Chaining | EL Education Curriculum

You are here

ELA GK:S3:C18:L95

Chaining

You are here:

Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can review what I have learned about letters and sounds. (RF.K.2, RF.K.3)
    • I can look at each consonant and say its sound.
    • I can look at each vowel and say its short sound.
  • Opening B: I can review what I have learned about syllables, rhyme, and vowels. (RF.K.2, RF.K.3)
    • I can listen to a list of words and identify which one does not rhyme.
    • I can count the syllables in a spoken word.
    • When given a word, I can create a new rhyming word by changing the first sound in the word.
    • I can look at each consonant and say its sound.
    • I can look at each vowel and say its short sound.
  • Work Time A: I can read and spell CVC words with the phonemes (sounds) /r/, /a/, /t/, /n/, /i/, /b/, /o/, /u/, /t/, /e/, and /p/.
    • When given a spoken single-syllable word (example: "man"), I can change the initial phoneme (sound) to another phoneme (sound; example: "m" to "p") and then say the new word.
    • I can say the sound that each consonant letter makes in words.
    • I can identify the short sound for each vowel.
    • I can tell what sounds are different when I look at two words that are spelled with some of the same letters.
    • I can read two words that are spelled with some of the same letters (example: "jump" and "bump"). I can repeat with more words with some of the same letters (example: "lump," "lamp," "limp").

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during Opening B. Determine whether they can identify the number of syllables in spoken words, hear and produce rhyming words, and identify the letter that matches a vowel sound.
  • Observe students during Work Time A. Determine whether they can read and spell CVC word containing the short vowel phonemes (sound).
  • Record students' progress on the Snapshot Assessment.

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (5 minutes)

A. Review: "When the Vowels Come Marching Home"

B. Review Game: Question Cards (optional)

2. Work Time (10 minutes)

A. Chaining: "rat," "ran," "rin," "rib," "rob," "nob," "nub," "nut," "net," "pet"

3. Closing and Assessment (2 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40-45 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare the Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student).
  • Become familiar with the song: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" (see supporting materials).
  • Gather materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, segment, substitute, syllable (L)
  • hearty (T)

Materials

  • Enlarged song: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" (optional; can be handwritten on chart paper to display)
  • Vowel Keyword Cards (from previous lessons; "Alligator," "Elephant," "Iguana," "Octopus," "Umbrella")
  • Question Cards
  • Whiteboards (one per student or pair)
  • Whiteboard markers (one per student or pair)
  • Whiteboard erasers (one per student or pair)
  • Sound board (drawn on the board, or enlarged and laminated for teacher use)
  • Sound boards (laminated or in clear plastic sheet protectors; one per student or pair)
  • Large pointer (optional)
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Review: "When Vowels Come Marching Home"

  • (Note: No suggested transition song for this section.)
  • Display enlarged song: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" (optional) and the Vowel Keyword Cards.
  • Begin the Review instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "In the past few days we've read some poems about vowels and thought about what would happen if the vowels went away. We found out that all words have at least one vowel in them, so it would be really awful for readers and writers if the vowels disappeared. Today we'll learn a song that will help us understand the vowels and the important job they have in words. It's called 'When Vowels Come Marching Home.'"

2. Teacher invites the students to listen to the chorus while he or she sings it (to the tune of "When Johnny Comes Marching Home") with expression:

"When vowels come marching home again

Hurrah! Hurrah!

We'll give them a hearty welcome then

Hurrah! Hurrah!

The readers will cheer and the writers will shout

The books will all come running out

And words will be all right when vowels come marching home."

3. Teacher invites the students to listen while he or she sings the first two lines.

4. Teacher invites the students to repeat.

5. Repeat steps 3-4 with the third and fourth lines, fifth and sixth, and then the final line in turn.

6. Students and teacher sing the entire chorus verse together.

7. Teacher holds up the Vowel Keyword Card "a" ("Alligator").

8. Teacher sings the first verse with expression while students listen.

9. Repeat steps 3-9 to facilitate student learning of the first verse ("Alligator" verse).

10. Repeat steps 3-9 for each of the remaining verses ("Elephant," "Iguana," "Octopus," and "Umbrella").

11. Teacher and students sing the last verse (chorus) together.

  • The word "hearty" will be unfamiliar to most students. Explain that it means "strong."
  • Consider inviting students to stand and march in place to the chorus and/or verses in the song.
  • Use the Articulatory Gestures chart as needed to support students' ability to differentiate the sounds of the vowels.
  • After step 5, consider inviting students to continue to think about the impact of vowels on words. Ask:

"Why will the words be all right when the vowels come marching home?"

B. Review Game: Question Cards (Optional)

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "I'm a Little Teapot"):

"It's time to play a game together now. Open up your ears so you can learn how. We'll listen to some questions and then we'll show. Now we'll practice what we know."

1. Teacher shows students the stack of Question Cards (facedown).

2. Teacher says: "Each card will ask you a question that will help you practice what you've been learning."

3. Teacher distributes whiteboards, whiteboard markers, and whiteboard erasers.

4. Teacher draws first card and reads it aloud to students.

5. Teacher models how to respond to the card on his or her own whiteboard.

6. Teacher draws a second card.

7. Students respond on their whiteboards (if applicable).

8. Teacher invites a student volunteer to share while other students check their work.

9. Continue with as many prompts as time allows.

  • Consider modeling with a Review Card and whiteboard before distributing materials.
  • The cards labeled "RF.K.2" do not require the students to record anything on their whiteboards unless otherwise indicated. After prompts such as "What is the first sound you hear in the word 'run'?" consider inviting students to write the letter that makes that sound on their whiteboards.
  • Consider inviting students to come up and pick the cards.
  • Consider changing the sounds, letters, or words in the prompts on the cards according to students' needs.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Chaining: "rat," "ran," "rin," "rib," "rob," "nob," "nub," "nut," "net," "pet"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "I'm a Little Teapot"):

"Now let's use some letters to make a word like 'can.' Replace the 'c' with the letter 'd,' and now we have 'Dan.' We can do it at the beginning, the middle, or the end. Then we'll read the new word. Remember to blend!"

  • Begin the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "Today we are going to use letters and sound boards to help us make and read words!"

2. Teacher displays sound board.

3. Teacher says: "I am going to say a word, and we will tap out the sounds we hear. For example, if I say the word 'rat,' we would tap /r/ /a/ /t/." (Students tap with teacher: /r/ /a/ /t/.)

4. Teacher asks:

"How many sounds do we hear in 'rat'?" (three)

5. Teacher says: "We will use a sound board to help us match letters to the sounds we hear. This sound board has three boxes."

6. Teacher asks:

"Who thinks they know why there are three boxes?" (word has three sounds)

7. Teacher says: "Right! I can say each sound as I tap on the sound boxes":

      • /r/ (Teacher taps on first box.)
      • /a/ (Teacher taps on middle box.)
      • /t/ (Teacher taps on final box.)

8. Teacher asks:

"What is the first sound in 'rat'?" (/r/)

"What letter makes the sound /r/?" ("r")

9. Teacher says: "So as we say 'rat,' I'll write the letter 'r' into the first box. That shows us that the first sound in 'rat' is made by the letter 'r.'"

10. Repeat steps 9-10 with middle letter/sound and final letter/sound.

11. Teacher says: "Great! Now we have our letters to match the sounds we hear in 'rat.' Let's slide our fingers under the word as we say each sound and blend them to read the word: /r/ /a/ /t/, 'rat.' Now you will get to make new words with your own sound boards and letters."

12. Teacher distributes sound boards, whiteboard markers, and whiteboard erasers.

13. Teacher invites students to write the word "rat" on their sound boards.

14. Teacher guides students to run their fingers under each box, making each sound and blending them to say "rat."

15. Teacher writes the word "rat" on board to begin a list of chained words.

16. Teacher says: "Now we're going to make a new word just by changing the letter for one sound! Let's replace /t/ with /n/."

17. Teacher asks:

"What letter do we need to erase?" ("t")

"What letter do we need to replace it with?" ("n")

18. Teacher and students erase "t" and write "n."

19. Teacher invites students to read the new word by running their fingers under each box, making each sound and blending them to say "ran."

20. Repeat steps 17-20, replacing the sounds/letters as needed to make the following suggested words as time allows: "rin," "rib," "rob," "nob," "nub," "nut," "net," "pet."

21. Teacher says: "Wow! Look at all the words we made today! Let's read them together."

22. Teacher asks:

"What do these words have in common?" (one syllable; all have a vowel)

  • Support students as needed to distinguish similar sounds using the Articulatory Gestures chart, especially as they move from one vowel sound to another.
  • Most of the initial letters used in this lesson are continuants. When students are first learning to blend words to decode, it is easier to blend with continuants, as they do not require a stop in airflow from one letter to the next. In contrast, the letter "p" is a stop consonant, which requires a stop in airflow following the sound. Stop consonants are more difficult initial sounds to blend.
  • Remind students of the thumb- or arm-tapping technique: Tap the first phoneme by using the index finger against the thumb, then move to middle finger and thumb for the middle sound, and to the ring finger and thumb for the final sound.
  • Some of the words used in this lesson are "nonsense" words (example: "rin"). Draw students' attention to this. Decoding nonsense words requires students to rely exclusively on letter-sound connections.
  • After students slide their fingers under the letters to blend and say each new word, consider asking them to identify the vowel in the word and the sound it makes.
  • The suggested sequence of words in this lesson begins with two words that share the vowel "a" (/a/) followed by two that share the vowel "i" (/i/), then "o" (/o/), then "u" (/u/), and finally "e" (/e/). This provides review of all of the vowel sounds from the module. Consider adjusting this to meet the needs of your students. Example:
    • If students need to spend more time on a particular vowel sound, choose more CVC words that focus on that sound.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners think about what they've learned and why it's important. Consider using a metaphor, such as a baseball player learning to keep his or her eye on the ball to know exactly when to hit it.

"How can we figure out the middle sound in the word 'pet'?" (We can tap it out on our fingers/arms.)

"How might this help us with reading and writing?" (Responses will vary.)

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Example:
    • "When I say the words 'net' and 'pet,' I hear _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. At this point in the year, the teacher may be ready to meet with three rather than just two groups per day. If so, the teacher should work with students in the Full and Consolidated Alphabetic phases at least once per week. The teacher may choose to guide students through the suggested independent activity or refer to the possible practice activities.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work guidance document (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual) for more details.

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Practice activity: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" or Review Game: Question Cards.
    • Students work with teacher to review letters and sounds in words either using a verse from the Opening A song, "When Vowels Come Marching Home" or the Opening B Review Game: Question Cards.
    • If using "When Vowels Come Marching Home":
      • Teacher distributes copy of the song.
      • Teacher and students sing chorus together as they run their fingers under each word.
      • Teacher displays the Vowel Keyword Card: "a" ("Alligator") and reviews the sound.
      • Teacher and students sing the first verse together as they run their fingers under each word.
      • Teacher asks students to identify words with the sound /a/.
      • Teacher reviews the name and sounds of consonants in the poem that may need continued review.
      • Consider inviting students to practice letter formation by writing some of the CVC words from the first verse on lined paper.
    • If using Review Game: Question Cards:
      • Teacher follows the steps as described in Opening B. Consider modifying the questions based on the needs of the group.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Copies of song: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" (one for teacher to use to model; one per student; can be glued into poetry notebooks)
    • Vowel Keyword Card: "a" (one to display)
    • Handwriting paper and writing utensils (optional; one per student)

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Practice activity: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" or Review Game: Question Cards.
    • Students work with teacher to review short vowel sounds in words either using a verse(s) from the Opening A song, "When Vowels Come Marching Home" or the Opening B Review Game: Question Cards.
    • If using "When Vowels Come Marching Home":
      • Teacher distributes copy of the song.
      • Teacher and students sing chorus together as they run their fingers under each word.
      • Teacher displays the Vowel Keyword Card: "a" ("Alligator") and reviews the sound.
      • Teacher and students sing the first verse together as they run their fingers under each word.
      • Teacher asks students to identify words with the sound /a/.
      • Teacher and students work with other verses as time allows.
      • Consider inviting students to practice letter formation by writing some of the CVC words from the first verse on lined paper.
    • If using Review Game: Question Cards:
      • Teacher follows the steps as described in Opening B. Consider modifying the questions based on the needs of the group.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Copies of song: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" (one for teacher to use to model; one per student; can be glued into poetry notebooks)
    • Vowel Keyword Cards: "a," "e," "i," "o," or "u" (one of each to display)
    • Handwriting paper and writing utensils (optional; one per student)

Full and Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Independent Practice activity: "When Vowels Come Marching Home."
    • Distribute copies of the song and have students circle all of the one-syllable words in each verse that contain a short vowel sound. Consider having students practice letter formation by writing the words on lined paper or writing sentences or a story using some of the words they circled.
  • Conference with students about Accountable Independent Reading.
  • Choose a lesson from the K-2 Differentiation Packets to extend the students' learning. (Refer to the students' assessment data and the Assessment Conversion chart to determine an appropriate lesson or group of lessons.)
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Copies of song: "When Vowels Come Marching Home" (one per student; can be glued into poetry notebooks)
    • Lined writing paper and writing utensils (optional; one per student)

Get updates about our new K-5 curriculum as new materials and tools debut.

Sign Up