (answers for teacher reference)
  • Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 6 (one per student)
  • Synopsis: Maus I, Chapter 3 (one per student)
  • Sticky notes (one per student)
  • Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3 (one per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 6-8 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize students' understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningLevels of Support

A. Engage the Learner - L.8.4 (5 minutes)

  • Repeated routine: As students arrive, invite them to complete Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 6.
  • Prompt students to Turn and Talk about their answers to the entrance ticket. Cold-call students to share out and clarify any misconceptions. Refer to the Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 6 (answers for teacher reference).
  • Prompt students to add the word pogrom (an organized and violent riot, often aimed at the massacre or persecution of a religious or ethnic group, particularly one aimed at Jews) to their vocabulary logs and add it to the domain-specific word wall. Explain to students that today they will continue exploring character and begin exploring emerging themes in their anchor text, Maus I.
  • Repeated routine: Follow the same routine as the previous lessons to review learning targets and the purpose of the lesson, reminding students of any learning targets that are similar or the same as in previous lessons.

For Lighter Support

  • During Opening A, use a Conversation Cue to prompt students to paraphrase what their partner said during the discussion about agency (e.g., "Who can repeat what your classmate said?" "Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?"). This will help students to practice restating ideas in their own words, and hearing others relay what they have shared will promote thoughtful consideration of the goals students have set around collaboration.

For Heavier Support

  • N/A

 

Work Time

Work TimeLevels of Support

A. Read Maus I, Chapter 3: Track Gist and Plot - RL.8.1 (15 minutes)

  • Review the appropriate learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

"I can track gist, plot, characterization, and emerging theme ideas in order to track the development of theme in Maus I"

  • Repeated routine: Follow the same process as with previous lessons for students to read chapter 3 of Maus I, using the Text Guide: Maus I (for teacher reference). Instruct students to read the chapter independently and support struggling students as needed. Remind students that they can refer to their Holocaust Glossary if they encounter domain-specific vocabulary they do not understand. If students do not finish reading the chapter within the allotted reading time, distribute Synopsis: Maus I, Chapter 3 to each student to review the key details from the chapter. Then have students identify the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary, reflect on their reading as they choose, and record the gist on sticky notes using the following resources as appropriate: vocabulary logs and Work to Become Ethical People anchor chart.
  • Display the Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart.
  • Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share:

"What is the gist of chapter 3?" (Vladek is drafted, becomes a Nazi prisoner of war.)

"What are the key events that happened in the plot in Maus I, chapter 3?" (Vladek's father starves him, but he is eventually drafted in the war against the Germans. He is captured by Nazis, and goes to a prisoner of war camp where he suffers. He volunteers to work for a German company and gets better living conditions. He disguises himself as a Polish man and is able to return to his family.)

  • Cold-call students to share out and add to the key plot elements section of the anchor chart. Refer to the Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart (example for teacher reference) as needed, and clarify any misconceptions.
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share:

"What examples of habits of character were evident in this chapter?" (Students may mention many examples and answers will vary, but may note how Vladek showed perseverance when he disguises himself and returns to his family.)

  • Remind students that what characters say and do and the tone with which they speak often reveal a lot about their character. After they work with the text-dependent questions, they will come back to this chart to see if there is anything new to notice about Vladek's character in this chapter.
  • Remind students that over the course of this unit, they will continue to track gist, plot elements, and, when appropriate, emerging themes
  • Repeated routine: Invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning targets.

For Lighter Support

  • After Work Time A, invite students to participate in a Mini Language Dive in small groups to explore the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (RL.8.4) and how active and passive voice are formed and used to achieve particular effects (L.8.1b, L.8.3a). In the practice portion of this Mini Language Dive, students will have the opportunity to apply their learning by rewriting a sentence in passive voice in active voice, which is a task they will also carry out on the End of Unit 1 Assessment.
  • To extend work with RL.8.4 and the impact of specific words on tone during the Mini Language Dive, ask students the following question:

"What is the impact of the word abundant on the tone of this sentence?" (Abundant has a very positive connotation and means having more than one could want or need. This generates a hopeful, reassuring tone, and makes the offer sound quite inviting and promising.)

For Heavier Support

  • As in Lesson 5, before Work Time A, have students review the chapter by reviewing the chapter synopsis in advance of the in-class reading. Engage students in a short discussion to review the key events that they will read about. Previewing in this way will help to deepen students' comprehension as they read. Alternatively, share the text-dependent questions students will answer in Work Time B with students in advance of reading the text. This will help draw students' attention to key dialogue and incidents in the story as they read.

B. Text-Dependent Questions: Character and Theme – RL.8.3 (20 minutes)

  • Review the appropriate learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

“I can analyze how dialogue between characters and incidents in Maus I reveal aspects of character or provoke a decision.”

“I can analyze how specific word choices impact meaning and tone in Maus I.”

  • Distribute and display the Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3. Explain to students that, like yesterday, they will continue looking closely at the dialogue in Maus I trying to determine what additional information it reveals about aspects of character, but they will work independently to answer each question.
  • Direct students to begin working through the selected response and short answer questions, using their text as a resource. Circulate and provide support, noting any questions students are struggling with to discuss as a group. Refer to Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3 (answers for teacher reference) as needed.
  • Once students have completed the task, lead them through the Back-to-Back, Face-to-Face protocol, using the following directions:
    1. Have students gather their Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3, find a partner, and stand back-to-back with him or her, being respectful of space.
    2. Have students wait for the question, opinion, etc. that they will be asked to share with their partner.
    3. Read question 1 from Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3 to students. Have students think about what they answered, why they answered it this way, how they want to share, and how they might best express themselves.
    4. Say, “face-to-face,” and then have students turn, face their partners, and decide who will share first if a certain person has not been assigned to go first.
    5. Have students share and listen carefully when their partner is speaking and be sure to make eye contact with him or her.
    6. When given the signal, students should find a new partner, stand back-to-back, and wait for the new question, opinion, etc.
    7. Repeat this process, discussing as many questions from Text-Dependent Questions: Maus I, Chapter 3 as time permits.
  • Refer to the Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart.
  • Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share:

“What have we learned about the development of characters in this chapter?”

  • Cold-call students to share out and add to the character development and analysis section of the anchor chart. Refer to the Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart (example for teacher reference) as needed, and clarify any misconceptions.
  • Explain to students that now they will think about theme. As discussed in previous lessons, good readers know that, very often, writers of literature have a big idea, or message, in mind. The message comes from the story the writer is telling, but it is often an idea that is bigger and broader than the story itself. Now that students have read the first three chapters of Maus I, they can start thinking about what big idea or message might be emerging from the text. Students can’t know for sure yet—they have to read the whole book for that—but they can start doing some careful thinking.
  • Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share:

“We have seen Vladek’s deep sense of agency and perseverance and his will to survive. What is a possible theme emerging about this?” (Humans have an amazing ability to persevere through extremely challenging events and oppression.)

“We have seen Vladek’s commitment to his family and to caring for them and ensuring their safety. What is a possible theme emerging about this?” (Humans care for their families, and it is important to keep them safe and alive.)

“Art is interviewing his father and is learning things from him he has never heard before. What might the book be telling us about the power and importance of storytelling? What is a possible theme emerging about this?” (It is important to share stories, even if they reveal painful memories or events from the past so others can learn about history.)

  • Cold-call students to share out and add to the character development and analysis section of the anchor chart. Refer to the Gist, Plot, Character, and Emerging Theme anchor chart (example for teacher reference) as needed, and clarify any misconceptions.
  • Invite students to reflect on the habits of character focus in this lesson, discussing what went well and what could be improved next time.
  • Repeated routine: Invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning targets.
  • N/A

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Sketch Graphic Panels (5 minutes)

  • Direct students to the Graphic Novel Format anchor chart, and prompt them to review important aspects of this format with a partner.
  • Tell students that like Art does in each chapter of Maus I, they will have the chance to visualize and sketch graphic panels in which they represent themselves asking Vladek a question. Inform students that they will begin sketching out their ideas in class and revise them for homework.
  • Tell students:

"You are going to imagine that you have a chance to ask Vladek a question. We won't be able to actually imagine how Vladek would respond, and we cannot truly imagine what it would be like to have survived the Holocaust, but this is a great way to process things we are curious about and to practice using the graphic panel format."

  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share:

"What question might you want to ask Vladek?" (Answers will vary but might include the following: What helped you survive when you were a prisoner of war? How did you feel when you were first drafted into the war? What helped you persevere in the face of challenges and hardship?)

"What aspects of the graphic novel format will be important to consider when you are creating your graphic panels?" (Answers will vary but could include the following: using precise dialogue, shading, perspective, etc.)

  • Direct students to sketch a quick panel that represents them asking Vladek their question. Prompt them with questions such as the following:

"What images will you include?" (Answers will vary but should include an image of the students themselves and an image of their interaction with Vladek.)

"What dialogue or captions will you include?" (Answers will vary but should be the question the student wishes they could ask Vladek.)

  • As time permits, use equity sticks to call on students, inviting them to share their sketch with the class.
  • Repeated routine: Invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning targets.
  • Invite students to reflect on the habits of character focus in this lesson, discussing what went well and what could be improved next time.

Homework

Homework

A. Revise Graphic Panels

  • Students continue to sketch out their ideas for their graphic panels representing them asking Vladek a question.

B. Preread Anchor Text

  • Students preread chapter 4 in Maus I in preparation for reading the chapter in the next lesson.

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