Introducing Chaining | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA GK:S3:C13:L70

Introducing Chaining

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Daily Learning Targets

  • Opening A: I can feel and count the syllables (beats) in the words of a poem. (RF.K.2)
    • I can count the syllables in a spoken word.
    • I can segment (break apart) and pronounce separate syllables in a spoken word.
  • Opening B: I can add or change a phoneme (sound) in a one-syllable spoken word to make a new word. (RF.K.2)
    • I can identify and say the first phoneme (sound) in a word that has three phonemes.
    • I can identify and say the final phoneme (sound) in a word that has three phonemes.
    • When given a spoken CVC word (example: "man"), I can change the final phoneme (sound) to another (example: "n" to "p") and say the new word.
    • When given a spoken CVC word (example: "man"), I can change the initial phoneme (sound) to another phoneme (sound; example: "m" to "p") and then say the new word.
  • Work Time A: I can read and spell CVC words with the phonemes (sounds) /m/, /a/, /p/, /t/, /n/, /g/, /r/. (RF.K.3)
    • I can say the sound that each consonant letter makes in words.
    • I can identify the short sound for each vowel.
    • I can tell what sounds are different when I look at two words that are spelled with some of the same letters.
    • I can read two words that are spelled with some of the same letters (example: "jump" and "bump"). I can repeat with more words with some of the same letters (example: "lump," "lamp," "limp").

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during Opening A. Determine whether they can identify the number of syllables in spoken words and segment those syllables.
  • Observe students during Opening B. Determine whether they can isolate sounds in words and substitute the initial and final sounds as directed and say a new word.
  • Observe students during Work Time A. Determine whether they can read and spell CVC words containing the /a/ phoneme (sound).
  • Record students' progress on the Snapshot Assessment.

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (5 minutes)

A. Feel the Beats

B. Introducing Say a New Word: Phoneme Substitution

2. Work Time (10 minutes)

A. Introducing Chaining: "map," "mat," "rap," "nap," "tap," "tag"

3. Closing and Assessment (2 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40-45 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare the Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student).
  • Gather materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • blend, substitute, segment, syllable (L)

Materials

  • Enlarged poem: "Where Are We Going?" (or handwritten on chart paper to display)
  • Large pointer (optional)
  • Sound board (drawn on the board, or enlarged and laminated for teacher use)
  • Sound boards (laminated or in a transparent sleeve; one per student)
  • White board markers (one per student)
  • White board erasers (one per student)
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Feel the Beats

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "I'm a Little Teapot"):

"Let's count the syllables, beat by beat. Tap your fingers and drum in your seat. When we hear a syllable, we will tap. Try it out with a rat-a-tat-tat."

  • Begin the Feel the Beats instructional practice:

1. Teacher reads Enlarged poem: "Where Are We Going?" once, pointing to each word as he or she reads it (with a finger or pointer) with expression.

2. While reading, teacher draws students' attention to the rhythm and syllables (beats) by tapping each beat under the word.

3. Students and teacher recite the poem aloud slowly.

4. Students and teacher tap each beat of the poem as they read, using the index and middle fingers of the right hand against the same two fingers of the left.

5. Teacher invites students to say the word "teddy" aloud, tapping out each beat.

6. Teacher asks:

"How many beats are in the word 'teddy'?" (two)

"What is the first syllable in the word 'teddy'?" ("ted")

"What is the second syllable in the word 'teddy'?" ("dy")

7. Repeat steps 5-6 with "began."

8. Teacher says: "Now that we've listened for each syllable in words that have more than one syllable, let's go a little smaller. Let's play a game with words that have just one syllable."

  • It can be challenging for young students to differentiate the number of beats in a spoken word from the number of printed words on a page. Many students expect that the finger will move on after each beat when pointing to words in a text. In this lesson, tapping each beat in a word with two or more syllables directly under the word lays the groundwork for understanding the difference between "beats" (syllables) and words.
  • Consider substituting the tapping of the fingers with marching in place or gently slapping a knee with one hand for students who may need a more gross motor method.
  • Use the Articulatory Gestures chart as needed to support students' ability to differentiate sounds.

B. Introducing Say a New Word: Phoneme Substitution

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "I'm a Little Teapot"):

"We can say a new word by changing one sound. Replace /s/ with /r/, turning 'sound' into 'round.' We can change sounds at the beginning, the middle, or end. Then say our new word. Remember to blend!"

  • Introduce the Say a New Word: Phoneme Substitution instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "Did you know that we can make new words by switching one of the letter sounds with a different letter sound? If we start with a word we know, we can make some new words just by changing one letter sound. Let's start with the word 'map.'"

2. Teacher says: "map," and students repeat.

3. Teacher says: "I know the first sound in the word 'map' is ..." (Wait for students to reply with /m/.) "Right! The first sound in 'map' is /m/. What if I replace the /m/ with the sound /t/? I would say /t/-ap: 'tap.' Now let's play together!"

4. Teacher says: "tap," and students repeat.

5. Teacher asks:

"What is the last sound in 'tap'?" (/p/)

6. Teacher says: "Right! And let's change the /p/ sound to /g/."

7. Teacher asks:

"What word do we have now?" ("tag")

8. Repeat steps 5-7 with "rag," changing /g/ to /t/ to produce "rat."

9. Teacher says: "rat," and students repeat.

10. Teacher asks:

"What is the first sound in 'rat'?" (/r/)

11. Teacher says: "Right! And let's change the /r/ sound to /m/."

12. Teacher asks:

"What word do we have now?" ("mat")

  • Consider modeling the position of each phoneme during Opening B using a large sound board (drawn on board or laminated and displayed). This provides support for students who may not be able to visualize the position of the phoneme being changed relative to the other two in the word.
  • Alternatively, consider modeling the position of each phoneme during Opening B using the finger- or arm-tapping technique. Example:
    • When saying "map" in step 3, tap each phoneme and identify that the /m/ (the index finger) is in first position. Hold up the index finger and explain that this is the only sound that will change. Tap /t/ with the index finger and continue with /a/ and /p/ on the middle and ring fingers in turn, explaining that the other two sounds did not change. This is another way to support students who may not be able to visualize the position of the phoneme being changed. Blend the sounds together to pronounce the new word "tap."

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Introducing Chaining: "map," "mat," "rat," "rap," "nap," "tap," "tag"

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of "I'm a Little Teapot"):

"Now let's use some letters to make a word like 'can.' Replace the 'c' with the letter 'd,' and now we have 'Dan.' We can do it at the beginning, the middle, or the end. Then we'll read the new word. Remember to blend!"

  • Introduce the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: "Today we are going to use sound boards to help us make and read words!"

2. Teacher displays the sound board.

3. Teacher says: "I am going to say a word, and we will tap out the sounds we hear. For example, if I say the word 'map,' we would tap /m/ /a/ /p/." (Students tap with teacher: /m/ /a/ /p/.)

4. Teacher asks:

"How many sounds do we hear in 'map'?" (three)

5. Teacher says: "We will use a sound board to help us match letters to the sounds we hear. This sound board has three boxes."

6. Teacher asks:

"Who thinks they know why there are three boxes?" (word has three sounds)

7. Teacher says: "Right! So I will write the letter for each sound in a box. I can say each sound as I tap on the sound boxes":

      • /m/ (Teacher taps on first box.)
      • /a/ (Teacher taps on middle box.)
      • /p/ (Teacher taps on final box.)

8. Teacher asks:

"What is the first sound in 'map'?" (/m/)

"Which letter makes the sound /m/?" ("m")

9. Teacher says: "As we say 'map,' I'll write the letter 'm' in the first box. That shows us that the first sound in 'map' is made by the letter 'm.'"

10. Repeat steps 8-9 with middle sound/letter and final sound/letter.

11. Teacher distributes sound boards, white board markers, and white board erasers.

12. Teacher invites students to write the word "map" on their sound boards.

13. Teacher invites students to run their fingers under each box, making each sound and blending them to say "map."

14. Teacher says: "Now we're going to make a new word just by changing the letter for one sound! Let's replace /p/ with /t/."

15. Teacher asks:

"What letter do we need to erase?" ("p")

"What letter do we need to replace it with?" ("t")

16. Students change the letters on their sound boards.

17. Teacher invites students to read the new word by running their fingers under each box making each sound and blending them to say "mat."

18. Repeat steps 14-17, replacing the sounds/letters as needed to make the following suggested words as time allows: "rat," "rap," "nap," "tap," "tag."

19. Consider making a list of all of the words and having students read it aloud.

20. Teacher asks:

"What do these words have in common?" (one syllable, middle vowel letter "a," and sound /a/)

  • Support students as needed to distinguish similar sounds using the Articulatory Gestures chart.
  • Most of the initial letters used in this lesson ("m," "n," and "r") are continuants. When students are first learning to blend words to decode, it is easier to blend with continuants as they do not require a stop in airflow from one letter to the next. In contrast, the letter "t" is a stop consonant, which does require a stop in airflow following the sound. Stop consonants are more difficult initial sounds to blend, so therefore it is used last as an initial sound in this particular chaining sequence.
  • Remind students of the thumb-tapping technique used in previous lessons: Tap the first phoneme by using the index thumb, then move to middle finger and thumb for the middle sound, and to the ring finger and thumb for the final sound.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners think about what they've learned and why it's important. Consider using a metaphor, such as a baseball player learning to keep his or her eye on the ball to know exactly when to hit it.
  • Ask:

"How can we figure out the final sound in the word 'nap'?" (We can tap it out on our fingers/arms.)

"How might this help us with reading and writing?" (Responses will vary.)

  • As students identify the medial vowel sound, continue to reinforce that "this is a vowel, and all words must have at least one vowel!"
  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Example:
    • "When I say the words 'mat' and 'rat,' I hear _____."

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. At this point in the year, the teacher may be ready to meet with three rather than just two groups per day. If so, the teacher should work with students in the Full and Consolidated Alphabetic phases at least once per week. The teacher may choose to guide students through the suggested independent activity or refer to the possible practice activities.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work guidance document (see K-2 Skills Resource Manual) for more details.

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Practice activity: Word Slides.
    • Students work with teacher to make and decode new words by changing just the initial letter in a word.
    • Teacher says "at" and models thumb-tapping to segment the sounds and identify the two letters.
    • Teacher shows the Word Slide displaying "at."
    • Teacher asks students to identify the letter that would change "at" to "bat." Students identify the letter using the Letter Card.
    • Teacher shows students how to slide letters to reveal "b," making the word "bat."
    • Repeat this process to make and read the remaining suggested words on the Word Slide.
  • Consider having students practice letter formation by writing the words on lined paper.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word Slide (one per student)
    • Letter Cards
    • Lined writing paper and writing utensil (optional; one per student)

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Practice activity: Word Slides.
    • Students work with teacher to make and decode new words by changing just the initial letter in a word.
    • Teacher says "at" and models thumb-tapping to segment the sounds and identify the two letters.
    • Teacher shows the Word Slide displaying "at."
    • Teacher asks students to identify the letter that would change "at" to "bat." Students identify the letter using the Letter Card.
    • Teacher shows students how to slide letters to reveal "b," making the word "bat."
    • Repeat this process to make and read the remaining suggested words on the Word Slide.
  • Consider having students practice letter formation by writing the words on lined paper.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word Slide (one per student)
    • Letter Cards
    • Lined writing paper and writing utensil (optional; one per student)

Full and Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Independent Practice activity: Word Slides.
    • Students make and decode new words by changing just the initial letter in a word.
    • Teacher says "at" and models thumb-tapping to segment the sounds and identify the two letters.
    • Teacher shows the Word Slide displaying "at."
    • Teacher shows students how to slide letters to reveal "b," making the word "bat."
    • Students repeat this process to make and read the remaining suggested words on the Word Slide.
  • Consider having students try each consonant in the first position. This will result in decodable "nonsense words" such as "gat."
  • Consider having students practice letter formation by writing the words on lined paper or writing sentences or a story using some of the words they made.
  • Conference with students about Accountable Independent Reading.
    • Choose a lesson from the K-2 Differentiation Packets to extend the students' learning. (Refer to the students' assessment data and the Assessment Conversion chart to determine an appropriate lesson or group of lessons.)
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word Slide (one per student)
    • Lined writing paper and writing utensils (one per student)

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