Studying Conflicting Information: Varying Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 1 | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M3A:U1:L6

Studying Conflicting Information: Varying Perspectives on the Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 1

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can determine an author's point of view or purpose in informational text. (RI.8.6)

Supporting Targets

  • I can determine Roosevelt's point of view in his "Day of Infamy" speech.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Unbroken structured notes, pages 28-37 (from homework)
  • Text-dependent questions from "Day of Infamy" speech 

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

 A. Engaging the Reader: Structured Notes Focus Question (4 minutes)

 B. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

 A. Understanding Varying Perspectives: "Day of Infamy" Speech (35 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Debriefing Learning Targets (2 minutes)

B. Preview Homework (2 minutes)

4. Homework

 A. Complete a first read of pages 38-47 in Unbroken and fill in the structured notes

  • In this lesson, students will read a primary source, Franklin Roosevelt's "Day of Infamy" speech. In Lesson 8, students will read another primary source, the "Fourteen- Part Message." Both of these sources are highly complex, so they have been excerpted and scaffolded with some pre-defined vocabulary, paraphrasing, and text-dependent questions.
  • Students will read both primary sources, but they will eventually focus on one. This is in preparation for the Fishbowl discussions in Lessons 12 and 13. Students who focus on the "Day of Infamy" speech will participate in the discussion one day, and students who focus on the "Fourteen-Part Message" will participate in the discussion the other day. See Lessons 12 and 13 for more information.
  • In advance: Preview the text for this lesson; review the Fishbowl Discussion protocol (see Appendix), which will be used later in the unit.
  • Post: Learning target.

Vocabulary

point of view, primary source; plunder, infamy, solicitation, maintenance, diplomatic negotiations, will, grave

Materials

  • "Day of Infamy" speech (one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Close Reading Guide: "Day of Infamy" Speech (for teacher reference)
  • Unbroken structured notes, pages 38-47 (one per student)
  • Unbroken supported structured notes, pages 38-47 (optional; for students needing additional support)
  • Unbroken Structured Notes Teacher Guide, pages 38-47 (for teacher reference)

Opening

Opening

A. Engaging the Reader: Structured Notes Focus Question (4 minutes)

  • Invite students to take their Unbroken structured notes, pages 28-37 and sit with their Okinawa Discussion Appointment partner. Ask them to reread the focus question and their response silently, then discuss their response with their partner.
  • Point out that the chapter they read for homework is called "Plundering Germany." Ask students to turn and talk to their partner:

*   "Why do you think this chapter is titled 'Plundering Germany'?" If necessary, guide students toward a definition of plunder, which means to rob or pillage, especially during times of war. 

B. Review Learning Target (2 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning target. Read the target aloud to the class:

*      "I can determine Roosevelt's point of view in his 'Day of Infamy' speech."

  • Ask students to turn and talk to their partner about what point of view means. Cold call one or two pairs to share their thinking. Listen for: "It's a person's perspective, or how he/she sees things."
  • Remind students that the preface of Unbroken foreshadows or previews something that happens later in the book: Louie is in a raft, being shot at by Japanese bombers. Explain that students will be reading texts that will help them understand what happened between the United States and Japan, especially the attack on Pearl Harbor, which ultimately led to the events in the preface. Since history is complicated, it is important to understand the different perspectives that led to huge events, like a world war, which affect so many people--including Louie. The texts that they will read have two different points of view on the events leading up to Pearl Harbor. 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Understanding Varying Perspectives: "Day of Infamy" Speech (35 minutes)

  • Tell students that for their end of unit assessment, they will participate in a Fishbowl Discussion. That means half of the class will be participating in a discussion, and the other half will observe the discussion and take notes. The next day, they switch places.
  • Explain that to prepare for the Fishbowl, students will read two primary sources. Define a primary source as "a text or artifact that was created during the time period you are studying." Historians use primary sources as often as they can. Since they are created during the time period under study, it is possible to understand what people were thinking and feeling at the time. It is especially important to use primary sources when studying different perspectives. Today, students will read a primary source that represents President Roosevelt's point of view of Pearl Harbor. In Lesson 8, they will read another primary source with a different point of view. Emphasize that both texts were written in 1941. This is the same time period that Unbroken takes place. Finally, explain that students will read both texts to understand both perspectives, but they will ultimately focus on just one of the texts.
  • Provide students with some context for their reading of the first primary source, the "Day of Infamy" speech: The speech was given by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on December 8, 1941. Point out that December 7, 1941, is the day the Japanese military attacked Pearl Harbor. Be sure not to say much more here. Students will discover more about Pearl Harbor and these texts by reading them.
  • Distribute one copy of the "Day of Infamy" speech to each student and display one copy using a document camera.
  • Ask the class to look over the handout as you explain it using the displayed copy.
  • Then, following the steps in the Close Reading Guide: "Day of Infamy" Speech (for teacher reference), guide students through reading the speech and completing their handout. 
  • Consider providing smaller chunks of text or a paraphrase of difficult sections in addition to the original text to differentiate for struggling readers.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Debrief Learning Target (2 minutes)

  • Reread the learning target aloud to the class:

*   "I can determine Roosevelt's point of view in his 'Day of Infamy' speech."

  • Ask students to give a thumbs-up or thumbs-down depending on how well they mastered that target today.

B. Preview Homework (2 minutes)

  • Distribute Unbroken structured notes, pages 38-47.
  • Remind students that their homework is to read pages 28-37 in Unbroken and complete the structured notes.

Homework

Homework
  • Complete a first read of pages 38-47 in Unbroken and fill in the structured notes. Answer the focus question: "Hillenbrand writes, 'As Louie blazed through college, far away, history was turning' (43). Why does the author interrupt Louie's narrative with information about Japan and Germany? Use the strongest evidence from the book to support your answer."

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