Reading for the Gist and Answering Text-Dependent Questions: Hunter-Gatherer Food Chain | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M4:U1:L10

Reading for the Gist and Answering Text-Dependent Questions: Hunter-Gatherer Food Chain

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can determine a theme or the central ideas of an informational text. (RI.8.2)
  • I can determine the meaning of words and phrases in text (figurative, connotative, and technical meanings). (RI.8.4)

Supporting Targets

  • I can find the gist of pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma.
  • I can read closely to answer questions about pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Food Chain graphic organizer
  • Gist annotated on sticky notes
  • New vocabulary on word-catcher
  • Answers to text-dependent questions

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Reader: Chapter 20 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (6 minutes)

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Reading for the Gist: Pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (20 minutes)

B. Text-Dependent Questions, Pages 240–245 (14 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Determining the Author’s Claim (3 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Reread pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma and identify a claim Michael Pollan makes and any relevant evidence he uses to support his claim. Write the claim on a sticky note and use evidence flags to mark the claim and supporting evidence.

B. Read Chapter 21 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma and continue to fill in your Food Chain graphic organizer for the hunter-gatherer food chain. Remember to record any new vocabulary on your word-catcher.

  • This is the first in the two-lesson cycle in which students build background knowledge about Michael Pollan’s hunter-gatherer food chain.
  • In this lesson, to gradually release students to work independently in preparation for the end of unit assessment, students work in pairs without any teacher modeling to find the gist and to answer text-dependent questions.
  • In advance: Read pages 240–245 (up to “Things as They Are”), considering the gist of each paragraph and the answers to the text-dependent questions students are asked (see supporting materials for answers for teacher reference).
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

gist; flank, embankment, prosciutto, wholly, crest, remorse, carcass, rig, hide

Materials

  • Food Chain graphic organizer (from Lesson 9; for the hunter-gatherer food chain)
  • The Omnivore’s Dilemma, Young Readers Edition (book; one per student)
  • Reading Closely: Guiding Questions handout (one for display)
  • Sticky notes (at least 10 per student)
  • Word-catcher (from Lesson 2; students may need a new copy of this word-catcher if they have filled the one they have)
  • Dictionaries (enough for students to reference quickly while reading)
  • Text-Dependent Questions: Pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (one per student)
  • Text-Dependent Questions: Pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (answers, for teacher reference)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Chapter 20 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (6 minutes)

  • Remind students that they were to read Chapter 20 and begin their Food Chain graphic organizer for the hunter-gatherer food chain for homework.
  • Ask students to form their triads and share what they recorded. Invite students to add to and revise their organizers where they think necessary based on feedback from their triad.

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Invite students to read the learning targets with you:

* “I can find the gist of pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma.”

* “I can read closely to answer questions about pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma.”

  • Remind students they have seen these learning targets in previous lessons and what the gist means.
  • Learning targets are a research-based strategy that helps all students, especially challenged learners.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. The learning targets also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reading for the Gist: Pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma (20 minutes)

  • Focus students on the description of the hunter-gatherer food chain on page 5 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Invite students to read that food chain again to refresh their memories.
  • Tell students they will read pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma for the gist. Remind students that they should have already done a first read of these pages when they read Chapter 20 for homework.
  • Remind students of the Topic, Information, and Ideas on the “Questioning Texts” row of the Reading Closely: Guiding Questions handout.
  • Tell students they will reread from “My Pig” at the top of page 240 to “Things as They Are” at the bottom of page 245 for the gist.
  • Remind students to write annotations of the gist of each paragraph on sticky notes to stick in the margin of the book. Remind students to use their word-catchers to record any new vocabulary. Remind students that if they aren’t sure what the word means after looking for context clues, and looking in dictionaries, they should leave the definition column blank to be discussed with the whole group.
  • Pair students and invite them to work together to find the gist and record unfamiliar words on their word-catchers for pages 240–245.
  • Circulate and support students as they read. For those who need more support, ask them to practice telling you the gist of a section before they write it in the margin.
  • Invite students to pair with a different student to compare what they wrote and to help each other with unfamiliar vocabulary they haven’t been able to figure out.
  • Refocus whole group and invite them to share unfamiliar vocabulary words they found on pages 240–245, along with the definition. Where students were unable to work out the definition from the context or find it in a dictionary, encourage other students to assist them. If no one knows what the word means, tell students what it means.
  • Be sure to address words students may struggle with here: flank, embankment, prosciutto, wholly, crest, remorse, carcass, rig, hide.
  • Remind students to record new words on their word-catcher.
  • Reviewing academic vocabulary words benefits all students developing academic language. Consider letting students grapple with a complex text prior to the explicit teaching of vocabulary. After students have read for the gist, they can identify challenging vocabulary. Teachers can address student-selected vocabulary as well as predetermined vocabulary upon subsequent encounters with the text. However, in some cases and with some students, pre-teaching selected vocabulary may be necessary.
  • Inviting students to say the gist aloud to a partner or the teacher before writing can give them the confidence to record their ideas and ensure they know what to write.

B.Text-Dependent Questions, Pages 240–245 (14 minutes)

  • Ask students to get back with the partner they found the gist with. Tell them now that they’ve got the gist of pages 240–245, they are going to dig deeper into this section of the text to understand it fully.
  • Distribute Text-DependentQuestions: Pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma.
  • Tell students they are going to work through the questions on this handout. Remind them to discuss the answers with their partner before they write and to use details from the text in their answers.
  • Circulate to assist students in answering the questions. Ask questions to encourage students to refer to the text:

* “How did you come to that answer? Can you use a detail from the text to support your answer? Can you point out to that answer in the text?”

  • Invite students to pair with a partner to discuss and compare their answers. Invite students to revise their answers if they think necessary based on what they see in their partner’s answers.
  • Text-dependent questions can only be answered by referring explicitly back to the text being read. This encourages students to reread the text for further analysis and allows for a deeper understanding.
  • Some students may benefit from having access to “hint cards,” small slips of paper or index cards that they turn over for hints about how/where to find the answers to text-dependent questions. For example, a hint card might say: “Check back in the third paragraph on page 2.”
  • Use of protocols (like Teammates Consult) allows for total participation of students. It encourages critical thinking, collaboration, and social construction of knowledge. It also helps students to practice their speaking and listening skills.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Determining the Author’s Claim (3 minutes)

  • Ask students to discuss in their triads:

* “What claim is Michael Pollan making on pages 240–245?”

  • Students who determine a claim can record it on a sticky note. As this is the homework, students who don’t get that far can continue for homework.

Homework

Homework
  • Reread pages 240–245 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma and identify a claim Michael Pollan makes and any relevant evidence he uses to support his claim. Write the claim on a sticky note and use evidence flags to mark the claim and supporting evidence
  • Read Chapter 21 of The Omnivore’s Dilemma and continue to fill in your Food Chain graphic organizer for the hunter-gatherer food chain. Remember to record any new vocabulary on your word-catcher.

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