Studying Conflicting Information: Varying Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 2 | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M3A:U1:L8

Studying Conflicting Information: Varying Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 2

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can determine an author's point of view or purpose in informational text. (RI.8.6)
  • I can express my own ideas during discussions. (SL.8.1)
  • I can build on others' ideas during discussions. (SL.8.1)

Supporting Targets

  • I can determine the Japanese government's point of view in the "Fourteen-Part Message."
  • I can discuss the points of view of President Roosevelt and the Japanese government.
  • I can use sentence starters to build on others' ideas. 

Ongoing Assessment

  • Text-dependent questions from the "Fourteen-Part Message"

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

 A. Engaging the Reader: Discussing the Gist (4 minutes)

 B. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

 A. Understanding Varying Perspectives: "Fourteen-Part Message" (25 minutes)

 B. Contrasting Perspectives: Mix and Mingle (10 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

 A. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

 B. Preview Homework (2 minutes)

4. Homework

 A. Read pages 51-60 in Unbroken, as well as the summary of pages 60-73 found on the structured notes handout. Complete the structured notes.

  • In this lesson, students will reread  a primary source, the "Fourteen-Part Message," a diplomatic note that the Japanese government sent to the U.S. secretary of state. This source provides a different perspective on the events leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor than the students read in Lesson 6. Like Roosevelt's "Day of Infamy" speech, the "Fourteen-Part Message" is highly complex, so it has been excerpted and scaffolded with some paraphrasing and text-dependent questions.
  • This lesson continues students' preparation for the Fishbowl discussions later in this unit.
  • In Work Time B, students engage in a Mix and Mingle (as they did in Module 1). The purpose is for them to start to analyze the differing perspectives of President Roosevelt and the Japanese government. It also gives them an opportunity to practice some sentence starters that they will use in the Fishbowl discussions in Lessons 12 and 13.
  • In advance: Create a chart paper with sentence starters or set up a document camera to display them for the Mix and Mingle in Work Time B; have music ready to play for the Mix and Mingle.
  • Post: Learning targets, sentence starters.

Vocabulary

point of view; negotiations, obstruct, fundamental and essential questions, dispatch, advocates, mutually, facilitate, economic, condemned, inhumane, dominant, encounter, earnest 

Materials

  • "Fourteen-Part Message" (from Lesson 7; one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Close Reading Guide: "Fourteen-Part Message" (for teacher reference)
  • Sentence starters (one set to display)
  •  "Day of Infamy" speech (from Lesson 6; one per student)
  • Unbroken structured notes, pages 51-60, and summary of pages 60-73 (one per student)
  • Unbroken supported structured notes, pages 51-60, and summary of pages 60-73 (optional; for students needing additional support)
  • Unbroken Structured Notes Teacher Guide, pages 51-60, and summary of pages 60-73 (for teacher reference)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Discussing the Gist (4 minutes)

  • Invite students to take their copies of the "Fourteen-Part Message" and sit with their Pearl Harbor Discussion Appointment partner. Ask them to discuss the gist of the "Fourteen-Part Message" with their partners.
  • Cold call several pairs to share the gist. Listen for: "The gist of the 'Fourteen-Part Message' is that the Japanese thought the United States was threatening the well-being of their country."
  • Giving students time to talk through ideas supports comprehension and builds class culture.

B. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets. Ask them to read along while you read the first target aloud:

*     "I can determine the Japanese government's point of view in the 'Fourteen-Part Message.'"

  • Remind students that they analyzed President Roosevelt's point of view in Lesson 6. In this lesson, they will analyze a different point of view on the events leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor, that of the Japanese government. 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Understanding Varying Perspectives: "Fourteen-Part Message" (25 minutes)

  • Explain that today, students will reread the "Fourteen-Part Message." Remind them that the message was delivered by the Japanese ambassador to the U.S. secretary of state on December 7, 1941, the day the Japanese military attacked Pearl Harbor. As with the "Day of Infamy" speech, do not say much more here. Students will learn more about the events leading up to Pearl Harbor by reading this text.
  • Display the "Fourteen-Part Message" using a document camera.
  • Since students already completed the column for the gist of each section, they will now move on to answering the text-dependent questions. Use the Close Reading Guide: "Fourteen-Part Message" (for teacher reference) to guide students through this process. 
  • Text-dependent questions can be answered only by referring explicitly back to the text being read. This encourages students to reread the text for further analysis and allows for a deeper understanding.
  • Some students may benefit from having key sections pre-highlighted in their texts. This will help them focus on small sections rather than scanning the whole text for answers.

B. Contrasting Perspectives: Mix and Mingle (10 minutes)

  • Once students are done, refocus them whole class.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets. Point to the second and third targets and read them aloud to the class:

*     "I can discuss the points of view of President Roosevelt and the Japanese government."

*     "I can use sentence starters to build on others' ideas."

  • Explain that  they are going to practice using sentence starters, which will also be used in their Fishbowl discussions in Lessons 12 and 13.
  • Let students know that the goal of using sentence starters is building on others' ideas. Ask them to raise their hand if they can explain what it means to build on others' ideas.
  • Call on a student with his/her hand raised. Listen for: "It means to connect your ideas to someone else's so that you both learn more about the topic you are discussing."
  • Point to the displayed sentence starters and read them aloud.

*     "I hear that you said ..."

*     "I'm wondering ..."

*     "I hear that you said ... and I'm still wondering ..."

*     "Can you clarify what you meant when you said ...?"

*     "What you said about ... raised a question for me. My question is ..."

*     "It seems like what you said about ... is different from what [someone else] said." (Name conflicting ideas)

*     "Now that I know that, I need to change what I think about ..."

*     "I hear that you said ..., but I still think ... because the text says ..." (Cite evidence)

*    "What you said about ... reminded me of something I read in the text." (Cite evidence)

  • Explain that each sentence starter is used for a particular purpose, which is listed above it. So, if you have a question, you can use either "I'm wondering ..." or "What you said about ... raised a question for me. My question is ..."
  • Tell students that they will do a Mix and Mingle to practice these. On the board, write:

*     "How are President Roosevelt's and the Japanese government's perspectives different? What in the text makes you think as you do?"

  • Tell students this is their discussion prompt for the Mix and Mingle.
  • Explain the directions for a Mix and Mingle:
    1. While the music is playing, you move around the room with your texts, "A Day of Infamy" and "Fourteen-Part Message."
    2. When the music stops, you stop and discuss your response to the question with the nearest person. When responding to your partner's ideas, use one of the displayed sentence starters.
    3. Repeat until everyone has talked to three different people.
  • Start the music and invite the class to start moving around.
  • When students have talked to three people, ask them to take their seats.
  • Cold call one or two students to share out something they talked about and one of the sentence starters they used. Students may give a variety of answers here. Be sure that they are logical and rooted in the text. A possible answer may be: "Roosevelt thought they had peaceful relations before Pearl Harbor, but the Japanese thought that the U.S. was not being peaceful by not trading oil with them."
  • Use of protocols (like Mix and Mingle) allows for total participation of students. It encourages critical thinking, collaboration, and social construction of knowledge. It also helps students practice their speaking and listening skills.
  • Sentence starters support the development of speaking and listening skills by providing usable structures and modeling how people can engage in a collaborative discussion.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets. Reread the first target aloud:

* "I can determine the Japanese government's point of view in the 'Fourteen-Part Message.'"

  • Ask students to give a thumbs-up or thumbs-down based on whether they think they mastered this learning target.
  • Repeat this process with the remaining two learning targets:

*     "I can discuss the points of view of President Roosevelt and the Japanese government."

*     "I can use sentence starters to build on others' ideas." 

  • Developing self-assessment and reflection supports all learners.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Read pages 51-60 in Unbroken, as well as the summary of pages 60-73 found on the structured notes handout. Complete the structured notes.
  • Consider providing supported structured notes for students who struggle.

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