Analyzing a Speaker’s Purpose and Motives of a Media Excerpt | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M4:U1:L6

Analyzing a Speaker’s Purpose and Motives of a Media Excerpt

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can analyze the purpose of information presented in different media and formats. (SL.8.2)
  • I can evaluate the motives behind a presentation. (SL.8.2)

Supporting Targets

  • I can describe the purpose of a speaker.
  • I can evaluate the motives of a media presentation.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Food Chain graphic organizer
  • Speaker’s Purpose graphic organizer

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Reader: Chapter 11 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (8 minutes)

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Listening to a Speech (20 minutes)

B. Analyzing the Speech for Speaker’s Purpose and Evaluating Motives (10 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Sharing Author’s Purpose Graphic Organizers (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Read Chapter 12 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Begin filling out the Food Chain graphic organizer for Michael Pollan’s local sustainable food chain.

  • In this lesson, students consider a speaker’s purpose in order to practice SL.8.2 in preparation for the mid-unit assessment in Lesson 7. They watch/listen to a media clip of a speaker and analyze the speaker’s purpose and evaluate the motives of the media.
  • For this lesson you will need to find a media clip of someone speaking with a clear purpose about content relevant to The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Consider using the search terms ‘Industrial Food’ or ‘Industrial Organic Food’ in a search engine or a free video site like Vimeo or YouTube. Please note that media on free media sites often contains advertisements, so please screen your chosen media carefully to ensure content is appropriate before playing it to students.
  • Students watch/listen to the media multiple times to ensure they understand what the speaker is talking about and to take adequate notes to be able to analyze the speaker’s purpose and evaluate the motives of the media.
  • Note that students are introduced to a new graphic organizer in this lesson for speaker’s purpose. This graphic organizer is very similar to the author’s purpose graphic organizer students have been filling out in previous lessons; however, this one contains an additional section about the motives of the media.
  • In advance: Prepare technology to play media. Review the media you are going to play to students in order to determine the speaker’s purpose and the motives of the media.
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

speaker’s purpose, motives 

Materials

  • The Omnivore’s Dilemma, Young Readers Edition (book; one per student)
  • Food Chain graphic organizer (from Lesson 5)
  • Industrial Organic Food Chain graphic organizer (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Media excerpt and the technology to the play the excerpt to the whole group (media source containing a speaker with a purpose; see Teaching Note)
  • Speaker’s Purpose graphic organizer (one per student and one to display)
  • Food Chain graphic organizer (from Lesson 2;new blank copy; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Chapter 11 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (8 minutes)

  • Be sure students have their text, The Omnivore’s DilemmaRemind students that for homework they were to read Chapter 11 and fill out their Food Chain graphic organizer for the industrial organic food chain.
  • Ask students to get into their triads to share what they recorded. Invite students to add to and revise their organizers where they think it’s necessary based on what they hear from other people in their triad.
  • Opening the lesson by asking students to share their homework makes students accountable for completing the homework. It also gives you the opportunity to monitor which children have not been completing their homework.

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Ask for volunteers to read aloud the targets for today’s lesson:

* “I can describe the purpose of a speaker.”

* “I can evaluate the motives of a media presentation.”

  • Remind students of what author’s purpose is and tell them that in a speech or documentary where people are interviewed, like an author in a text, speakers also have a purpose.
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share:

* “What does it mean by the motives of a media presentation? What are motives?”

  • Select volunteers to share their responses. Listen for them to explain that motives are the reason the medium was made. Provide them with an example: A TV advertisement is made to make people buy a product.
  • Learning targets are a research-based strategy that helps all students, especially challenged learners.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. The learning targets also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.
  • Reviewing academic vocabulary words benefits all students developing academic language.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Listening to a Speech (20 minutes)

  • Remind students that in previous lessons they analyzed excerpts of Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma for author’s purpose. Explain that in this lesson, they will be watching/listening to a media clip of someone speaking and they will analyze it for speaker’s purpose, just as they did with the text. Tell them that as the learning targets suggest, they will then evaluate the motives of the media.
  • Explain that they will have the opportunity to watch/listen to the media clip a few times, so the first time they should just listen carefully.
  • Play the media excerpt once.
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share:

* “What did you learn from the clip? What does the speaker say?”

  • Cold call students to share their responses with the whole group.
  • Display and distribute the Speaker’s Purpose graphic organizer and focus students’ attention on the box at the top of the organizer, which asks them to take notes for the gist. Remind students that the gist is what it is mostly about, so they will be listening/watching for what the excerpt is mostly about.
  • Model listening for the gist by playing a very short excerpt of the media clip and recording some gist notes on the displayed organizer.
  • Tell students that they are going to watch/listen to the media clip again and take notes for the gist this time. Play the clip again.
  • Ask students to get into their triads to share their gist notes. Invite students to add any information they have missed and to revise any information they may have recorded inaccurately.
  • Select volunteers to share their gist notes with the whole group. Record student ideas on the displayed organizer to ensure that students have a complete list of gist notes to refer to in the next section of Work Time.
  • Graphic organizers and recording forms engage students more actively and provide the necessary scaffolding that is especially critical for learners with lower levels of language proficiency and/or learning
  • When reviewing the graphic organizers or recording forms, consider using a document camera to display the document for students who struggle with auditory processing.
  • Providing models of expected work supports all students, especially challenged learners.

B. Analyzing the Speech for Speaker’s Purpose and Evaluating Motives (10 minutes)

  • Focus students on the next part of the Speaker’s Purpose graphic organizer. Remind them that they filled out something very similar when analyzing Michael Pollan’s text for author’s purpose. Point out that there isn’t a section for conflicting viewpoints or evidence on this organizer. Tell them to ignore the final two boxes about the motives of the media clip for now, as they will address this later.
  • Remind students of the Teammates Consult protocol in which they discuss answers and come to an agreement before they all pick up their pens to write at the same time. Ask students to use their gist notes to discuss in their triads:

* “What is the speaker’s purpose? Is it to entertain? Is it to inform? It is to persuade? Is it more than one of those things?”

* “How do you know? Is the speaker giving us just facts? Or is he making a claim and supporting it with evidence? Or is he doing both?”

  • Model filling out the first two boxes on the organizer using student responses. Invite students to fill out their organizers at the same time.
  • Ask students to use their gist notes to discuss in triads:

* “How do you know what the speaker’s purpose is? What details from the speech can you use to support your claim?”

  • Model filling out only one detail in the “How do you know?” box. See Speaker’s Purpose Graphic Organizer (Food, Inc. excerpt answers, for teacher reference) for a suggestion on how to model filling it out if you are using the Food, Inc. clip.
  • Invite students to work in triads, following the Teammates Consult protocol to finish filling out the “How do you know?” box on their graphic organizer using the model as a starting point.
  • Focus students’ attention on the final box of the organizer, “What are the motives of this media clip?” Ask students to discuss in triads:

* “Think about the bigger picture and the person who made clip—for example, the director of the movie—rather than just what the speaker is saying. Why do you think was this clip made? What was the director trying to do? What were his/her motives in making it?”

* “Was it to advertise their company to make you want to buy their products? To make you not want to buy their products? To encourage you to eat a certain way or choose particular foods?”

  • Model filling out the first boxes on the organizer using student responses. Invite students to fill out their organizers at the same time.
  • Focus students on the final box, “Why do you think that?” Ask them to discuss in triads:

* “So why do you think that was the motive? What evidence do you have from the clip? Is it just what the speaker said? Is it a camera angle that makes you feel a certain way? Is it music or images that are playing at the same time?”

  • It may be useful to replay the clip at this point if students are struggling to determine the motives of the media. The motives will depend on the media excerpt you choose. Examples to guide students include:

–    Positive music, which makes the viewer feel more positive about what is being said, or negative music that has the opposite effect.

–    Positive or negative images played at the same time.

–    Camera angles of someone—for example, zooming in on someone’s face when he or she has a certain facial expression.

  • Model filling out only one detail in the “Why do you think that?” box. Again, see the Speaker’s Purpose Graphic Organizer (Food, Inc. excerpt answers, for teacher reference) for a suggestion of how to model filling it out if you are using the Food, Inc. clip. 
  • Use of protocols (like Teammates Consult) allows for total participation of students. It encourages critical thinking, collaboration, and social construction of knowledge. It also helps students to practice their speaking and listening skills
  • Providing models of expected work supports all students, especially challenged learners.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Sharing Speaker’s Purpose Graphic Organizers (5 minutes)

  • Pair students up to share their completed Speaker’s Purpose graphic organizer. Invite them to add details they are missing or revise details where necessary.
  • Distribute a new Food Chain graphic organizer.
  • Having students pair up with someone else to compare their work can give students the opportunity to gain a deeper understanding, learn from peers, and improve their own work as a result.

Homework

Homework
  • Read Chapter 12 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Begin filling out the Food Chain graphic organizer for Michael Pollan’s local sustainable food chain.

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