Close Read-aloud, Session 2: What Makes Day and Night | EL Education CurriculumTEST2

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ELA G1:M2:U2:L3

Close Read-aloud, Session 2: What Makes Day and Night

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.2: Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.1.4: Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • RI.1.6: Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.
  • RI.1.7: Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • L.1.1f: Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  • L.1.5: With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.1.5c: Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth.(RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, SL.1.1a)
  • I can record my observations about what I notice in pictures and videos of the sun, moon, and stars. (W.1.8, L.1.1f, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the Opening and Closing A, observe students as they begin to use adjectives to describe the sun, moon, and stars and identify real-life connections with the adjectives. Record student progress on the Language Checklist. (L.1.1f, L.1.5c)
  • During Session 2 of the close read-aloud in Work Time A, use the Reading Informational Text Checklist to track students’ progress toward the RI standards listed for this lesson (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • During Work Time B, monitor students as they engage in the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol to listen and respond to a classmate’s idea. (SL.1.1)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Learner: "What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars" Poem (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Close Read-aloud, Session 2: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 14–15 (20 minutes)

B. Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face: Earth's Rotation (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Shared Writing: Describing the Sun and Moon (10 minutes)

B. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In the Opening, students begin to search for adjectives used to describe the sun, moon, and stars. They use these adjectives from the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem during shared writing in Closing A.
  • In Work Time A, students return to the close read-aloud focus question: “What makes day and night on earth?” For Session 2 of the What Makes Day and Night close read-aloud, students focus on distinguishing information that they learn from illustrations and information that they learn from the text in the book to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth (RI.1.7). This text provides rich illustrations and informative text to help the reader make meaning of this complicated scientific topic.
  • Close read-alouds support a deep understanding of a worthy text, support students’ mastery of the reading informational or literature standards, and engage students with discussion, movement, and dramatic expression. Monitor both students’ understanding and their engagement; adjust the practice as necessary to support each.
  • During the close read-aloud, students participate in a Language Dive conversation that guides them through the meaning of a sentence from the anchor text, What Makes Day and Night. The conversation invites students to unpack complex syntax—or “academic phrases”—as a necessary component of building both literacy and habits of mind. This sentence is compelling and complex because it uses the subordinating conjunction as to describe two related phenomena, and it uses a nuanced meaning of the preposition through to describe patterns in the sky (L.1.5). Students then apply their understanding of the structure of this sentence when using the Science Talk protocol during the Unit 2 Assessment in Lesson 12. Invite students to discuss each chunk briefly, but slow down to focus on the highlighted structure move through the light. Note that the chunk As the earth spins is presented out of order to first establish the subject of the sentence.
  • In Work Time B, students watch a short, eight-second video embedded in the website Visible Earth.
    • Citation: “Blue Marble: Animations.” Video. Visible Earth. NASA. 2016. Accessed on 19 July, 2016. (For display. Used by permission.)
    • Purpose: To elicit wonder and curiosity about earth’s rotation.
  • This lesson follows the same pattern for shared writing instruction during Closing A. Students continue to share their thinking about how to describe the sun and moon using adjectives.
  • This lesson is the third in a series of three that include built-out instruction for the use of Goal 3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation (adapted from Michaels, Sarah and O’Connor, Cathy. Talk Science Primer. Cambridge, MA: TERC, 2012. Based on Chapin, S., O’Connor, C., and Anderson, N. [2009]. Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grades K–6. Second Edition. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications). Goal 3 Conversation Cues encourage students to deepen their thinking. Continue drawing on Goal 1 and 2 Conversation Cues, introduced in Module 1, and add Goal 3 Conversation Cues to more strategically promote productive and equitable conversation. In Module 3, Goal 4 Conversation Cues are also introduced. Refer to the Module 1 Appendix for additional information on Conversation Cues. Consider providing students with a thinking journal or scrap paper.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • In Lesson 2, students were introduced to adjectives in the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem. This lesson continues to build students’ understanding of adjectives and provides opportunities for students to write with adjectives when describing the sun and moon.  
  • This lesson invites students to engage in several familiar instructional routines (e.g., Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face, shared writing). Consider your students’ familiarity with these routines and reallocate time to review them as needed.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • During the Opening, some students may need additional support finding adjectives when the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem is read aloud. Consider having several printed-out copies available for students to follow along with if needed.
  • Throughout the unit, students are asked to distinguish information that they learn from the illustrations and information that they learn from the text in the books read aloud. Some students may need additional support to differentiate what they learned from the illustrations and from the text in the books. Consider creating an anchor chart of what students have learned from each book, and while reviewing a few facts from the anchor chart, ask: “Who else learned this from the book?” Invite students to stand in one corner if they learned it from illustrations and another corner if they learned it from the text. Facilitate a brief discussion about where students learned each fact.
  • Students may need additional support during the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol as they begin to expand on each other’s ideas. Consider providing and posting the sentence frame, “I would like to add ______” in a location for all students to view and access.

Down the road:

  • In the Closing, students again participate in shared writing while completing the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form. This activity scaffolds students toward the independent writing work in Lesson 4, where students will receive and write in their Sky notebook, describing the sun and moon using adjectives.

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall Cards for the words spins, light, and shadow, introduced in close read-aloud Session 2. Write or type the word on a card and create or find a visual to accompany each word.
    • Technology necessary to play “Blue Marble Animations” in Work Time B.
  • Preview the Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 2; for teacher reference).
  • Create a “Language Chunk Wall”—an area in the classroom where students can display and categorize the academic phrases discussed in the Language Dive.
  • Review the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Post: Learning targets, “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).
  • Prepare the sentence strip chunks for use during the close read-aloud (see supporting materials)

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Opening A: Record the whole group reciting the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem and post it on a teacher webpage or on a portfolio app such as Seesaw for students to listen to at home with families. Most devices (cellphones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.
  • Work Time A: Create the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and for families to access at home to reinforce these skills.
  • Work Time B: Consider showing students an earth rotation video now: “Blue Marble: Animations.” Video. Visible Earth. NASA. 2016. Accessed on 19 July, 2016..

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.A.1, 1.I.B.5, 1.I.B.6, 1.I.C.10, 1.I.C.12, and 1.II.B.4

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to read closely and interpret academic text. Students will also participate in Language Dive discussion, which will support them as they unpack academic phrases.
  • ELLs may find some of the concepts described in What Makes Day and Night difficult to comprehend, as the text alternates perspectives between the movement of the earth in space and the point of view of people on earth’s surface. When shifts in perspectives occur, make them clear by explicitly pointing it out. Describe the relationship between the earth moving in space and our experience on its surface using additional models and pictures whenever possible.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During the Language Dive, ask more open-ended questions to challenge students, spark discussion, and assess their knowledge. (Example: “What does this chunk tell us about the earth?”)

For heavier support:

  • During the close read-aloud, support students who need heavier support by inviting them to act out key parts of the text. (Example: Invite a student to pretend she is an astronaut observing earth.)

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students listen to the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem. Some students may benefit from having an individual copy of the poem to follow along in near-point as it is read aloud. Support transfer of learning by offering multiple representations of the poem. Consider providing an annotated or illustrated copy of the poem for students as support for information processing strategy development and comprehension.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): During the close read-aloud, some students may benefit from sensory input and opportunities for movement while they are sitting. Provide options for differentiated seating such as sitting on a gym ball, a move-and-sit cushion, or a chair with a resistive elastic band wrapped around the legs. In addition, consider providing options for physical action by inviting students to join you in a quick movement break if students seem restless.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): During this lesson, students have several opportunities to share with a partner.  Foster community and support students in providing each other with positive feedback. Before students share their thinking in Work Time B, discuss strategies for how to give a compliment to a peer about her or his work. Provide sentence frames as needed to support this communication. For example: “Your idea helped me know more about ___ because I heard you say ___.”

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • spins, light, shadow (T)

Review:

  • pattern, day, night, sun, earth, darkness (L)

Materials

  • What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (from Lesson 2; one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 2; for teacher reference)
    • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall cards (new; teacher-created; three)
    • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 1; added to during Work Time A)
    • What Makes Day and Night (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
    • What Makes Day and Night anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time A; see Close Read-aloud Guide)
    • Reading Informational Text Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Flashlight (one; used by teacher during the close read-aloud)
  • “Blue Marble Animations” (video; play in entirety; see Technology and Multimedia)
  • Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face Protocol anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Speaking and Listening Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Sun photograph 2 (one to display)
  • Moon photograph 2 (one to display)
  • Describing the Sun and Moon recording form(from Lesson 2; one for teaching modeling and one per student)
  • Sentence strip chunks: What Makes Day and Night (one to display, see supporting materials)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Learner: “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” Poem (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to the whole group area.
  • Display the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem.
  • Remind students that in the previous lesson they listened to a poem full of adjectives that describe the sun, moon, and stars. Remind students that an adjective is word that describes a person, place, or thing.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“Why did we circle/highlight some of the words in the poem?” (We circled the adjectives.)

“What were some adjectives that we circled to describe the sun?” (orange, round)

  • Say:

“As I reread the poem today, I want you to listen for adjectives used to describe the sun, moon, and stars. When you hear an adjective read aloud, quietly put a thumb out in front of your chest.” Model the hand gesture if necessary.

  • Invite students to quietly push the imaginary button on their brains to show they are ready to listen for adjectives.
  • Read aloud poem, fluently and with expression.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What were some adjectives that you heard to describe the sun, moon, or stars?” (sun: hot, moon: full, stars: twinkling)

“What is something at home or at school that we could describe using this adjective?” (a bowl of soup; the nightlight)

  • Tell students to keep these adjectives tucked away in their brains to use during shared writing later today. Tomorrow the class will create an Adjectives anchor chart to record the adjectives found in the poem.
  • When using total participation techniques, minimize discomfort and/or perceived threats and distractions by alerting individual students that you are going to call on them next. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Encourage students to look at the Adjectives Construction board (described in Lesson 2) for clues. Invite them to add any new adjectives they find onto the board. For additional practice, invite students to create sentences with adjectives using the frame “I observe a(n) [adjective] [noun] in the sky.”

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Close Read-aloud, Session 2: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 14–15 (20 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:

I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth.

  • Reread the target, emphasizing these words:

“I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth.”

  • Define the word distinguish (to tell apart by seeing differences).
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What does this learning target mean?” (find information that is different in the illustrations and in the text to tell about the pattern of light and dark on earth)

  • Gather students back together and invite a few students to share out. Clarify the meaning of the target as needed.
  • Invite students to take out their imaginary bow and to take aim at the target.
  • Guide students through the close read-aloud for What Makes Day and Night using the Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 2; for teacher reference). Consider using the Reading Informational Text Checklist during the close read-aloud (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • Refer to the guide for the use of What Makes Day and Night, the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart, the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall cards, and the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall.
  • Refocus whole group.
  • Tell students that in the next lesson they will conduct an experiment to better see the pattern of light and dark on earth.
  • To activate background knowledge of familiar concepts and support comprehension of vocabulary, invite students to recall a time they sat in a shadow outside (e.g., under a tree, in the shade of a building, etc.) as the Word Wall card for shadow is added to the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall. (MMR)

B. Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face: Earth’s Rotation (15 minutes)

  • Tell students you have a video of the earth to show them. As they watch the video, they should look carefully to see what they notice about how the earth moves and rotates, and think about the questions they have.
  • Model standing and rotating in place for students. While rotating, say: “I am rotating right now.”
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What are some words to describe what I am doing?” (turning, spinning, rotating)

“What does it mean to rotate?” (turn in a circle around a center point)

  • As students share responses, confirm thinking: Rotate means to turn in a circle around a center point.
  • Play the “Blue Marble Animations” video.
  • At the completion of the video, tell students that they now have a chance to share their thinking with a partner using the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol. Remind them that they used this protocol in Module 1, and review as necessary using the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face Protocol anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Guide students through Round 1 of the protocol using the following question:

“What do you see?”

  • Provide a sentence frame as necessary:
    • “I would like to add _____.”
  • Refocus students whole group and play the video again.
  • Guide students through Round 2 of the protocol using the following question:

“As the earth rotates, which side of the earth has day and which side has night?”

  • Provide a sentence frame as necessary:
    • “I would like to add ______”
  • If productive, use a Goal 3 Conversation Cue to challenge students:

“What if the earth didn’t rotate? I’ll give you time to think and discuss with a partner.” (Responses will vary.)

  • As students share, circulate and continue to use the Speaking and Listening Checklist to assess students’ progress toward the learning target.
  • Refocus whole group and invite students to quickly and quietly return to their seats.
  • To help students anticipate and prepare for sharing during the protocol, identify which partner will share first. For example, provide students with index cards that designate whether they are partner A or B. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Introduce and model using the sentence frames to respond to others’ ideas. Display the sentence frames in speech bubbles. Example: “Jason said he saw the earth moving. I also saw the earth moving, but I also saw it rotating. I have something to add to his idea! So what would I say? That’s right, I would like to add that I saw the earth rotating!”)
  • For ELLs: Tell students it is common to use the word that following the phrase I would like to add. Invite students to practice using this expression. (Example: “I would like to add that part of the earth is always light and part of the earth is always dark.”)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Shared Writing: Describing the Sun and Moon (10 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:
    • I can record my observations about what I notice in pictures and videos of the sun, moon, and stars.
  • Tell them that today they will look at a new image of the sun and moon and help record their observations using pictures and words during shared writing. Remind students that earlier in today’s lesson they continued to identify adjectives that describe the sun and moon.
  • Display sun photograph 2 and moon photograph 2.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group.

“How would you describe the sun in this photograph? What adjectives could you use to describe it?” (yellow, hidden)

“How would you describe the moon in this photograph? What adjectives could you use to describe it?” (sliver, white)

  • Display the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form.
  • Remind students of the procedure for shared writing from Lesson 2. Review the procedure briefly.

1. Point to the question on page 1 and read it aloud, and using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"What does the sun look like?"

2. Prompt students to use the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall and the "What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars" poem as resources as they describe the sun.

3. As students share responses, use their ideas to complete page 1. Think aloud how to use the words from the question itself as a cue to formulate the answer using a complete sentence. (Example: The sun looks yellow and hidden.)

4. Draw a quick sketch of what the sun looks like.

5. Turn to page 2.

6. Point to the question on page 2 and read it aloud:

"What does the moon look like?"

7. Prompt students to use the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall and the "What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars" poem as resources as they describe the sun.

8. As students share responses, use their ideas to complete page 2. Think aloud how to use the words from the question itself as a cue to formulate the answer using a complete sentence. (Example: The moon looks white and little.)

9. Draw a quick sketch of what the moon looks like.

10. With excitement, tell students that in the next lesson they will receive their very own Sky notebook and will write about the sun and moon using adjectives.

  • When displaying the photographs, support students’ expressive skills by offering adjectives and/or picture cues preprinted on index cards for students to select as they share words that describe the sun and the moon (e.g., yellow, hidden, white, silver). (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Support students as they formulate sentences for the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form. Invite students to use the Adjectives Construction board (See Lesson 2) with the sentence frame: “The [sun/moon] looks like a(n) [adjective] [noun].” (Example: The sun looks like an orange ball. The sun looks bright and yellow.) Invite students to identify any new adjectives they might like to add to the board.

B. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:
  • “I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth.”
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“What is something you learned from an illustration to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth?” (I saw a picture of the earth spinning. Half of the earth faces the sun, and the other half faces away from the sun.)

“What did you read in the text that confirmed what you saw in the illustration?” (The text said that the earth spins around and light from the sun falls on one-half of the spinning earth.)

  • As students talk, circulate and listen in. Take note of the ideas they are sharing and target a few students to share out with the whole group.
  • Refocus students whole group and invite one or two students to share out. 
  • As students share with a partner, increase mastery-oriented feedback by providing feedback that is frequent, timely, and specific to individual pairs of students. (Example: “I hear that you learned some very interesting things from the illustrations in the text. Can you share how what we read in the text confirms what you saw in the illustrations?”) (MME, MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Review the learning target introduced in Work Time A. Ask students to give specific examples of how they worked toward achieving it in this lesson. Invite students to rephrase the learning target now that they have more experience describing patterns. (Example: I can tell what I learned about patterns in the pictures and words from What Makes Day and Night.)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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