Discover a Hidden Figure: Mary Jackson | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2019 G6:M4:U2:L9

Discover a Hidden Figure: Mary Jackson

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Focus Standards: These are the standards the instruction addresses.

  • RI.6.1, RI.6.3, W.6.1, W.6.9b

Supporting Standards: These are the standards that are incidental—no direct instruction in this lesson, but practice of these standards occurs as a result of addressing the focus standards.

  • RI.6.10, W.6.10

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can analyze how the author introduces and elaborates on Mary Jackson's character in the text. (RI.6.3)
  • I can gather evidence and develop reasoning for an argument essay about Mary Jackson's remarkable accomplishments. (W.6.1, W.6.9b)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Work Time A: Gist on sticky notes
  • Work Time B: Gist on sticky notes
  • Closing and Assessment A: Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher (RI.6.1, RI.6.3, W.6.1, W.6.9b, W.6.10)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Introduce Collaborative Argument Evidence Note-Catcher (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Read Hidden Figures, Chapter 10 - RI.6.3 (15 minutes)

B. Jigsaw: Hidden Figures, Chapters 11 and 14 (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Gather Evidence - W.6.1 (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Independent Research Reading: Students read for at least 20 minutes in their independent research reading text. Then they select a prompt and write a response in their independent reading journal.

Alignment to Assessment Standards and Purpose of Lesson

  • RI.6.1 – Opening A: Students are introduced to the Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher. This is the resource students will use to collect textual evidence to support arguments about the text as they write collaborative essays in Unit 3.
  • RI.6.3 – Work Time A: After students read a chapter about hidden figure Mary Jackson, they answer questions about how Margot Lee Shetterly develops Mary’s character in the chapter.
  • RI.6.1 – Closing and Assessment A: Students add to their Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher with evidence from the text.
  • W.6.1 – Closing and Assessment A: Students gather relevant evidence and use clear reasons to support claims that they will elaborate on in an argument essay in Unit 3.
  • W.6.9b – Closing and Assessment A: Students gather relevant evidence from the anchor text to support their claims.

Opportunities to Extend Learning

  • Students read an excerpt from chapter 15. Proficient readers can be encouraged to read the chapter in its entirety. Students may be particularly intrigued by the incident described in pages 119–121, which could be used to provoke a mature and thoughtful conversation around respectability politics.
  • Rather than giving students the Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher, challenge them to design their own note-catcher. Prompt them to think aloud about what information needs to be captured, what format best captures that information, and how the layout of the graphic organizer helps to reflect the connection among the information displayed.
  • Challenge students to generate their own arguments about playful, noncontroversial topics. Provide students with a straightforward claim, and give them 2 minutes to generate reasons, evidence, and reasoning for their claim. This exercise will reinforce students’ understanding of terms related to argument writing, while also orienting them to their argument work in an engaging way. Examples of claims may include the following:
    • Soccer is the most physically and mentally demanding sport.
    • Social media limits, rather than supports, interpersonal connection.

How It Builds on Previous Work

  • In the previous lesson, students concluded their reading about hidden figure Dorothy Vaughan. They read two texts about Dorothy that describe similar events, and they compared the authors’ presentations of those events. In this lesson, students increase the breadth of their content knowledge by “discovering” a new hidden figure: Mary Jackson. Students will apply reading strategies and skills from the first half of Unit 2 to the new chapters about Mary, this time with increased independence. A Jigsaw protocol encourages student ownership of reading material and holds students accountable for their assigned chapters.

Support All Students

  • In Lessons 9, 12, and 14, students will participate in a Jigsaw protocol to read chapters about hidden figures Mary Jackson and Katherine Johnson. Jigsaws ease the reading load for all students and create opportunities for regular collaboration and co-construction of meaning, both of which support ELLs. ▲
  • During the Jigsaw of Work Time B, Group A reads chapter 11 and Group B reads an excerpt of chapter 14. An excerpt from chapter 11 will then be reread and analyzed in more detail in the following lesson. Consider assigning ELLs who need heavier support to Group A, so that they may benefit from the comprehension and fluency gains that come from reading the same passage multiple times for distinct purposes. ▲
  • Chapter 11 describes an incident of profound prejudice. Mary Jackson, looking for the nearest bathroom, is laughed at by white coworkers, who only know where “their” bathrooms are (i.e., those available to white, but not black, women). This display of discrimination and cruelty is enraging to Mary and may also be upsetting to students. As needed, create space for students to process their feelings toward this part of the text in a responsible and sensitive way. Inform students that they will return to this section of the text in the following lesson. They will examine this event in more detail, from multiple authors’ perspectives. There will also be built-in reflection time for students to process the impact of this event for Mary. For students who are particularly upset at the incident described in the text, and who do not want it glossed over in class, it may be a relief to know that there will be more time to discuss Mary’s experiences and feelings.

Assessment Guidance

  • In this lesson, students are introduced to the Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher. Throughout Unit 2, students will periodically add to this note-catcher with textual evidence to prepare for writing their collaborative argument essays in Unit 3. Although this note-catcher will eventually be used to help students write collaborative argument essays in pairs, students will complete their note-catchers independently. Students’ independent argument essays address a similar prompt and require similar evidence. To set students up for success on these essays, review students’ initial entries on their Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher, and ensure that recorded textual evidence is appropriate, relevant, and comprehensive.

Down the Road

  • In the next lesson, students continue to develop their knowledge of hidden figure Mary Jackson. They read a new passage about Mary from the anchor text, which outlines an important event in Mary’s life. Then, they read a supplemental text that describes the same event, but from a different author’s perspective. In preparation for the tasks of the end of unit assessment, and to build upon skills first targeted in Lesson 8, students compare and contrast the two authors’ presentations of the same event.

In Advance

  • Consider the logistics of the Collaborative Argument Essay before introducing the essay prompt and Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher in Opening A. For the Collaborative Argument Essay, pairs will address one of two prompts: What made Mary Jackson's accomplishments remarkable? What made Katherine Johnson's accomplishments remarkable? Half of the class will write about Mary, the other half will write about Katherine. After completing their collaborative essays, they will participate in a peer review with a partner who wrote about the other hidden figure. Plan not to share with students the focus of their essay yet to ensure they put their best effort into gathering evidence for both potential prompts.
  • Preread the excerpt from chapter 10 to identify potentially challenging vocabulary or sensitive details.
  • Prepare students for the Jigsaw protocol:
    • Review the Jigsaw protocol as needed to ensure clear directions and smooth transitions.
    • Strategically group students into A or B groups.
    • Display the jigsaw groups and each group's reading assignments on chart paper or a digital device for students for easy reference.
  • Prepare copies of handouts for students (see Materials list).
  • Post the learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Work Time B: Students may prefer to complete their Argument Evidence note-catcher in a digital format using an online word-processing tool such as http://eled.org/0158.
  • Work Time B: Display a video of students participating in a Jigsaw protocol, such as http://eled.org/jigsaw, to clarify the expectations. Alternatively, display a visual representation of the movements in a jigsaw to ease the cognitive load for students as they take part in the protocol.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 6.I.A.1, 6.I.A.2, 6.I.B.5, 6.I.B.6, and 6.II.C.6.

Important Points in the Lesson Itself

  • To support ELLs, this lesson introduces students to the Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catchers, which they will use to collect evidence to support their arguments about the text in collaborative essays during Unit 3. Students will not write their essays until later in the module; beginning their note-catchers so early helps them read Hidden Figures with a clearly indicated purpose (i.e., to locate evidence that explains why Mary Jackson's and Katherine Johnson's accomplishments are remarkable). Reading with a clear purpose helps ELLs better differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information, reducing cognitive overload. In this lesson, students also participate in a Jigsaw protocol to read chapters about Mary Jackson. Jigsaws reduce the amount of reading students are expected to complete.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to comprehend their assigned Jigsaw chapter in enough detail to be able to explain it to other members of their home groups during a Jigsaw share. To make sure that students have adequate time to interpret their assigned chapters, the Jigsaw share does not take place until Opening A of Lesson 10. This gives students the chance to focus fully on completing their note-catchers in their expert groups before being expected to report on its content.

Vocabulary

  • N/A

Materials from Previous Lessons

Teacher

Student

  • Text Guide: Hidden Figures (for teacher reference) (from Module 4, Unit 2, Lesson 1, Work Time A)
  • Gists: Hidden Figures anchor chart (example for teacher reference) (from Module 4, Unit 2, Lesson 1, Work Time A)
  • Gists: Hidden Figures anchor chart (one for display; from Module 4, Unit 2, Lesson 1, Work Time A)
  • Author's Methods anchor chart (one for display; from Module 2, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Work Time B)
  • Hidden Figures (Young Readers' Edition) (text; one per student; from Module 4, Unit 1, Lesson 1, Opening A)
  • Vocabulary logs (one per student; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Work Time B)
  • Independent reading journal (one per student; begun in Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 6, Work Time B)

New Materials

Teacher

Student

  • Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher (example for teacher reference)
  • Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher (one per student and one for display)
  • Sticky notes (three per student)
  • Synopsis: Hidden Figures, Chapters 10, 11, and 14 (one per student)

Assessment

Each unit in the 6-8 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize students' understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

OpeningLevels of Support

A. Introduce Argument Evidence Note-Catcher (5 minutes)

  • Explain that for the Mid-Unit 3 Assessment, students will write another argument essay. Remind students they wrote a literary argument essay in Module 3. Inform students that the focus of their independent argument essay will be the focus figure they choose for their performance task.
  • Before writing the independent essay, students will analyze a model and then write a collaborative essay that mirrors the same task, as they have done in previous modules. They will begin collecting evidence for their collaborative argument essay in this lesson.
  • Display the prompt for the collaborative essay: why are Mary Jackson or Katherine Johnson's accomplishments remarkable? Point out that while students will only write about one of the women, they will be learning and gathering information about both women. Let students know that whom they write about will be determined toward the end of this unit.
  • Display and distribute Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher. Using a total participation technique, invite students to share what they notice or wonder about the columns of the note-catcher or the kinds of information each column may capture.
  • Tell students that they are going to spend the remainder of Unit 2 reading about Mary Jackson and Katherine Johnson. Today, students will be introduced to Mary Jackson. Point out that they will be adding to this note-catcher incrementally across Unit 2, as they learn more about Mary Jackson and Katherine Johnson.
  • Repeated routine: Follow the same routine as in previous lessons to review learning targets and the purpose of the lesson, reminding students of any learning targets that are similar or the same as previous lessons. Invite students to choose a habit of character focus for themselves for this lesson.

For Lighter Support

  • N/A

For Heavier Support

  • Students who need heavier support may need help orienting themselves to the collaborative essay prompt (Why are Mary Jackson's or Katherine Johnson's accomplishments remarkable?) or to the Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher. Provide a blank note-catcher to triads for a preliminary practice activity. Groups can choose a beloved celebrity or classmate to make the focus of the essay questions (Why are _____'s accomplishments remarkable?). Invite students to work together, using English or their home languages as appropriate, to name one or two key accomplishments by that person, provide a reason as to why the accomplishment is remarkable, and practice using evidence and reasoning to support their ideas.

Work Time

Work TimeLevels of Support

A. Read Hidden Figures, Chapter 10 - RI.6.3 (15 minutes)

  • Review the learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

"I can analyze how the author introduces and elaborates on Mary Jackson's character in the text."

  • Invite students to examine the photo on page 89 of Hidden Figures, which depicts Mary Jackson and the rest of the Supersonic Pressure Tunnel Group at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What do you notice about this photo? What does this photo tell us about the environment that Mary worked in?" (Responses will vary, but may include: In the photo, all the women are in the front row and wearing dresses. There are far more men than women. The group appears to be mostly white people. These attributes suggest that Mary, as a black woman, was in the minority in her work environment.)

  • Read aloud an excerpt from chapter 10, from the start of the chapter on page 76 to the end of page 81. Students can follow along silently in their texts as the excerpt is read aloud.
  • Repeated routine: Students record the gist of the chapter 10 excerpt on sticky notes, unpack and record unfamiliar vocabulary, update the Gists: Hidden Figures anchor chart, and reflect on their reading as they choose. Students continue to identify how key individuals in the text demonstrate habits of character. Refer to the Gists: Hidden Figures anchor chart (example for teacher reference), Text Guide: Hidden Figures, and chapter synopsis as needed, as well as any other appropriate resources.
  • Gist of chapter 10: Mary Jackson graduated from the Hampton Institute; she took a job as a teacher, next as a United Services Organization employee, and then as a mathematician at Langley.
  • Direct students to review the Author's Methods anchor chart.
  • Think-Pair-Share:

"What methods does Margot Lee Shetterly use in this excerpt to help develop the reader's understanding of Mary?" (Responses will vary, but may include: the author uses personal anecdotes, direct quotes from Mary, and some historical context to help develop the reader's understanding of Mary.)

"What is something that the reader can infer about Mary's character from this passage?" (Responses will vary, but may include: Mary is strong and confident; Mary is smart and talented.)

  • Repeated routine: invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning target.

For Lighter Support

  • At the end of Work Time A, after students read chapter 10 of the text, invite them to re-examine the photo of the Supersonic Pressure Tunnel Group in their texts, which they first discussed at the beginning of Work Time A. Prompt students who need lighter support to explain how this photo helps them understand Mary's character or the information in the chapter. This task helps to reinforce work with RI.6.7 and encourages students to think of the photos in the text as informational resources that can support their understanding.

For Heavier Support

  • At the beginning of Work Time A, as students examine the photo of the Supersonic Pressure Tunnel Group in their texts, invite students who need heavier support to exercise their vocabularies by naming everything they can identify in the photos. Encourage them to be as specific as possible and use learners' dictionaries as necessary to locate unfamiliar words (e.g., belts, bricks, stripes).

 

B. Jigsaw: Hidden Figures, Chapters 11 and 14 (15 minutes)

  • Tell students that they will now read more about Mary Jackson. They will become experts on one chapter about Mary, using the Jigsaw protocol.
  • Remind students of the Jigsaw protocol: Students have home groups and expert groups. They will first work with their expert groups to read a chapter or an excerpt of a chapter about Mary from the text. Later, they will work with their expert groups to add details about what they read to their Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher.
  • Display home group (e.g., ABAB) and expert group (e.g., AAAA; BBBB) assignments. Have students move into their expert groups. Group(s) A will read chapter 11 (pages 86-92). Group(s) B will read an excerpt of chapter 14, beginning on page 115 and ending at the bottom of page 118.
  • Move students into their expert groups. Students should take turns reading aloud while the rest of the group reads along silently.
  • Repeated routine: Groups record the gists of chapter 11 and the chapter 14 excerpt on sticky notes, unpack and record unfamiliar vocabulary, update the Gists: Hidden Figures anchor chart, and reflect on their reading as they choose. Students continue to identify how key individuals in the text demonstrate habits of character. Refer to the Gists: Hidden Figures anchor chart (example for teacher reference), Text Guide: Hidden Figures, and chapter synopses as needed, as well as any other appropriate resources.
  • Gist of chapter 11: Mary Jackson was asked to join the Supersonic Pressure Tunnel team. Jackson defended her work when a division chief questioned her calculations.
  • Gist of chapter 14 excerpt: Mary Jackson worked in the division that designed missiles. Her boss was so impressed with her work, he encouraged her to enroll in Langley's engineer training program. She had to get special permission to attend the engineering classes at a whites-only school.
  • Repeated routine: invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning target.

For Lighter Support

  • N/A

For Heavier Support

  • During the Jigsaw of Work Time B, Group A reads chapter 11 and Group B reads an excerpt of chapter 14. An excerpt from chapter 11 will then be reread and analyzed in more detail in the following lesson. Assign ELLs who need heavier support to Group A, so that they may benefit from the comprehension and fluency gains that come from reading the same passage multiple times for distinct purposes. 

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Gather Evidence - W.6.1 (10 minutes)

  • Review the learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

"I can gather evidence and develop reasoning for an argument essay about Mary Jackson's remarkable accomplishments."

  • Direct students to remain in their expert groups (AAAA or BBBB) and to retrieve their Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher. Review the Part I directions.
  • Direct groups to work together to add at least one example to their note-catcher for Mary Jackson with information from the part of the text they just read with their groups.
  • Monitor groups as they work, offering support and guidance as needed. Refer to the Collaborative Argument Evidence note-catcher (example for teacher reference) for guidance.
  • Explain that for the Opening activity in the next lesson, students will work with partners from the other group, who read the other chapter about Mary. They will share the information gathered during the Jigsaw and continue to fill out their Argument Evidence note-catchers.
  • Repeated routine: invite students to reflect on their habit of character focus for this lesson.

Homework

Homework

A. Independent Research Reading

  • Students read for at least 20 minutes in their independent research reading text. Then they select a prompt and write a response in their independent reading journal.

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