Determining Central Ideas: The 14th Amendment | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M3B:U1:L4

Determining Central Ideas: The 14th Amendment

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can determine the central ideas of an informational text. (RI.8.2)
  • I can determine the meaning of words and phrases in text (figurative, connotative, and technical meanings). (RI.8.4)

Supporting Targets

  • I can determine the central idea of the 14th Amendment.
  • I can determine the meaning of words and phrases in the 14th Amendment.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Structured notes, Chapter 3, pages 44-62 (from homework)
  • Journey to Justice note-catcher

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Engaging the Reader: Structured Notes Focus Question and Journey to Justice Note-catcher (15 minutes)

     B.  Previewing Learning Targets (3 minutes)

2.  Work Time

     A.  Determining the Central Idea: The 14th Amendment (25 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A.  Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

4.  Homework

     A.  Read Chapter 4 and complete the structured notes.

  • This lesson continues to address sensitive issues of race. Throughout the unit, it will be important to continually assess the needs of the class and keep lines of communication open for questions, vocabulary, and feelings that come up.
  • In this lesson, students will read and discuss a primary source document, the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. This primary source has been reformatted to provide a space for students to take notes. Consider projecting an image of the authentic document to better capture the authenticity of the primary source. 
  • Also, since there is considerable social studies content in this lesson and in lessons to come, consider collaborating with a social studies teacher to brush up on your Civil War and Reconstruction era history. This refresher will be helpful for this lesson as well as future lessons, as students begin reading informational texts on the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson. A useful summary of this case can be found on the PBS website: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html.
  • Bear in mind that YouTube, social media video sites, and other website links may incorporate inappropriate content via comment banks and ads. Although some lessons include these links as the most efficient means to view content in preparation for the lesson, be sure to preview links, and/or use a filter service, such as www.safeshare.tv, for viewing these links in the classroom.
  • By now, students will be familiar with the routine of pairing up with their Discussion Appointments and should not need reminders.
  • This lesson, as well as Lessons 5-7, focuses most of class time on reading primary source documents. Students will read the next chapter in A Mighty Long Way for homework, and pick back up with the memoir in class time of Lesson 8. Continue to reinforce with students how reading multiple texts on a topic can both broaden and deepen one's understanding.
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

amendment, innocence

Materials

  • Journey to Justice note-catcher (from Lesson 3)
  • The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1866) (one per student)
  • Dictionary (one per student pair)
  • A Mighty Long Way structured notes, Chapter 4, pages 63-81 (one per student)
  • A Mighty Long Way supported structured notes, Chapter 4, pages 63-81 (optional; for students needing extra support)
  • A Mighty Long Way Structured Notes Teacher's Guide, Chapter 4, pages 63-81 (for teacher reference)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Structured Notes Focus Question and Journey to Justice Note-catcher (15 minutes)

  • Invite students to retrieve their structured notes homework and sit with their Washington, D.C. discussion partner. Ask students to silently reread the second focus question and their response related to the segregationists' concerns about integration. Then, invite students to discuss their responses with their partners.
  • Cold call on one or two pairs to share their responses. Listen for students to say: "The Little Rock Nine students were not allowed to participate in activities, clubs, sports, dances, etc. before or after school hours. In a way, school was still segregated."
  • Ask students to take out their Journey to Justice note-catcher. Remind them of the line in the song "A Change Is Gonna Come": "It's been a long time coming, but I know a change is gonna come, oh yes it will." Ask students:

*   "What is changing in Carlotta's life?" Remind students to reread the questions on the left side of the first page to help them. Have students add to the first page based on what they read in Chapter 3. Allow them to discuss what to add with their partners.

  • Cold call on student pairs to share what they have added. Listen for examples such as: "Daisy Bates has entered Carlotta's life as a mentor, 'the woman who soon would become my adviser, mentor, and biggest public defender' (56)" and "Carlotta meets the remainder of the black students that will be entering Central High with her in the fall."
  • Sharing answers to questions in pairs helps everyone remember concepts or basic background knowledge that will connect with the day's learning.

B. Previewing Learning Targets (3 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to posted learning targets. Read the learning targets aloud to the class:

*   "I can determine the central idea of the 14th Amendment."

*   "I can determine the meaning of words and phrases in the 14th Amendment."

  • Let students know that they will be reading the text of the 14th Amendment to understand it. Tell students that an amendment is a change in a legal document--in this case, the U.S. Constitution.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Determining the Central Idea: The 14th Amendment (25 minutes)

  • Explain to students that in the next few lessons they will be reading about a major Supreme Court case regarding segregation of the races. The results of this case caused an amendment to be added to the U.S. Constitution. Be sure students understand that when the Constitution is amended, the law is changed. Amending the Constitution is actually a very hard and slow process, thus keeping the laws of our country relatively stable.
  • Tell students that first they will read the 14th Amendment, which was passed by the Supreme Court in 1866, just a year after the end of the Civil War. It is the amendment to the U.S. Constitution that came right after the amendment that ended slavery. Let students know that they will learn more about why our country remained segregated into the middle of the 20th century as they read informational texts over the next several lessons.
  • Distribute the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1866).
  • Invite students to read along silently and circle words they don't know while you read the text aloud.
  • Ask students to reread the text aloud with their Washington, D.C. discussion partners, taking turns reading every other section and then talking about the gist.
  • Cold call on one or two pairs to share the gist. Listen for students to say: "The amendment states that all people are citizens of the country, regardless of their race. All males who pay taxes can vote, regardless of race."
  • Clarify that the last two sections deal with the Reconstruction era of the Southern states, and mean that any states who participated in the rebellion (Civil War) against the United States have to pay war debts and reconstruction costs. Anyone who owned slaves cannot sue the federal government for property or income lost as a result of the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.
  • Remind students of the words from the Declaration of Independence that they read in the Gallery Walk, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed ..."
  • Ask students to reread the first section of the 14th Amendment and underline the part that relates to the above quote from the Declaration of Independence. 
  • Circulate. Listen and watch for students to notice the passage: "nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
  • Ask:

*   "How did the 14th Amendment seek to provide justice?"

  • Allow students to Think-Pair-Share, then cold call on pairs to respond. Listen for students to mention that the 14th Amendment gave justice to the ex-slaves by making them equal citizens.
  • Explain to students that in the next few lessons they will read more about how the government addressed the words from the Declaration of Independence and the idea of justice for the ex-slaves after the Civil War.
  • Next, have student pairs share the words they circled with each other and identify three words to look up in the dictionary. Encourage students to select words that will help them better understand a passage.
  • After several minutes, cold call on student pairs to share a word they looked up. Be sure to ask each pair the follow-up question: "How does knowing the definition help you better understand the passage?"
  • Congratulate students on reading an important historical document.  Share with students that they will encounter the central ideas from the 14th again when they study another primary source in the next few lessons.
  • For ELLs and students needing additional support, consider providing smaller chunks of text, sometimes just a few sentences for a close reading. Teachers can check in on students' thinking as they speak about their text.
  • Asking students to identify challenging vocabulary helps them to monitor their understanding of a complex text. When students annotate the text by circling these words it can also provide a formative assessment for the teacher.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

  • Distribute the A Mighty Long Way structured notes, Chapter 4, pages 63-81.
  • Direct students' attention to the second focus question and the word innocence. Point out that Carlotta is using the word "innocence" in this context to refer to a child-like view of the world.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Read Chapter 4 and complete the structured notes.
  • Provide struggling learners with the supported structured notes for additional scaffolding as they read the memoir.

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