Focused Read-aloud, Session 2: Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns | EL Education CurriculumTEST2

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ELA G1:M2:U2:L9

Focused Read-aloud, Session 2: Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.2: Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.1.4: Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • RI.1.6: Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.
  • RI.1.7: Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • L.1.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.1.1f: Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  • L.1.1i: Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
  • L.1.1j: Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book Does the Sun Sleep?Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns to describe patterns of the stars. (RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.6 RI.1.7)
  • I can record my observations of videos/images of the sky in the Sky Notebook. (W.1.8, L.1.1f, L.1.1i, L.1.1j, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the focused read-aloud in Work Time A, use the Reading Informational Text Checklist (RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.6, RI.1.7) to track students’ progress toward these reading standards (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • During the Closing, circulate and observe students independently writing in their Sky notebook. At the end of the lesson, collect students’ writing samples to document progress toward W.1.8, L.1.1f, L.1.1i, L.1.1j, and L.1.6.

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Poem and Movement: "Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars" Poem (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Focused Read-aloud: Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns, Pages 16–21 (15 minutes)

B. Engaging the Scientist: "Why Can't We See Stars during the Day?"(15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Independent Writing: Sky Notebook (15 minutes)

B. Shared Writing: Describing What People Do at Night (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • This lesson follows the same pattern as Lesson 7. This is the first of two lessons in which students engage in a cycle of inquiry with Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns (pages 16–21) to build understanding about the patterns of the stars.
  • Students work with the idea that the stars are visible only at night. Emphasize that the stars are not disappearing, but rather how the light from the sun, our nearest star, outshines the starlight during the day. The language seems to or appears to is important because it explains that the stars are not disappearing and reappearing, but that they look as though they are.
  • In the Opening, students are given Sun, Moon, and Stars signs to use while the “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem is read aloud. Students use these signs to place in relation to their bodies as they hear different prepositions being read from the poem.
  • In Work Time B, students watch a 20-second video embedded in the PBS Learning Media website.
    • Citation: “Time-lapse of Starry Night Sky.” Video. PBS Learning Media, 2016. Web. 13 June 2016. (For display. Used by permission.)
    • Purpose: To provide context for the appearance of stars in the night sky, and to prepare students to take part in the simulation during Work Time B.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • The Opening of this lesson uses the same poem as in Lessons 5–7, but now students are invited to show their understanding of prepositions through a kinesthetic activity. The Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart is reviewed with a focus on respect for the environment as students prepare to use the Sun, Moon, and Stars signs.
  • The cycle of inquiry with a new section of Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns is the same cycle as Lessons 7–8. The routine of activities should be familiar and engaging for students.
  • The use of shared writing to create the Patterns of the Stars anchor chart is similar to what was done in Lesson 7.
  • The Sky notebook is used in two ways during this lesson. First, students complete independent writing of the same prompts using a different photograph for observation. Then the student writing is collected and the teacher introduces a new part of the Sky notebook through shared writing.
  • Throughout Units 1 and 2, students were introduced to various total participation techniques. When following the directive to “Use a total participation technique, invite responses from the group,” use one of these techniques or another familiar technique to encourage all students to participate.
  • Continue to use Goal 1–3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • In order to understand why stars cannot be seen during the day, students must have a strong understanding that all stars give off light, and that the sun is our nearest star, which makes its light the brightest. So when we face the sun during day, the light from the sun outshines the other stars because it is much closer and brighter.
  • The time-lapse video in Work Time B shows images of not just stars, but also the Milky Way galaxy, meteors, and other celestial phenomena. Some students may find this very interesting. Consider allocating time for questions and research during another part of the day or in Labs for students to follow their personal inquiries.
  • Students may need additional support completing the Sky notebook independently. Remind students to use the tools around the room such as the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall, the Prepositions anchor chart, and the High-Frequency Word Wall.

Down the road:

  • In Lesson 10, students will continue building an understanding of the observable pattern of the stars as they transfer information from the Patterns of the Stars anchor chart to their own individual notes, and then use those notes to take part in a Science Talk.
  • Students will continue their practice with using prepositions (taught in Lessons 5–7) and adjectives (taught in Lessons 2–4) while writing in the Sky notebook.
  • This cycle of inquiry in Lessons 7–8 and 9–10 serves as a way to build comprehension and confidence with using scientific evidence in discussions, which will be assessed in the Unit 2 Assessment.

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Materials for the Poem and Movement in the Opening as described in the supporting materials.
    • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall cards for the words star and constellation. Write or type the word on a card and create or find a visual to accompany each word.
    • Technology necessary to play “Time-lapse of Starry Night Sky” in Work Time B.
    • Technology necessary to display Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns as an eBook, if that is how you plan to access it during Work Time A.
    • Clipboards with students’ Sky notebooks for the Closing.
    • Moon photograph 6 in color, if possible.
    • Pre-distribute colored pencils and crayons in the whole group meeting area to ensure a smooth transition to the Closing.
  • Gather materials for the science experience during Work Time B:
    • Cover windows ahead of time to ensure the room will be dark enough to see the change in light.
    • Prepare a flashlight (or flashlights) to demonstrate starlight.
    • Gather a piece of white cardstock to shine the flashlight on.
  • Post: Learning targets, “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Record the whole group reading the “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem and post it on a teacher webpage or on a portfolio app such as Seesaw for students to listen to at home with families. Most devices (cellphones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.
  • Work Time B: Show PBS Learning Media clip: “Time-lapse of Starry Night Sky.” Video. PBS Learning Media, 2016. Web. 13 June 2016. (For display. Used by permission.)
  • Video record students as they simulate the starlight in Work Time B to watch with students to evaluate strengths and areas for improvement. Post it on a teacher webpage or on a portfolio app such as Seesaw for students to watch at home with families. Most devices (cellphones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.
  • Create the Describing What People Do at Night recording form in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and complete, and for families to access at home to reinforce these skills.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.B.5, 1.I.B.6, 1.I.C.10, 1.I.C.12, 1.II.B.4, and 1.II.B.5

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to experience a demonstration representing the visibility of the stars in the sky. 
  • ELLs may find the explanation of why the stars are invisible during the day, and how it relates to the demonstration, abstract. To make the process and purpose of the demonstration more transparent, prepare students for what they are going to see before beginning the presentation. Display a photograph of the sky at night and the sky during the daytime during the corresponding parts of the demonstration. (Example: First, we’re going to see how bright the flashlight is when the lights are off. Then we will see how it looks when the lights are on. Think about how it is just like seeing the stars in the day and in the night.”)

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Support students as they distinguish information learned in the text and information learned with illustrations. Ask: “Did you learn how the earth moves from the text, or did you learn that from an illustration? Can you show me which part of the text or which illustration helped you learn that information?”

For heavier support:

  • During the Closing, consider working closely with a small group of students who are not ready to complete their Sky notebooks independently. Complete the activity as a shared or interactive writing experience.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): During independent writing, students are reminded to use the Prepositions anchor chart and the Adjectives anchor chart as they record observations of the moon photograph. Provide options for visual perception by offering individual copies of these anchor charts for students who may need support with using far-point display as they write.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): Support students’ ability to appropriately express knowledge about the content by varying the options for composition and communication. Match students’ abilities and the demands of the independent writing task by offering alternatives for students to articulate their observations of the moon. (Example: Offer partial or full dictation as students verbally share their observations.)
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): During the focused read-aloud of Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns, some students may need explicit prompts to relate to this text. Optimize relevance by making the information in the text personalized and contextualized to students’ lives. (Example: Pause as appropriate and ask students to share connections to the text based on their own lives: “When have you seen stars in the sky?” “Do all stars look the same?” “What did you notice about the stars you saw?”)

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • stars, constellation (L)

Review:

  • shine, sun (L)

Materials

  • Prepositions anchor chart (begun in Lesson 7)
  • “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (from Lesson 5; one to display)
  • Sun, Moon, and Stars signs (one per student)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 4)
  • Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall cards (new; teacher-created; two)
  • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 1)
  • Reading Informational Text Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Patterns of the Stars anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • Patterns of the Stars anchor chart (answers, for teacher reference)
  • “Time-lapse of Starry Night Sky” (video; play in entirety; see Technology and Multimedia)
  • Flashlight (one for teacher modeling)
  • White cardstock (one for teacher modeling)
  • Sky notebook (from Lesson 4; page 8; one per student and one to display)
  • Moon photograph 6 (one to display; color if possible)
  • Pencils (one per student)
  • Adjectives anchor chart (begun in Lesson 4)
  • Describing What People Do at Night recording form (one for teacher modeling and one to display)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Poem and Movement: “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” Poem (10 minutes)

  • Display the Prepositions anchor chart and “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem and say: “Last time, we filled in the missing prepositions using the Prepositions anchor chart. Today we are going to use our bodies to show our understanding of the prepositions in this poem.”
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“What do prepositions tell us?” (precisely where a person, place, or thing is)

  • Display the Sun, Moon, and Stars signs and model how to move the signs safely when a preposition is read (e.g., when the moon is described as behind, put the moon behind your body).
  • Tell students that they need to listen carefully for their specific part of the poem (sun, moon, or stars) and move their sign in the precise location that the preposition states (i.e., above, below, beside, etc.).
  • Display the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and review the big ideas. Remind students that they should show respect for themselves, others, and the environment.
  • Distribute the Sun, Moon, and Stars signs. Remind students that taking care of their signs and classmates around them are two ways to show respect right now. 
  • Invite students to stand up and spread out in the meeting area, making sure there is room for everyone.
  • Tell students you are going to read aloud the poem and as you do, they should move the signs safely when you say a preposition.
  • Begin reading the poem aloud fluently.
  • If time permits, complete the poem and actions once more.
  • Provide specific, positive feedback on students’ care and respect of others and the environment. (Example: “I saw that Sheila respectfully asked Ahmed to move over and create more room. Joey accidentally knocked Neveah’s sign, but was respectful by apologizing and picking it up off the floor.”)
  • Activate background knowledge by providing one or two examples of what respect looks and sounds like. For example: “When students show respect, I see them asking each other to spread out for more space to move. What do you see?” (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Before reading the poem, briefly review each preposition. Assess students’ familiarity with each as they demonstrate their meanings by moving the sign according to the proposition that is read in a “dry run” of the activity.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Focused Read-aloud: Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns, Pages 16–21 (15 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:
    • “I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns to describe patterns of the stars.”
  • Direct students’ attention to the Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart and read the question aloud:
    • “What patterns can we observe in the sky?”
  • Share that today they will read to find out what patterns they can observe with the stars.
  • Display Does the Sun Sleep? Noticing Sun, Moon, and Star Patterns and model using the table of contents to find the chapter titled “The Stars.”
  • Display the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall card for stars.

“What is the translation of star in our home languages?” (hoshi in Japanese) Call on student volunteers to share. Ask other students to choose one translation in a home language other than their own to quietly repeat. Invite students to say their chosen translation out loud when you give the signal. Choral repeat the translations and the word in English. Invite self- and peer correction of the pronunciation of the translations and the English.

  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What is a star?” (Possible responses include: a bright shining thing in the sky or a light in the night sky.)

  • Define star (an object in space that looks like a bright light).
  • Place the Word Wall card for star on the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall.
  • Draw students’ attention back to the text and read aloud pages 16–17 fluently and without interruption.
  • Use the Reading Informational Text Checklist as students respond to the following series of questions to track students’ progress towards the targeted standards.
  • Reread the first sentence on page 17 and ask:

“What information are we learning about stars from this sentence?” (that stars shine all the time)

  • As students share out, clarify and capture their responses on the Patterns of the Stars anchor chart. Refer to Patterns of the Stars anchor chart (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Reread the next two sentences on page 17 and invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“Why can’t we see stars during the day? What new information does the text teach us?” (because stars are very far away their light is dim; the sun shines so bright that you cannot see the starlight during the day)

  • As students share out, clarify and capture their responses on the Patterns of the Stars anchor chart.
  • Draw students’ attention back to the text and read aloud pages 18–21 fluently and without interruption.

Return to pages 18–19 and invite students to look closely at the illustrations. Ask:

“What new information can we learn from the illustration on this page? What new information can we learn from the text?” (The stars can form shapes, and those shapes are called constellations.)

  • Confirm students’ thinking by showing them the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall card for constellation.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“Based on the information from both the text and the illustrations, what is a constellation?” (a group of stars that forms a shape)

  • Confirm students’ thinking and place constellation on the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall.
  • With excitement, tell students that they have learned about another pattern they can observe in the sky.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“What is one piece of new information you have learned about patterns of the stars?” (Responses will vary, but may include: Stars shine only at night; starlight is not as bright as sunlight.)

  • Reread the information added to the Patterns of the Stars anchor chart.
  • Reduce barriers to comprehension by activating relevant prior knowledge of the learning target. Invite students to recall previous focused read-aloud sessions in which they identified learning from the illustrations and from the text to describe other patterns. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of the chunks from the sentence in the text: “But the stars / are very far away, / so their light is dim.” Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Examples:

“What does this sentence mean?” Responses will vary.)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “But the stars” and ask:

“What is this sentence about?” (the stars)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “are very far away” ask:

“What information does this sentence tell us about the stars?” (they are very far away.)

“How far away? As far as the library is?” (Very, very far. Far from the earth. Farther than the moon and farther than the sun.)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “so their light is dim.” and ask:

“What does so mean in this chunk?” (It tells us so what; it’s telling us the effect of the stars being so far away.)

 “What is the effect of the stars being so far way. We know the stars are far way. So what?” (Their light is harder to see; their light is not very bright.)

“What patterns does this sentence help us understand?” (why the stars are easy to see in the dark and always seem to go away in the daytime)

“What, in the illustrations, helps you understand that information? What, in the text, helps you understand that information?” (Responses will vary.)

“Now what do you think this sentence means?” (The stars are far away, so their light is harder to see.)

“Can you use a noun and an adjective to complete this sentence frame? The _____ is _____, so its light is ______.” (Responses will vary, but may include: sun; close; bright).

B. Engaging the Scientist: “Why Can’t We See Stars during the Day?” (15 minutes)

  • Share with students that now that they have read about the patterns of the stars and why they are visible only at night, they will watch a time-lapse video of stars and a demonstration about starlight.
  • Explain that this is a video of the night sky that was filmed through an entire night and then sped up so people can watch the changes of stars in a short amount of time.
  • Play “Time-lapse of Starry Night Sky.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“What did you notice about the stars in the night sky?” (Some stars shine more brightly than others; the stars seem to move across the sky; there are shapes or constellations in the stars.

  • Explain that the sun is actually a star. The sun is our nearest star, much closer than any other star. That is why sunshine is so bright and starlight is so dim.
  • Tell students that now they will observe a demonstration of how sunlight outshines starlight.
  • Ask students to sit in a circle in the whole group meeting area.
  • Turn off the lights and darken the windows.
  • Place the flashlight in the middle of the meeting area, turn it on, and aim it at the white cardstock. Explain to students that they will pretend this is a star.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“How would you describe the light from the star (flashlight)?” (It is shining brightly; it shines through the darkness; it makes a bright circle on the cardstock.)

  • Turn on the overhead light and keep the flashlight aimed at the cardstock. Explain that they will pretend that the overhead light is the sun.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“How would you describe the light from the star (flashlight) now?” (It looks dimmer; it’s hard to see.)

“Did the light from the star (flashlight) change? What caused it to seem dimmer or harder to see?” (No, the starlight did not change, but when the sun shone it was hard to see the light from the star because the sunlight was so bright.)

“Why can’t we see stars during the day?” (because the sunlight outshines the starlight; stars are far away so their light is very dim)

  • If productive, cue students with a challenge. Invite them to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“Can you figure out why we can’t see stars during the day? I’ll give you time to think and discuss with a partner.” (because the sunlight outshines the starlight; because stars are far away so their light is very dim)

  • Circulate and listen in as students share.
  • Refocus whole group, and invite a few students to share their responses with the group.
  • Give students specific, positive feedback on upholding their integrity for learning during the demonstration. (Example: “Will, I noticed that when the lights turned off you remained in your seat ready for the demonstration.”)
  • Reduce potential threats and distractions in the learning environment by providing an alert to help students anticipate and prepare for the darkening of the room during this demonstration. For example: “I am going to turn off the lights and darken the room for this demonstration. When the demonstration is over, I will turn the lights back on.”
  • For ELLs: Watch the “Time-lapse of Starry Night Sky” video clip twice. Students will be able to absorb and process more information during their second viewing after they understand the general idea during the first viewing. Before watching the video, consider introducing and displaying the question “What did you notice about the stars in the night sky?”
  • For ELLs: To make the process and purpose of the demonstration more transparent, prepare students for what they are going to see before beginning the presentation. Display a photograph of the sky at night and the sky during the daytime during the corresponding parts of the demonstration. (Example: First, we’re going to see how bright the flashlight is when the lights are off. Then we will see how it looks when the lights are on. Think about how it is just like seeing the stars in the day and in the night.”)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Writing: Sky Notebook (15 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the second posted learning target and read it aloud:
    • “I can record my observations of videos/images of the sky in the Sky notebook.”
  • Remind students that they will be writing in their Sky notebooks to reach this target.
  • Display page 8 of the Sky notebook as well as moon photograph 6.
    • Tell students that similar to previous lessons, they will use the moon photograph to complete this page in their Sky notebook
    • Follow the same process as in previous lessons to distribute notebooks and pencils and to guide students to complete this page. Remind students to use the Prepositions anchor chart, the Adjectives anchor chart, and the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall as necessary.
    • When 2 minutes remain, provide students with a time reminder and encourage them to finish up.
  • Signal all students to stop writing through the use of a designated sound and collect their Sky notebooks. 
  • Emphasize process and effort by modeling how to sound out a word with tricky spelling and demonstrate how to use environmental print to support spelling accuracy. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Provide students with a sentence frame to support their writing in their Sky notebooks. (Example: “The moon is ______.”)
  • For ELLs: It may be difficult for some students to describe the location of the moon in moon photograph 6 because there are no other objects in the picture to provide a point of reference. If students become frustrated, guide them to possible responses. Example: “Where do we know we can always find the moon, even if we can’t see it?” (in the sky; in space)

B. Shared Writing: Describing What People Do at Night (5 minutes)

  • Tell students that now they will practice writing what people do at night.
  • Display the Describing What People Do at Night recording form and read aloud the prompt:

“What do people do at night?”

  • Follow the same process from Lesson 8 to complete the recording form:
  • Direct students’ attention back to moon photograph 6.
  • If productive, cue students with a challenge:

“Can you figure out what people are doing when the sun looks like this? I’ll give you time to think and discuss with a partner.”

  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What are people doing when the moon is out?” (People are sleeping, dreaming, going to bed.)

  • Select one response to record on the paper. Draw a quick sketch of what people might be doing.
  • If time permits, invite students to call out the proper letters and words needed for the sentence and write down the complete response. Model using the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall and High-Frequency Word Wall as a resource while responding.
  • Reread the prompt and the written response, clarifying any misconceptions.
  • Give students specific, positive feedback on their independent and shared writing today. (Example: “Leticia used the Adjectives anchor chart to write the word crescent to describe the shape of the moon. David used the word above from the Prepositions anchor chart.”)
  • Before the shared writing begins, support students’ expressive skills and ability to transfer learning by offering index cards with pictures of what people are doing at different times of the day to select as they participate. (MMAE)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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