Analyzing Different Mediums: Advantages and Disadvantages | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M3B:U2:L9

Analyzing Different Mediums: Advantages and Disadvantages

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums to present an idea. (RI.8.7)
  • I can gather relevant information from a variety of sources. (W.8.8)
  • I can intentionally use verbs in active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood. (L.8.3)

Supporting Targets

  • I can use evidence from Little Rock Girl 1957 to support my understanding of the text and build background knowledge of the civil rights movement.
  • I can determine if sentences are in the conditional or subjunctive mood.
  • I can analyze Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s use of the conditional and subjunctive moods in his speech.
  • I can evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums to present information on the civil rights movement.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Little Rock Girl 1957 structured notes, Chapter 4, pages 38-55 (from homework)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Analyzing Little Rock Girl 1957 (10 minutes)

     B.  Reviewing Learning Targets (3 minutes)

2.  Work Time

     A.  Analyzing Voice: Conditional and Subjunctive Mood (15 minutes)

     B.  Arkansas Gazette Editorial: Evaluating the Advantages and Disadvantages of Text as a Medium (15 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A.  Debrief Learning Targets and Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

4.  Homework

     A.  Read Chapter 10 in A Mighty Long Way and complete the structured notes.

  • Students continue their work evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of different mediums, focusing this lesson on text. Students also focus on the conditional and subjunctive mood as a lens for analyzing how authors use a variety of sentence types to enhance meaning. In Unit 3, students will be expected to apply the conditional and subjunctive moods when writing their vignettes so this practice is especially important.
  • See Work Time A for a distinction between mood and verb tense. The Common Core State Standards refer to the conditional and subjunctive as moods. Moods can be indicated using various verb tenses, and are not limited to present or past tense. (For more information, see: Purdue Online Writing Lab)
  • Throughout Dr. King's Montgomery Bus Boycott speech, there are many examples of both the conditional and subjunctive moods. While the subjunctive is a rarely used mood in American English, Dr. King sometimes uses it to show that the stance of oppression is ludicrous in our country.
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

conditional mood, subjunctive mood

Materials

  • Gathering Evidence note-catcher (begun in Lesson 7)
  • Conditional and Subjunctive Mood handout (one per student)
  • Conditional and Subjunctive Mood handout (answers; for teacher reference)
  • Montgomery bus boycott speech (from Lesson 4)
  • Arkansas Gazette Editorial: September 30, 1957 (one per student)
  • Analyzing Mediums graphic organizer (begun in Lesson 4)
  • Document camera
  • Gathering Evidence note-catcher (begun in Lesson 7)
  • A Mighty Long Way Structured Notes, Chapter 10, pages 173-191 (one per student)
  • A Mighty Long Way Supported Structured Notes, Chapter 10, pages 173-191 (optional; for students needing extra support)
  • A Mighty Long Way Structured Notes Teacher's Guide, Chapter 10, pages 173-191 (for teacher reference)

Opening

Opening

A. Analyzing Little Rock Girl 1957 (10 minutes)

  • Remind students that in the previous lesson, they began to collect evidence on the ways in which the press informed and mislead its audience with its coverage of the integration of Little Rock Central High School.  Explain that they will begin today's lesson by continuing to collect evidence. 
  • Have students take out their Gathering Evidence note-catcher, and ask a volunteer read the prompt at the top of the page aloud:

*   "Using evidence from both A Mighty Long Way and Little Rock Girl 1957, how did the use of various types of mediums contribute to shaping the story of the Little Rock Nine?"

  • Point out that in Little Rock Girl 1957 the author makes it clear that the photojournalists working on the story tried hard to get the story right so they could be a positive influence for people. They realized the power of the medium of photography to shape the story for the world, so they wanted to make sure that the story they presented was accurate.
  • Explain to students that consumers of news in any medium should be cautious of drawing definitive conclusions based on the information provided, as the information could be biased. Often, one cannot get a fair, unbiased perspective from just a single article or photograph.
  • Direct students to analyze Little Rock Girl 1957 to find an example of a photograph that could serve to accurately illuminate events for the public, and a photograph that might portray an incomplete or inaccurate view of events. For example, Hazel Bryan was forever defined as a racist young woman, a trait that likely was the only part of her personality that consumers of the famous photograph of her would ever know.
  • Provide independent work time and circulate as necessary to assist students in gathering and analyzing the evidence for their claims.
  • Invite students to meet with their Chicago discussion partners to share out their analyses of the photographs.
  • Ask pairs to volunteer to share out some of their more interesting and enlightening analyses.

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (3 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets. Read the first three learning targets aloud:

*   "I can use evidence from Little Rock Girl 1957 to support my understanding of the text and build background knowledge of the civil rights movement."

*   "I can determine if sentences are in the conditional or subjunctive mood."

*   "I can analyze Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s use of the conditional and subjunctive moods in his speech."

  • Tell students that they will be introduced to two more types of sentences--ones with the conditional and subjunctive moods--to build on their understanding of sentence types and structures and how those sentences help the reader make meaning.

*   "I can evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums to present information on the civil rights movement."

  • Ask students to give you a thumbs up if they can explain what it means to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different mediums, a thumbs down is they aren't sure.  Cold call on a student with thumbs up to share and listen for something like "It means explaining what might be good about using a particular medium, like video, to communicate ideas and what information may be left out because of using that medium."

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Analyzing Voice: Conditional and Subjunctive Mood (15 minutes)

  • Students should remain with their discussion partners.
  • Distribute the Conditional and Subjunctive Mood handout. Explain that the conditional and subjunctive moods are two ways authors can structure sentences, and authors can use both moods to aid understanding.
  • Explain that conditional and subjunctive are not tenses; they are moods. A mood can take on a variety of tenses, and does not just have to be in the present or the past tense.
  • Cold call a student to read the definition of conditional mood from the handout. Read the examples and explain that conditional mood is about things that are likely to happen, might happen, or could happen.
  • Cold call a student to read the definition of subjunctive mood from the handout. Read the examples and explain that the subjunctive is rarely used in English. We use the subjunctive to communicate things that are unlikely to happen or even imaginary. The key word "if" is used in the subjunctive.
  • Read Tip 1 on the handout and explain that wishful sentences call for the subjunctive mood of the verb "to be," which is "were" when using I, he, or she.
  • Read Tip 2 and explain that sentences can be both conditional and subjunctive.
  • Invite students to work with their partners to practice identifying conditional and subjunctive sentences, using examples from the Montgomery Bus Boycott speech. Circulate and monitor, using Conditional and Subjunctive Mood (for teacher reference) as needed. 
  • When 5 minutes remain, go over the answers. Note that it may be difficult to discern the mood of the final sentence. The sentence is describing an imaginary state, so it is in the subjunctive, but does not use any key words. Students may need extra support with this one.
  • When reviewing graphic organizers or recording forms, consider using a document camera to display the document for students who struggle with auditory processing.
  • Additional modeling may be required. Modeling provides a clear vision of the expectation for students. The teacher may model by saying: "When I read the second example, I see that Dr. King is explaining that it is actually possible that the Constitution is wrong if the civil rights movement fails."

B. Arkansas Gazette Editorial: Evaluating the Advantages and Disadvantages of Text as a Medium (15 minutes)

  • Let students know that they will now read an editorial about the integration of Little Rock Central High School written at the time it was happening.   Explain that an editorial is an article that states the opinion of the editors of a publication, like a newspaper. 
  • Ask students to turn and talk with their discussion partner about why it might be useful to read an editorial from that time.  After 30 seconds, refocus students whole class and cold call on one or two students to share.  Listen for something like "Editorials will give another perspective on the integration of Central High School," or "It would be good to know what the people in charge of a newspaper believes so that we can decide what their bias might be."
  • Distribute the Arkansas Gazette Editorial: September 30, 1957 to students. Ask students to retrieve their Analyzing Mediums graphic organizer and also project it with a document camera.
  • Explain to students that the Arkansas Gazette was the daily newspaper publication in Little Rock. It is also the newspaper that was the target of segregationists due to its moderate and rational stance, as described by Carlotta in A Mighty Long Way. The segregationists worked to boycott businesses that advertised in the Gazette as a means to decrease the paper's income from advertising. Point out that during this time period, a lot of people read newspapers to stay informed about events.
  • Provide time for students to read the editorial independently.
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share with their discussion partners:

*   "What might be the advantages of communicating through text?"

  • Cold call students to share out answers. Listen for: "Text can include many descriptive details," "The writer can be creative with language," "Text might be taken more seriously than other mediums," and "It doesn't require special equipment."
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share with their discussion partners:

*   "What might be the disadvantages of communicating through text?"

  • Cold call students to share out answers. Listen for: "Some people can't read and won't 'hear' your message as a result," "Text is not as engaging as pictures or video," and "It takes longer to get your idea across than an image does."
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share with their discussion partners:

*   "What aspects of the editorial would offend a segregationist protester of the integration of Central High School?"

  • Listen for students to mention that the editorial suggests that segregationists are not the majority in their opinion and that they have relied on threats (a.k.a. terrorism) to block integration measures.
  • Fill in the Analyzing Mediums graphic organizer as students do the same.
  • Next, direct students' attention to their Gathering Evidence note-catcher. Ask:

*   "For people who read this editorial, how might the text be illuminating for the Little Rock integration story?"

  • Ask students to turn and talk with their discussion partners. Cold call on pairs to provide their thoughts. Listen for students to point out that this editorial provides the other perspective on the drama Faubus is creating with his anti-integrationist tactics.
  • Ask:

*   "How did Faubus' television broadcast mislead people, according to this editorial?"

  • Ask students to turn and talk with their discussion partners. Cold call on pairs to provide their thoughts. Listen for students to point out that Faubus used extreme examples, like the Nazis, as a parallel to the treatment of segregationists in Little Rock, but that the metaphor was too extreme. Faubus also held up photos of white people being threatened by federal troops but did not show the photos of the segregationists beating black reporters. He also did not mention that the Arkansas National Guard had blocked the black students from entering the school.
  • Invite students to add these details to their note-catchers.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Debrief Learning Targets and Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

  • Read each learning target aloud and invite students to self-assess using a Fist to Five. Take note of any students who are not comfortable with the third learning target, as they may need more support in this area.
  • Distribute the A Mighty Long Way structured notes, Chapter 10, pages 173-191.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Read Chapter 10, pages 173-191 in A Mighty Long Way and complete the structured notes.
  • Provide struggling learners with the supported structured notes for additional scaffolding as they read the memoir.

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