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ELA G1:M2:U2:L2

Close Read-aloud, Session 1: What Makes Day and Night

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.1.5: Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.
  • RI.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.2: Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.1.4: Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • RI.1.7: Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • L.1.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.1.1f: Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  • L.1.5: With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.1.5c: Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can describe the pattern of light and dark on earth using information from the text What Makes Day and Night.(RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.7, SL.1.1a)
  • I can record my observations about what I notice in pictures and videos of the sun, moon, and stars. (W.1.8, L.1.1c, L.1.1f, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the Opening, observe students as they begin to find adjectives to describe the sun, moon, and stars and identify real-life connections with the adjectives. Record student progress on the Language Checklist. (L.1.1f, L.1.5c)
  • During the close read-aloud in Work Time B, use the Reading Literature checklist to track students’ progress towards RL.1.5 and the Reading Informational Text Checklist to track students’ progress toward the reading standards listed for this lesson (see Assessment Overview and Resources).

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Learner: "What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars" Poem (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Structured Discussion: Introducing the Unit 2 Guiding Question (10 minutes)

B. Close Read-aloud, Session 1: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 1–31 (20 minutes)

C. Shared Writing: Describing the Sun and Moon (10 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Reflecting on Learning (10 minutes

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • During the Opening, students read a new poem about the sun, moon, and stars as a way to introduce them to the use of adjectives. In Lessons 2–4, students will identify and use adjectives to make their writing more descriptive (L.1.1f).
  • In Work Time B, students complete Session 1 of the close read-aloud for the unit anchor text, What Makes Day and Night. Through this read-aloud, students strengthen their ability to understand and converse with their peers about the text as they hear it read aloud multiple times and engage actively through the use of the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart, text-dependent questions, and activities. At the end of Unit 2, students participate in a Science Talk to demonstrate their growing knowledge of the topic of this unit (RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.3, RI.1.7, SL.1.2, SL.1.5).
  • As noted in Module 1, a close read-aloud is an instructional practice that gives beginning readers an opportunity to study a complex text with teacher support, for the purpose of deep comprehension. A close read-aloud of a particular text occurs in a series of short sessions (approximately 20–25 minutes each) across multiple lessons.
  • For every close read-aloud, there is a Close Read-aloud Guide (see supporting materials). This material lays out the entire sequence of sessions. Before launching the first session with a given text, review the entire guide to have the big picture of the work students will do with that text across multiple lessons. Keep this guide in hand across the multiple lessons.
  • During Work Time C, students participate in a shared writing activity where they begin to describe the sun and moon using adjectives. Shared writing provides students with a highly supportive writing opportunity in which they can practice generating ideas, selecting appropriate vocabulary, and rereading writing for fluency.
  • This lesson is the second in a series of three that include built-out instruction for the use of Goal 3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation (adapted from Michaels, Sarah and O’Connor, Cathy. Talk Science Primer. Cambridge, MA: TERC, 2012. Based on Chapin, S., O’Connor, C., and Anderson, N. [2009]. Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grades K–6. Second Edition. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications). Goal 3 Conversation Cues encourage students to deepen their thinking. Continue drawing on Goal 1 and 2 Conversation Cues, introduced in Module 1, and add Goal 3 Conversation Cues to more strategically promote productive and equitable conversation. In Module 3, Goal 4 Conversation Cues are also introduced. Refer to the Module 1 Appendix for additional information on Conversation Cues. Consider providing students with a thinking journal or scrap paper.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • In Lesson 1, students built interest in the module topic through notices and wonderings. This lesson allows for a more in-depth study of the patterns of light and dark on earth as students begin the close read-aloud of What Makes Day and Night.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • During the Opening, some students may need additional support understanding the definition and use of an adjective. Consider having several simple prewritten sentences available to model the use of adjectives.

Down the road:

  • This is the first lesson in a series of five in which students participate in a close read of What Makes Day and Night. Preview the Close Read-aloud Guide for What Makes Day and Night.
  • This is the first lesson in a series of three in which students begin to search for and pull out adjectives used to describe the sun, moon, and stars. In Lesson 2, students locate adjectives in the poem and use them during a shared writing instructional practice. In Lessons 3–4, students will begin to pull out adjectives used to describe the sun, moon, and stars and help co-create an anchor chart of adjectives. Students use this anchor chart when independently writing in their Sky notebook in Lesson 4. 
  • In the Closing, students are introduced to the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form. The use of this recording form during shared writing times in Lessons 2–3 closely mirrors what students will do in their Sky notebook during independent writing time in Lesson 4.

In Advance

  • Preview the entire Close Read-aloud Guide to fully understand the “arc” of these five lessons and to see how the learning and skills build from one lesson to the next. Complete only Session 1 in this lesson.
  • Print sun photograph 1 and moon photograph 1 in color if possible.
  • Prepare the Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart by writing the title, the guiding question, and the labeled table on chart paper.
  • Post: Learning targets, “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Opening A: Create the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and for families to access at home to reinforce.
  • Work Time C: Create the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and complete, and for families to access at home to reinforce these skills.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.A.1, 1.I.A.3, 1.I.B.5, 1.I.B.6, and 1.I.C.10

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to build content knowledge and develop English language skills through multiple modalities, such as reading poetry and using oral language in a structured way.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to understand and apply the structure and function of adjectives. Create an Adjectives Construction board to support the development of adjective meaning and structure. On project display board, affix manipulative adjective cards with illustrations on one side of the board (Examples: large, yellow, bright). On the other side, affix illustrated word cards of nouns (Examples: moon, sun, stars), and a sentence frame in the middle. (Example: “I observe a(n) [adjective] [noun] in the sky.”) Model choosing a noun and an adjective that describes it, and place each word card in the correct place in the sentence frame. Add to the adjectives and nouns columns with more words throughout the unit.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During Work Time A, encourage students to use Conversation Cues with other students to extend and deepen conversations, think with others, and enhance language development.

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time C, support students who have trouble answering the question “What does the moon look like?” After generating sentences with the class, ask the prompt again, and call on students to recite the sentences. Dictate the words as necessary, pointing to words and emphasizing the pronunciation of each word. Point to the accompanying sketches to clarify the meaning of the sentences.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In Opening A, students’ interest is piqued with the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem. This poem is read with a focus on the adjectives used to describe the sun, moon, and stars. Some students may need support in incorporating the most valuable information from the poem into existing knowledge. Providing explicit cues or prompts supports students in attending to the features that matter most as they follow along with the poem. Before reading the poem, activate background knowledge by previewing the question you will ask. (Examples: “After I read the poem, I will ask you what you think it is about,” and “When I finish reading each verse, I will ask you to share the adjectives you found in each one.”)
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): In this lesson, students engage in a close read-aloud of What Makes Day and Night. Some students may need support in setting appropriate goals for their effort and the level of difficulty expected. Appropriate goal-setting supports development of executive skills and strategies. Offer scaffolds for students learning to set appropriate personal goals, such as a checklist with three goals for the close read. (Examples: “I can keep my eyes on the text as it is read aloud,” “I can listen without leaving my seat space,” and “I can raise my hand to answer one question during the read-aloud”).
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): As students engage with the text during the close read-aloud, some may need additional support in linking the information presented back to the first learning target. Invite students to make this connection by explicitly highlighting the utility and relevance of the text to the learning target. (Example: Provide an index card with the unpacked learning target for students to reference during the close read-aloud.) Include opportunities to refocus students’ attention on the learning target throughout the close read-aloud, and invite students to respond to how the text is supporting their instructional goal.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • adjective, observation (L)

Review:

  • pattern, day, night, sun, earth (L)

Materials

  • What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (example, for teacher reference)
  • Sun photograph 1 (one to display)
  • Moon photograph 1 (one to display)
  • Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • Equity sticks (class set; one per student)
  • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 1; for teacher reference)
    • What Makes Day and Night (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
    • Summer Sun Risin’ (from Unit 1, Lesson 2; one to display)
    • Reading Informational Text Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Describing the Sun and Moon recording form (one for teaching modeling and one per student)
  • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 1)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Learner: “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” Poem (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to the whole group area.
  • Display the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem and tell students that today they will learn a new poem that describes the sun, moon, and stars!
  • Tell students that you will read the poem first on your own as they listen, then they should echo each verse as you read it a second time. Invite students to think of and use gestures and hand motions that go along with the poem as you read it aloud.
  • Read aloud the entire poem, slowly, fluently with expression, and without interruption.
  • After reading the final verse of the poem, invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What is the poem about?” (what the sun, moon, and stars look like)

  • If productive, use a Goal 3 Conversation Cue to encourage students to provide evidence:

“What, in the poem, makes you think so?” (Responses will vary)

  • Remind students that there are different kinds of words and that they learned about nouns and verbs in Unit 1. Define the terms noun and verb as needed.
  • Invite students to whisper a noun from the poem, “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars”, into their hands. Then invite them to whisper a verb from the poem into their hands.
  • Tell students that this poem uses another kind of word as it describes what the sun, moon, and stars look like. Words that describe things like the sun, moon, and stars have a special name, adjectives. Define adjectives for students (words that describe a person, place, or thing).
  • Display sun photograph 1 and then moon photograph 1.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What words would you use to describe how the sun and moon look like in these photographs?” (The sun is yellow; the moon is round.)

  • Direct students’ attention back to the poem. Tell students you are going to read the poem again, stopping after each verse to ask them about adjectives they hear that describe how the sun, moon, and stars look.
  • Read each verse of the poem aloud and stop at the end of each verse. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group: 

What adjectives did you find in this verse?” (round and orange)

“What is something at home or at school that we could describe using this adjective?” (a basketball)

  • Circle and/or highlight the adjectives in each verse as you continue to read the poem aloud. Refer to “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • After reading the final verse of the poem, tell students that they will continue to work with the poem over the next several lessons as they create an anchor chart of adjectives to describe the sun, moon, and stars and as they begin to write about the sun, moon, and stars using clear and accurate descriptions.  
  • When displaying the photographs, support students’ expressive skills by offering adjectives and/or picture cues preprinted on index cards for students to select as they share words that describe the sun and the moon (e.g., yellow, round, bright). (MMAE)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Structured Discussion: Introducing the Unit 2 Guiding Question (10 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart and read the guiding question aloud:
    • “What patterns can we observe in the sky?”
  • Point to the table below the guiding question and point to each column as you read the headings aloud:
    • We see a pattern with …
    • Information about this pattern
    • Diagram of this pattern
  • Tell students that throughout the unit, they will learn about several patterns that can be observed in the sky and will use this chart to record information on the patterns they uncover while reading different texts.
  • Point out the word pattern in the learning target. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What is a pattern?” (something that happens over again)

  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner to discuss what they have noticed when they look at the sky and the patterns that they have noticed in these observations:

“What have you noticed when you look at the sky?” (I see the sun and the moon.)

“What patterns have you noticed in these observations?” (I notice that the sun appears to move across the sky during the day.)

  • Use equity sticks to call on students to share out.
  • Share with students that today, they will begin reading a new book called What Makes Day and Night and will begin to collect information about different patterns that can be observed in the sky. Remind students that they will add this information to the Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart and will continue to add new information to the chart throughout the unit.
  • During the structured discussion, some students may be uncomfortable sharing their own preferences with the entire class. Consider allowing them to share what their partner said so that they still have a chance to speak in front of the class. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of the chunks from the guiding question: “What patterns / can we observe / in the sky?” Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Examples:

“What does this sentence mean?” Responses will vary.)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “What patterns” and ask:

“What is this question about?” (patterns; things that happen over and over again)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “can we observe” ask:

“What will we do with different patterns?” (observe them; see them; look at them carefully)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “in the sky” and ask:

“Where will we find these patterns?” (In the sky; up above)

“What patterns do you think we will find in the sky?” (Responses will vary.)

“Now what do you think this question means?” (What things that happen again and again can we see in the sky?)

B. Close Read-aloud, Session 1: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 1–31 (20 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:
    • “I can describe the pattern of light and dark on earth using information from the text What Makes Day and Night.”
  • Remind students that a pattern is something that happens over again.
  • Tell them that now they will hear an informational text read aloud that describes the pattern of light and dark on earth.
  • Tell students that over the next several lessons they will closely read the text while studying the illustrations to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth and to connect this occurrence to our focus question.
    • “What makes day and night on earth?”
  • Display What Makes Day and Night.
  • Tell students that What Makes Day and Night is an informational text that teaches the reader.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“How is this text the same as Does the Sun Sleep? which we began yesterday?” (they both teach us about day and night)

  • Guide students through the close read-aloud for What Makes Day and Night using the Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 1; for teacher reference). Consider using the Reading Informational Text Checklist during the close read-aloud (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • Refer to the guide for the use of Summer Sun Risin’.
  • Refocus whole group. Give students specific, positive feedback on their close reading skills. (Example: “I saw you listen to the text and study the illustrations to learn about how the earth rotates.”)
  • Tell students that in the next lesson they will continue to uncover information about how the rotation of the earth influences the pattern of light and dark on earth. 
  • Before beginning the close read-aloud, provide white boards and dry-erase markers as an option for students to record (in drawing or writing) their ideas. This will also help scaffold active listening for key details. (MMR, MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Pair students with a partner who has more advanced or native language proficiency. The partner with greater language proficiency in the pair can serve as a model during the read-aloud, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames.
  • For ELLs: During the read-aloud, provide sentence frames for Think-Pair-Shares. (Example: “_______ makes night and day on earth.”
  • For ELLs: During the read-aloud, display the text on a document camera or an enlarged copy of the text to help direct students to the appropriate sentences on each page.
  • For ELLs: Some students may find some of the scientific concepts described in this text to be abstract. Encourage students to use the pictures to help them understand what is happening in the story. Tell them that if they do not understand everything right now, it is okay. Remind students that they will read everything again during the unit.

C. Shared Writing: Describing the Sun and Moon (10 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • With excitement, share that today students have a new job: to help record their observations of the sky during a shared writing activity.
  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:
    • “I can record my observations about what I notice in pictures and videos of the sun, moon, and stars.”
  • Review the definition of observations (the act of perceiving the environment through the senses).
  • Tell students that today they will look at images of the sun and moon and then record their observations using pictures and words. Remind them that earlier in the lesson they identified adjectives, or words to describe something, to describe what the sun and moon look like.
  • Direct students’ attention to the posted sun photograph 1and moon photograph 1.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“How would you describe the sun in this photograph? What adjectives could you use to describe it?” (yellow, bright, round)

“How would you describe the moon in this photograph? What adjectives could you use to describe it?” (white, full, round)

  • Display the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form and tell students that now they will use their ideas of what the sun and moon look like in a class shared writing activity.
  • Use the following procedure to complete the shared writing:
  1. Point to the question on page 1 of the recording form and read it aloud, and using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What does the sun look like?”

2. Prompt students to use the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall and the "What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars" poem as resources as they describe the sun.

3. As students share responses, use their ideas to complete page 1. Think aloud how to use the words from the question itself as a cue to formulate the answer using a complete sentence. (Example: The sun looks small and yellow.)

4. Draw a quick sketch of what the sun looks like.

5. Turn to page 2.

6. Point to the question on page 2 of the recording form and read it aloud, and using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What does the moon look like?"

7. Prompt students to use the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall and the "What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars" poem as resources as they describe the sun.

8. As students share responses, use their ideas to complete page 2. Think aloud how to use the words from the question itself as a cue to formulate the answer using a complete sentence. (Example: The moon looks bright and white.)

9. Draw a quick sketch of what the moon looks like.

10. Tell students that in the next lesson they will look at different photographs of the sun and moon and continue thinking of adjectives to describe them.

  • For ELLs: Support students as they formulate sentences for the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form. Invite students to use the Adjectives Construction board (See Supporting English Language Learners column) with the sentence frame: “The [sun/moon] looks like a(n) [adjective] [noun].” (Example: The sun looks like an orange ball. The sun looks bright and yellow.)
  • Support students’ expressive skills and sustained engagement by offering words from the Word Wall with picture cues preprinted on index cards for students to select as they share words for the shared writing sentence. (MMAE, MME)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning (10 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets and reread the first one aloud:
    • “I can describe the pattern of light and dark on earth using information from the text What Makes Day and Night.”
  • Offer students specific, positive feedback on their work to meet this learning target. (Example: “I noticed that everyone worked to uncover new information about the patterns of light and dark on earth when reading the text.”)
  • If productive, use a Goal 3 Conversation Cue to encourage students to think about their thinking. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“How do our close read-aloud and shared writing add to your understanding of the pattern of light and dark on earth? I’ll give you time to think and discuss with a partner.” (Responses will vary.)

  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What have you learned about the pattern of light and dark on earth?” (Responses will vary, but may include: that day happens when the sun shines on our part of earth, and night happens when shadow covers our part of earth.)

  • Invite a few students to share out.
  • Tell students that they will continue to think about this question as the unit progresses.
  • During the Closing, facilitate personal coping and self-regulation skills by modeling socially appropriate ways to express enthusiasm and/or excitement about this topic (e.g., silent cheer, give yourself a hug, take a deep breath and smile). (MME)
  • For ELLs: Check for comprehension by asking students to summarize and then to personalize the learning target. Ask them to paraphrase it and then to say how they feel about it. Example: “Can you put the learning target in your own words?” (I can use what I learned from the text to tell about why we have night and day.) “How do you feel about that target?” (I am excited to learn about it because I love the moon.)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing

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