Determine Central Idea and Analyze Point of View | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2019 G6:M4:U1:L2

Determine Central Idea and Analyze Point of View

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Focus Standards: These are the standards the instruction addresses.

  • RI.6.1, RI.6.2, RI.6.4, RI.6.6, L.6.5c

Supporting Standards: These are the standards that are incidental—no direct instruction in this lesson, but practice of these standards occurs as a result of addressing the focus standards.

  • RI.6.10, W.6.10, SL.6.1, SL.6.2

Daily Learning Targets

  • I can determine the central idea of a text about the Space Race. (RI.6.2)
  • I can analyze John F. Kennedy's point of view and how it is conveyed in the text. (RI.6.4, RI.6.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Opening A: Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 2 (W.6.10)
  • Work Time A: "The Space Race" annotations (RI.6.1, RI.6.2, RI.6.10)
  • Work Time B: Analyze Point of View: President Kennedy's Speech note-catcher (RI.6.1, RI.6.2, RI.6.4, RI.6.6, RI.6.10, W.6.10, L.6.5c)
  • Closing and Assessment A: QuickWrite: Develop Understanding of the Topic (W.6.10)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engage the Learner - W.6.10 (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Read and Annotate "The Space Race" - RI.6.2 (15 minutes)

B. Listen to and Read President John F. Kennedy's Speech Excerpt - RI.6.6 (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. QuickWrite - W.6.10 (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Apollo Missions and Space Race Events Timeline: Students read and annotate Homework: Apollo Missions for key details about the missions leading up to Apollo 11. They then complete Homework: Space Race Events Timeline based on the information they learned from reading "The Space Race," the excerpt from President John F. Kennedy's speech, and the Apollo mission descriptions.

Alignment to Assessment Standards and Purpose of Lesson

  • RI.6.2 – Opening A: Students complete an entrance ticket in which they analyze sample annotations that identify the central idea of a text excerpt.
  • RI.6.1 – Work Time A: Students read and annotate “The Space Race” using evidence from the text to support their annotations.
  • RI.6.2 – Work Time A: Students add annotations to “The Space Race” with the purpose of identifying the central idea of the text and summarizing it.
  • RI.6.4 – Work Time B: Students analyze an excerpt of John F. Kennedy’s speech and examine ways in which words with specific connotations convey his point of view.
  • RI.6.6 – Work Time B: Students analyze John F. Kennedy’s speech and complete the Analyze Point of View: President Kennedy’s Speech note-catcher with information about Kennedy’s point of view toward space travel.
  • L.6.5c – Work Time B: Students choose a word from John F. Kennedy’s speech that has a strong connotation and explain how the word’s connotation reveals his point of view.
  • In this lesson, students engage in a protocol. A protocol consists of agreed-upon, detailed guidelines for reading, recording, discussing, or reporting that ensure equal participation and accountability in learning. Protocols are an important feature of the EL curriculum because they are a useful way to engage students in discussion, inquiry, critical thinking, and sophisticated communication. Students engage in the following new protocol in this lesson (instructions for which appear at the first point of use):
    • Annotating Text: Annotating text goes beyond underlining, highlighting, or making symbolic notations or codes on a given text. Annotation includes adding purposeful notes, key words and phrases, definitions, and connections tied to specific sections of text. Annotating text promotes students’ interest in reading and gives learners a focused purpose for reading. It supports readers’ ability to clarify and synthesize ideas, pose relevant questions, and capture analytical thinking about text. Annotation also gives students a clear purpose for actively engaging with text and is driven by the goals or learning targets of the lesson. Later in the unit, students will participate in a collaborative iteration of this protocol, in which annotations are made by multiple individuals on the same text.

Opportunities to Extend Learning

  • Although the Annotating Text protocol is typically done silently, consider inviting students to think aloud with a partner as they annotate “The Space Race” in Work Time A. Listening partners can follow along and note the annotation choices made by their partners and ask one another questions about their approaches to annotation.
  • For further practice with the Annotating Text protocol and to deepen understanding of John F. Kennedy’s “Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs,” challenge students to annotate the excerpt of the speech provided in Work Time B. Clarify the purpose for annotations, choosing tasks that are relevant to students’ needs and the goals of the unit. These purposes may include the following: to locate evidence in support of a claim, to identify the central idea and supporting details, and/or to determine the author’s purpose. Additionally, students only read and analyze part of President Kennedy’s 1961 speech to Congress. Consider giving students another section of the speech to understand the other “urgent needs” that the United States was facing at this time.
  • The Analyze Point of View: President Kennedy’s Speech note-catcher from Work Time B asks students to describe Kennedy’s point of view toward space travel using evidence from the transcript. Challenge students to use other evidence from the transcript to determine Kennedy’s point of view toward additional topics, such as innovation, patriotism, or the Soviet Union.

How It Builds on Previous Work

  • In the previous lesson, students were introduced to the module topic through the Infer the Topic protocol and details of the performance task. Students also watched a video of the moon landing that concluded the Space Race in 1969. In this lesson, students learn more about the goals of the Space Race by examining two supplemental texts. They practice determining the central idea, analyzing point of view, and interpreting the technical meanings of words.

Support All Students

  • The Annotating Text protocol helps readers to process information at a deeper level and increases their ability to recall information from the text. It helps learners comprehend difficult materials and more critically engage with the text. Although this protocol is supportive for students at all reading levels, ELLs may especially benefit from opportunities to gauge and demonstrate their understanding of the text. ▲
  • If ELLs find it challenging to locate words, phrases, and sentences to annotate during the protocol, give them the opportunity to annotate for different purposes, such as to react, reflect, or pose clarifying questions. ▲

Assessment Guidance

  • In this lesson, students learn to annotate a text as they read to deepen their comprehension. Consider creating standard annotations for students to draw from (e.g., circle unfamiliar words, highlight key details, draw a question mark next to confusing parts). Create an anchor chart with the different possible annotations, and encourage students to add to it with their own ideas. Remind students to use annotations in moderation, as they are meant to draw attention to only the most important ideas.
  • During Work Time A, students complete a note-catcher about author’s point of view similar to the note-catchers they used in Module 3. Students should keep in mind how the audience may affect the way the author conveys their point of view. Invite students to think about how the author, in this case President John F. Kennedy, might have changed his word choices or delivery based on his audience.
  • For homework, students begin filling in a timeline to track the background knowledge they are building through texts and multimedia resources about the Space Race. Ensure that students bring home the texts from this lesson to help fill in their timeline.

Down the Road

  • In the next lesson, students continue to develop their understanding of the events leading up the moon landing. They read an excerpt from a new text, Team Moon, and annotate the text to determine the author’s point of view.

In Advance

  • Think-alouds are used in both Work Time A and Work Time B of this lesson. Rehearse the think-aloud, emphasizing the steps that are likely to be most challenging for students, to sound natural and reflect the actual metacognitive process in which students will engage.
  • Strategically determine pairs of students to work together to complete the note-catcher in Work Time B.
  • Review the Retell or Reread strategy in Work Time B.
  • Review the student tasks and example answers to get familiar with what students will do in the lesson.
  • Prepare copies of handouts for students (see Materials list).
  • Post the learning targets and applicable anchor charts (see Materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

  • Opening: Play the audio version of President Kennedy's address to Rice University, September 1962, available online, focusing specifically on the famous lines students read in the entrance ticket.
  • Work Time A: Display a virtual timeline of the Space Race to provide additional background knowledge and help students to better understand the context of the first informational text studied in this lesson.
  • Work Time B: Play the audio version of President Kennedy's "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs," available online.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 6.I.A.1, 6.I.B.5, 6.I.B.6, 6.I.B.8, 6.II.A.1, 6.II.A.2, 6.II.B.5, 6.II.C.6, and 6.II.C.7.

Important Points in the Lesson Itself

  • To support ELLs, this lesson introduces a new protocol, Annotating Text. This protocol supports reading abilities for readers at all levels, but is especially beneficial for ELLs because it hones and clarifies reading purpose. ELLs who find it challenging to read in English can easily feel overwhelmed by a new text; misuse of reading strategies (e.g., pausing frequently to define unknown words when aiming to read for gist) can make ELLs less efficient and effective readers. The Annotating Text protocol gives readers a focused goal, like "locating evidence to support a claim" or "determining the author's purpose." To orient students to this new protocol and clarify instructions, students first observe a think-aloud that models the kind of inner thoughts that one annotating their text might have.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to understand reading for different purposes, especially if they are not yet able to nimbly shift among reading strategies or approaches. Consider providing more dramatized examples for students in order to highlight the impact of varying one's reading approach for different purposes. For example, using a familiar text (e.g., the transcript of John F. Kennedy's speech from Work Time B), invite students to read and annotate the text first with the goal of "identifying patterns and repetitions." Students should quickly skim and scan the text, noting and marking repeated words, phrases, or sentence structures. Make this a timed activity to discourage deep reading. Then, invite students to reread the text with a different goal, like "identifying the main idea." Encourage students to achieve this goal by reading only the first line of each paragraph (i.e., the topic sentences) to get a general sense of the key ideas before reading the text all the way through. Through a brief discussion after this exercise, invite students to share notices and wonders about how it felt to read for different purposes.

Vocabulary

  • annotate (A)

Key

(A): Academic Vocabulary

(DS): Domain-Specific Vocabulary

Materials from Previous Lessons

Teacher

Student

  • Academic word wall (one for display; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 1, Work Time A)
  • Equity sticks (from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 1, Work Time C)
  • Module Guiding Questions anchor chart (one for display; from Module 4, Unit 1, Lesson 1, Work Time C)
  • Vocabulary logs (one per student; from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2, Work Time B)

New Materials

Teacher

Student

  • Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 2 (example for teacher reference)
  • Analyze Point of View: President Kennedy's Speech note-catcher (example for teacher reference)
  • QuickWrite: Develop Understanding of the Topic (example for teacher reference)
  • Homework: Apollo Missions (example for teacher reference) (see Homework Resources)
  • Homework: Space Race Events Timeline (answers for teacher reference) (see Homework Resources)
  • Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 2 (one per student)
  • Text: "The Space Race" (one per student and one for display)
  • Text: John F. Kennedy's Speech Excerpt (one per student)
  • Analyze Point of View: President Kennedy's Speech note-catcher (one per student and one for display)
  • QuickWrite: Develop Understanding of the Topic (one per student)
  • Homework: Apollo Missions (one per student; see Homework Resources)
  • Homework: Space Race Events Timeline (one per student; see Homework Resources)

Assessment

Each unit in the 6-8 Language Arts Curriculum has two standards-based assessments built in, one mid-unit assessment and one end of unit assessment. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize students' understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

Opening

Opening

A. Engage the Learner - W.6.10 (5 minutes)

  • Repeated routine: Follow the same routine as in previous lessons to distribute and review Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 2. Refer to Entrance Ticket: Unit 1, Lesson 2 (example for teacher reference) for possible responses.
  • Explain that students will participate in an Annotating Text protocol to collaboratively examine a text about the Space Race.
  • Ask:

"What root word do you see in the word annotate?" (note)

"When we annotate a text, what do we do to it?" (We add notes and comments to it.)

  • Add the word annotate to the academic word wall, and invite students to record it in their vocabulary logs.
  • Repeated routine: Follow the same routine used in previous lessons to review learning targets and the lesson's purpose, reminding students of any learning targets that are similar or the same as previous lessons. Invite students to choose a habit of character focus for themselves for this lesson.

Work Time

Work TimeLevels of Support

A. Read and Annotate "The Space Race" - RI.6.2 (15 minutes)

  • Review the learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

"I can determine the central idea of a text about the Space Race."

  • Ensure students understand the directions for the Annotating Text protocol. Refer to the EL Classroom Protocols document located on the Tools Page for the full version of the protocol.
  • Define and display the purposes for annotating "The Space Race": (1) to identify the central idea and supporting details, and (2) to summarize.
  • Distribute and display Text: "The Space Race." Explain that students will first follow along as you model how to annotate the first paragraph of the text.
  • Highlight or underline key words, phrases, or sentences from the first paragraph of the text. Use a think-aloud strategy to help students understand the purpose of highlighting those key words, phrases, or sentences. Model annotating in the margin, above underlined words and phrases, or to the side of the text.
  • Note that think-alouds are meant to feel spontaneous and unrehearsed. However, an example of the kind of language that may be produced during the think-aloud can be found below.

"Okay, I want to make annotations that identify the central idea and supporting details and that summarize information. Got it. I'm looking at the first paragraph: 'In the late 1950s, the United States became very competitive and a space race began.' Oh, that's an important phrase for me: space race. I'm going to circle it. I'm also going to underline the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union is what Russia used to be called, right? It looks like these are the major players in the space race; let me add that in a quick note: space race = USA & Russia. Okay, next line: 'Each wanted to be the first to put a man on the Moon.' Ah-ha! So here's the main goal of the space race; I'm going to put a star next to this sentence and write this in the margin: main goal of space race. Next line: 'This was all going on during the time of the Cold War, when political relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were already difficult.' This looks like context to me. What are the most important phrases? I am going to underline Cold War, political relations, and difficult. I am going to write context for space race in the margin next to this line. Okay, so it looks like the central idea of this paragraph is 'At a time of difficult political relations, the United States and Russia began a space race where both countries wanted to send a man to the moon.' I'll write that in the margin. Okay! Time for paragraph 2 . . . ."

  • Field any questions students have about the protocol. Remind students that the think-aloud was meant to model the kinds of choices students might make as they annotate texts; the protocol itself will be done silently.
  • Remind students of the two purposes for annotating the text, and invite them to independently annotate the second paragraph of "The Space Race." After a few minutes, invite students to Turn and Talk to a partner about what they underlined and how they annotated it in the margins. Use this as an opportunity to gauge students' understanding of the protocol.
  • Tell students that they will now work with a partner to read aloud and think aloud their annotations for paragraphs 3 and 4. Explain that students do not have to write down the same information as their partner, but reiterate the importance of explaining their thinking.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What habits of character do you need to exhibit to be successful in this activity?" (Responses will vary, but may include: respect, collaboration, initiative, and responsibility.)

  • Once students have finished annotating paragraphs 3 and 4, use equity sticks to choose two students to share their annotations.
  • Explain that students will now independently annotate paragraphs 5 and 6. Explain that the think-aloud technique is still appropriate, but it should now be a silent mental process.
  • Invite students to begin annotating. Monitor student progress, and assist any students who seem to be struggling.
  • Once students have finished annotating, invite them to share their annotations with a partner.
  • Turn and Talk:

"What similarities and differences do you see in your and your partners' annotations? What can you learn from your partner's work?" (Responses will vary.)

"According to your annotations, what would you say is the central idea of this text?" (Russia and the United States participated in a competitive Space Race that began with Russia's Sputnik and ended with the United States' moon landing.)

  • Repeated routine: invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning target.

For Lighter Support

  • After modeling the Annotating Text protocol using a think-aloud during Work Time A, invite students who need lighter support to summarize their understanding of the purpose of the Annotating Text protocol. If productive, consider also inviting students to develop a list of strategies for successfully annotating text, based on the strategies they saw used during the model.

For Heavier Support

  • During Work Time A, when introducing students to the Annotating Text protocol, consider modeling the protocol using think-alouds twice. The first time, invite students to follow along on the first paragraph of their texts. The second time, invite students to simply watch and listen. If the think-aloud language strays from the sample script provided in the lesson, challenge students to notice and point out differences between the two think-alouds. Repeating the think-aloud will support students' understanding of the protocol, and locating differences across the two think-alouds will help drive home the point that there is no one correct series of thoughts to track during the Annotating Text protocol.

B. Listen to and Read President John F. Kennedy’s Speech Excerpt – RI.6.6 (20 minutes)

  • Review the learning target relevant to the work to be completed in this section of the lesson:

“I can analyze John F. Kennedy’s point of view and how it is conveyed in the text.”

  • Tell students that they will now listen to and read an excerpt from President John F. Kennedy’s “Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs,” which was mentioned in the final paragraph of “The Space Race.”
  • Distribute Text: John F. Kennedy’s Speech Excerpt. Read it aloud as students follow along silently. Pause to refer to the glossary at the end of the text as needed. As an alternative, locate the speech online (excerpts are available on YouTube) and play it for students.
  • Ask:

“What is the gist of this speech?” (JFK believes that the United States should take the lead in space exploration.)

“Who is the audience for this speech?” (Congress)

“What is President Kennedy’s purpose for giving this speech?” (to make an argument to Congress that space exploration should be a priority and should be given financial support)

  • Explain that this is an especially complex text with long sentences. By the time students get to the end of a sentence, they may find that they have forgotten what they read at the beginning of it. To address this, students will use the Retell or Reread strategy. Explain that after each sentence, students should pause and ask themselves, “Did I understand the sentence well enough that I could retell what I learned to someone else in my own words?” If the answer is “yes,” they should move on to the next sentence. If the answer is “no,” they should reread the sentence.
  • Read the first paragraph of the speech excerpt aloud, and model using the Retell or Reread strategy in a think-aloud.
  • Read the first sentence aloud:

“Finally, if we are to win the battle that is now going on around the world between freedom and tyranny, the dramatic achievements in space which occurred in recent weeks should have made clear to us all, as did the Sputnik in 1957, the impact of this adventure on the minds of men everywhere, who are attempting to make a determination of which road they should take.”

  • Think aloud:

“Retell or reread? Can I state the same information in this sentence in my own words? I know it has something to do with the rivalry between the United States and Russia, and I recognized the reference to Sputnik. But that was a super-long sentence. I’m going to first check the definition of tyranny in the glossary, then reread the sentence.”

  • Read the first sentence aloud again, this time a little slower.
  • Think aloud:

“Retell or reread? OK, now I think I get it. Kennedy is saying that prioritizing space exploration is about more than science—it’s about the United States remaining a world leader and not allowing Russian tyrants to gain power or dominance with their advancements into space. Now I’m ready to go on to the next sentence.”

  • Invite students to use the Retell or Reread strategy as they read through the text a second time with a partner. If time is a concern, have students focus specifically on paragraphs 4, 5, and 6.
  • Ask:

“Based on your broader understanding of the speech now, what would you say is John F. Kennedy’s purpose in delivering this speech?” (to secure government funding and support to send an American man to the moon)

  • Display and distribute the Analyze Point of View: President Kennedy’s Speech note-catcher. Point out that the questions on this note-catcher are similar to the questions in Module 3 used to analyze the Captain Pratt speech excerpt as well as excerpts of the Meriam Report.
  • Have students work in pairs to complete the note-catcher. Monitor student progress, and offer support as needed. Refer to Analyze Point of View: President Kennedy’s Speech note-catcher (example for teacher reference).
  • Using equity sticks, call on students to share their answers. Clarify any misconceptions, and allow students to elaborate on particularly insightful responses.
  • Repeated routine: invite students to reflect on their progress toward the relevant learning target.

For Lighter Support

  • N/A

For Heavier Support

  • During Work Time B, as students discuss the gist, purpose, and audience of Kennedy's speech, use strategic combinations of Conversation Cues to support and challenge students' thinking:
    • "Can you say more about that?" (Goal 1)
    • "Who can repeat what your classmate said?" (Goal 2)
    • "Who can add on to what your classmate said?" (Goal 4)
    • "How does our discussion add to your understanding of the module topic?" (Goal 3)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingLevels of Support

A. QuickWrite - W.6.10 (5 minutes)

  • Distribute QuickWrite: Develop Understanding of the Topic. Tell students that they will be synthesizing their learning from the two texts in this lesson to debrief their understanding of the module topic.
  • Students may want to reference the Module Guiding Questions anchor chart to guide their thinking.
  • Refer to QuickWrite: Develop Understanding of the Topic (example for teacher reference) as needed to guide students.
  • Refocus groups after 4 minutes. Scan student responses, and make a note of students who might need support. Check in with them moving forward.
  • Repeated routine: invite students to reflect on their habit of character focus for this lesson.

For Lighter Support

  • In the following lesson, students will participate in a Language Dive using a sentence from an excerpt from Team Moon, an informational text that details some of the events leading up to the Apollo 11 launch. Consider providing ELLs with the Language Dive sentence ahead of time. Invite students who need lighter support to generate three questions that might be asked about the sentence during the Language Dive. Encourage students to create questions about structures within the sentence, rather than vocabulary. Support students' autonomy and ownership of their learning by inviting them to ask these questions of classmates during the Language Dive.

For Heavier Support

  • In the following lesson, students will participate in a Language Dive using a sentence from an excerpt from Team Moon, an informational text that details some of the events leading up to the Apollo 11 launch. Consider providing ELLs with the Language Dive sentence ahead of time. Invite students who need heavier support to annotate the sentence with home-language translations of unfamiliar words (e.g., compact, capsule, searing).

Homework

Homework

A. Apollo Missions and Space Race Events Timeline

  • Students read and annotate Homework: Apollo Missions for key details about the missions leading up to Apollo 11. They then complete Homework: Space Race Events Timeline based on the information they learned from reading "The Space Race," the excerpt from President John F. Kennedy's speech, and the Apollo mission descriptions.

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