Connecting Ideas in Primary and Secondary Sources: What Led to the Attack on Pearl Harbor? | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M3A:U1:L9

Connecting Ideas in Primary and Secondary Sources: What Led to the Attack on Pearl Harbor?

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can analyze texts for disagreement on facts or interpretation. (RI.8.9)
  • I can determine an author's point of view or purpose in informational text. (RI.8.6)

Supporting Targets

  • I can determine an author's point of view in a primary source.
  • I can analyze how President Roosevelt and the Japanese government interpreted actions differently.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Unbroken structured notes, pages 51-60, and summary of pages 60-73 (from homework)
  • Analyzing Perspectives recording form

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Reader: Structured Notes Focus Question (4 minutes)

B. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Understanding Varying Perspectives: The Pearl Harbor Attack (25 minutes)

B. Preparing for Mid-Unit 1 Assessment: Fishbowl Note-catcher: Understanding Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack (10 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Debrief Learning Targets (2 minutes)

B. Preview Homework (2 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Complete Part A of the Mid-Unit 1 Assessment: Fishbowl Note-catcher: Understanding Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack (either the "Day of Infamy" or the "Fourteen Part Message" version) to turn in at the beginning of the next class as part of the mid-unit assessment. 

  • In this lesson, students continue to analyze the two primary sources on Pearl Harbor, the "Day of Infamy" speech and the "Fourteen-Part Message."
  • The quote activity in this lesson is designed to support students' comprehension of these highly complex texts, as well as begin to compare how Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the Japanese government saw the events leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • To do this, students will connect quotes from "War in the Pacific" (from Lessons 4 and 5) to quotes from the two primary sources. For this activity, consider printing quotes from each source on a different color paper so that students can easily see which quotes are from which source.
  • Students turn in the Fishbowl Note-catcher at the beginning of the next class period as the mid-unit assessment, so they should work on it independently.
  • To prepare for this lesson, decide how to assign students a perspective to focus on for the Fishbowl discussions (either Roosevelt's or the Japanese government's). Keep in mind that the students who focus on the "Day of Infamy" speech will participate in a Fishbowl together in Lesson 12, and the students who focus on the "Fourteen-Part Message" will participate in the Fishbowl in Lesson 13. As you determine the assignments, consider creating heterogeneous groups, as these groupings will affect the Fishbowl discussions.
  • In advance: Post three pieces of chart paper around the room. Each one should display one of these headings at the top:

*     Japan's Role in Asia and the Pacific

*     U.S. Embargo of Japan

*     Diplomacy and the Failure of Diplomacy

  •  Cut out quotes for Work Time A.
  1. Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

interpret

Materials

  • Chart paper (one piece for each heading; see Teaching Note)
  • "War in the Pacific" quotes (one per pair)
  • Tape
  • Analyzing Perspectives recording form (one per student)
  • Analyzing Perspectives (answers, for teacher reference)
  • "Day of Infamy" and "Fourteen-Part Message" quotes (one of each per pair)
  • Japan's Role in Asia and the Pacific (for teacher reference)
  • U.S. Embargo of Japan (for teacher reference)
  • Diplomacy and the Failure of Diplomacy (for teacher reference)
  • Mid-Unit 1 Assessment: Fishbowl Note-catcher: Understanding Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack, "Day of Infamy" version (one per student focusing on the "Day of Infamy" speech)
  • Mid-Unit 1 Fishbowl Note-catcher: Understanding Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack,
  • "Fourteen-Part Message" version (one per student focusing on the "Fourteen-Part Message")

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Structured Notes Focus Question (4 minutes)

  • Invite students to take their Unbroken structured notes, pages 51-60, and summary of pages 60-73 and sit with their Midway Discussion Appointment partner. Ask them to reread the focus question and their response silently, then discuss their response with their partner.
  • Cold call one or two pairs to share their responses whole group. 
  • Discussion Appointments are a way for students to work with different classmates, leading to mixed-ability groupings. Mixed-ability groupings of students for regular discussion and close reading exercises will provide a collaborative and supportive structure for reading complex texts and close reading of the text.

B. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets. Read them aloud to the class:

*     "I can determine an author's point of view in a primary source."

*     "I can analyze how President Roosevelt and the Japanese government interpreted actions differently."

  • Point out that today, students will begin to look at how President Roosevelt and the Japanese government interpreted the same actions differently.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to their partner about what interpret means. After a moment, ask for a volunteer to define the term. Listen for: "Interpret means to explain what something means." Clarify as necessary.
  • Remind students that they have read both the "Day of Infamy" speech and the "Fourteen-Part Message" closely. They will now analyze how President Roosevelt and the Japanese government had different interpretations of the events leading up to Pearl Harbor. 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Understanding Varying Perspectives: The Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 2 (25 minutes)

  • Tell students they will continue to think about varying perspectives, which they began in Lesson 8.
  • Point out the chart paper around the room. Ask students to turn and talk about what each heading means. Cold call pairs to share their thinking. Listen for these explanations:

-    Japan's Role in Asia and the Pacific: This heading is about how powerful Japan is in Asia, as well as the actions it takes in Asia and the Pacific.

-    U.S. Embargo of Japan: This heading is focused on how the United States stopped trading certain things with Japan.

-    Diplomacy and the Failure of Diplomacy: This heading is about the negotiations between the United States and Japan and how the two countries didn't work together well.

  • Explain that students will be sorting quotes from the three texts they have read about World War II: "War in the Pacific," the "Day of Infamy" speech, and the "Fourteen-Part Message." They will do this in two rounds.
  • Round 1: Distribute a "War in the Pacific" quote and a piece of tape to each pair. Ask the pairs to discuss what the quote means. After one or two minutes, ask them to calmly and quietly send one person to tape the quote on the chart paper that they think it best relates to. As students are doing this, circulate to the charts and make sure the quotes are in logical places.
  • Distribute the Analyzing Perspectives recording form. Invite students to, again, calmly and quietly walk to each chart paper, read the quotes, and respond to the questions in the "War in the Pacific" row that correspond to each chart paper.
  • When students are finished, ask them to return to their seats and sit with their partners. Cold call some to share their responses. Refer to the Analyzing Perspectives (answers, for teacher reference) for sample answers.
  • Round 2: Distribute one "Day of Infamy" quote, one "Fourteen-Part Message" quote, and two pieces of tape to each pair. Invite partners to talk about the meaning of the quotes. Encourage them to go back to the primary sources to read the quotes in context. Then, when students are ready, ask them to send one person to post the quotes on the chart paper that they best relate to.
  • As students are doing this, circulate to the charts and make sure the quotes are in logical places. For example, there are no quotes from the "Day of Infamy" speech that mention or refer to the U.S. embargo of Japan. 
  • Invite students to walk around again with their Analyzing Perspectives recording form, this time to respond to the questions about the "Day of Infamy" speech and the "Fourteen-Part Message."
  • When the students are finished, ask them to sit back down with their partner and share their answers. If they disagree about an answer, encourage them to look back at their copies of the primary sources to come to an agreement.
  • After a few minutes, refocus students whole class. Cold call students to share their responses to the questions about the "Day of Infamy" speech and the "Fourteen-Part Message." Listen for responses that are similar to those on the Analyzing Perspectives (answers, for teacher reference). Encourage students to revise their own answers based on the discussion.
  • This activity is designed to help students make the connections between the background information they read in "War in the Pacific" and the primary source texts. By focusing on particular quotes, students reread parts of the texts again. Also, by categorizing the quotes, students can see how President Roosevelt and the Japanese government viewed similar things very differently.

B. Preparing for Mid-Unit 1 Assessment: Fishbowl Note-catcher: Understanding Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack (10 minutes)

  • Remind students that they are now very familiar with two perspectives on the events leading up to Pearl Harbor: President Roosevelt's and the Japanese government's. For the Fishbowl, they will focus on one perspective. Let students know which perspective you have assigned them.
  • Distribute the Mid-Unit 1 Assessment: Fishbowl Note-catcher: Understanding Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack (either the "Day of Infamy" or the "Fourteen-Part Message" version) to the appropriate students.
  • Explain that students will begin Part A of the note-catcher in class and finish it for homework. Let them know that you will collect Part A of their note-catchers at the beginning of the next class as their mid-unit assessment, so it is important that they do their best work.
  • Explain that this mid-unit assessment is designed to help them prepare for the Fishbowl discussion that is the end of unit assessment. They will use Parts B, C, and D of the note-catcher for the end of the unit assessment.
  • Point out that the class did a lot of work in the previous lessons to understand the primary source texts. To complete Part A of the note-catcher, students will need to reread their particular text and their answers to the questions. Remind them that they should support their ideas with evidence from the text. They can also use their notes on the Analyzing Perspectives recording form to help them. 
  • Ask students to turn their attention to the third row on the note-catcher. Read the questions, noting that for the "Day of Infamy" text, it says "speech," and it refers to the "Fourteen-Part Message" as "message."

*     "What are some of the ways the speech you studied might affect people? What makes you think so? Be sure to use the strongest evidence from the speech and your common sense to respond to the question."

*     "What are some of the ways the message you studied might affect people? What makes you think so? Be sure to use the strongest evidence from the speech and your common sense to respond to the question."

  • Explain that these questions ask students to make inferences based on the text and on their common sense. That means they need to think about what they know from the text, as well as what makes sense. The goal is for them to think about the different perspectives people may have had at the time.
  • Invite students to return to the primary source text that represents their assigned perspective and answer the questions in Part A. This should be done independently, since it will be handed in as the mid-unit assessment at the beginning of the next lesson. 

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Debrief Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets. Reread the first target aloud:

*     "I can analyze how President Roosevelt and the Japanese government interpreted actions differently."

  • Ask students to give you a thumbs-up if they think they understand the two perspectives and a thumbs-down if they don't. 
  • Developing self-assessment and reflection supports all learners.

B. Preview Homework (2 minutes)

  • Tell students that they will finish Part A of the note-catcher, their mid-unit assessment, for homework. Remind them that they can use their primary source texts and their Analyzing Perspectives recording form, so they should be sure to take them home.
  • Point out that students should not do Parts B, C, and D yet. Those are for the End of Unit 1 Assessment. 

Homework

Homework
  • Finish Part A of the Mid-Unit 1 Assessment: Fishbowl Note-catcher: Understanding Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack (either the "Day of Infamy" or the "Fourteen-Part Message" version) to turn in at the beginning of the next class for the mid-unit assessment.

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