Author’s Craft: Analyzing Narrative Techniques (Pages 73–113) | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M3A:U1:L11

Author’s Craft: Analyzing Narrative Techniques (Pages 73–113)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite text-based evidence that provides the strongest support for an analysis of an informational text. (RI.8.1)
  • I can analyze the impact of word choice on meaning and tone (analogies or allusions). (RI.8.4)
  • I can intentionally use verbs in active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects. (L.8.3)

Supporting Targets

  • I can cite the strongest evidence to support my analysis of Unbroken.
  • I can analyze the impact of word choice on meaning and tone in Unbroken.
  • I can analyze Hillenbrand's use of active and passive voice in Unbroken.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Unbroken structured notes, pages 73-133 (from homework)
  • Vocabulary Word Sort
  • Written Conversation

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A Engaging the Reader: Vocabulary (5 minutes)

B. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Written Conversation: Focus Question (10 minutes)

B. Author's Craft: Analyze Active and Passive Voice (20 minutes)

C. Return Mid-Unit 1 Fishbowl Note-catcher (5 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Debrief Learning Targets (3 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Revise the Mid-Unit 1 Fishbowl Note-catcher based on teacher feedback.

  • In this lesson, students analyze the use of passive and active voice in Unbroken to determine how Hillenbrand's choices affect tone and help create meaning. Conditional and subjunctive will be analyzed in a later lesson.
  • Students make use of the Things Good Writers Do note-catcher as a way to keep track of techniques Hillenbrand uses in Unbroken. They will continue to add to this resource throughout the unit, so they should store it in a safe place.
  • At the end of this lesson, students review teacher feedback on their Fishbowl note-catchers in order to revise their thoughts and prepare for the Fishbowl discussion in the next lesson. Reviewing this feedback during class gives them an opportunity to clarify any misunderstandings with the teacher before the Fishbowl discussion.
  • In advance: Provide feedback on Mid-Unit 1 Fishbowl note-catchers; prepare one set of vocabulary strips for each pair of students; review the Written Conversation protocol, Think-Write-Pair-Share protocol, and Fist to Five in Checking for Understanding Techniques (see Appendix).
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

active voice, passive voice; onslaught (51), recessive (55), abrasive, bonhomie (57), engulfed, garish (74), feted (76), lauded (77), delusory (88)

Materials

  • Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption (one per student)
  • Vocabulary strips (one set per pair of students)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Vocabulary (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to take the text Unbroken and their Unbroken structured notes, pages 73-113 and sit with their Midway Discussion Appointment partner.
  • Distribute a set of vocabulary strips to each pair and ask them to sort the words based on whether they have a positive or negative connotation. Students may use their structured notes to aid them in the task.
  • Circulate and monitor. Give pairs 3 minutes to sort, then ask them to discuss:

* "How does categorizing the vocabulary words help you better understand the text?"

  • Cold call one or two pairs to share their thinking.

B. Review Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the posted learning targets. Read the third target aloud to the class:

* "I can analyze Hillenbrand's use of active and passive voice in Unbroken."

  • Invite students to take the text Unbroken and their Unbroken structured notes, pages 73-113 and sit with their Midway Discussion Appointment partner.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. They also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Written Conversation: Focus Question (10 minutes)

  • Distribute the Written Conversation note-catcher and display a copy on a document camera.
  • Explain that in a written conversation, students will write simultaneous notes to their partner about the reading selection, swap the notes every 2 minutes for a total of two exchanges back and forth, and keep quiet along the way.
  • Students should write for the whole time allotted for each note, putting down words, phrases, questions, connections, ideas, wonderings--anything that relates to the passage or responds to their partner's notes, just as they would in an out-loud conversation.
  • Although these notes need to be focused and text-based, spelling and grammar do not count.
  • Direct students' attention to the focus question on their Unbroken structured notes, pages 73-113:

* "On pages 85-89, why do you think Hillenbrand describes what the airmen fear in such detail? What does it help the reader understand about Louie and the men he served with? Use the strongest evidence from the text to support your answer."

  • Give students time to complete their two exchanges. Cold call two or three pairs to share an important observation or idea from their written conversation. Encourage other students to build on those ideas in a classroom discussion. 
  • Hearing a complex text read slowly, fluently, and without interruption or explanation promotes fluency for students: They are hearing a strong reader read the text aloud with accuracy and expression and are simultaneously looking at and thinking about the words on the printed page. Be sure to set clear expectations that students read along silently in their heads as you read the text aloud.

B. Author's Craft: Analyze Active and Passive Voice (20 minutes)

  • Distribute one copy of the Active and Passive Sentences II handout to each student and display a copy on the document camera. Tell students that to analyze the "Ain't I a Woman" text, they will focus on the same skills--this time in a "World Cafe."
  • Explain that students will analyze sentences from Unbroken that they identified as active or passive voice in Lesson 10. Students are in groups of four.
  • Cold call students to define active voice and passive voice. Listen for definitions such as: "In most sentences with an action verb, the subject 'does' or 'acts upon' the verb" and "Sentences can be changed so that the subject is being 'acted upon."
  • Direct the class's attention to the first sentence on the Active and Passive Sentences II handout and read it aloud:

* "Then they were discovered by the railroad detective, who forced them to jump from the moving train at gunpoint" (15).

  • Point out that it is a passive sentence.
  • Cold call a student to read the second column heading:

* "How does the active or passive voice aid or construct meaning?"

  • Ask students to turn and talk with their partner about how the passive voice helps the reader understand or make meaning. Circulate and monitor. Listen for responses such as: "It emphasizes Louie and his friend," "The book is about Louie, so it makes sense that he was 'acted upon,'" and "Louie and his friend are the focus of the scene, not the railroad detective."
  • If students struggle, use probing questions such as:

* "Who is the focus of the sentence?"

* "What if the sentence were rewritten with the railroad detective as the subject?"

  • Model completion of the second column using a student response.
  • Tell students they will finish the second column for the rest of the sentences using Think-Write-Pair-Share. They should read the sentence, think about how active or passive voice helps the reader comprehend the sentence or make meaning, write their answer, and then share with their partner.
  • Circulate and monitor, using probing questions similar to those above.
  • Refocus attention whole group. Cold call students to share their responses.
  • They should recognize that use of the passive voice changes the focus of the sentences. The person or thing being acted upon becomes the subject, almost more important than the person or thing completing the action. It makes sense in a book about Louie that he would often be the subject of sentences, even when he is receiving the action, such as being discovered by the railroad detective or welcomed by the popular crowd.
  • Distribute one copy of the Things Good Writers Do note-catcher to each student and display one using the document camera.
  • Direct students' attention to the first column, which contains two examples from Unbroken. Read the first example aloud to the class:

* "Then they were discovered by the railroad detective, who forced them to jump from the moving train at gunpoint" (15).

  • Cold call a student to identify the technique: passive voice. Write the answer on the displayed note-catcher while students complete theirs.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner about the question in the third column:

* "How does this technique contribute to tone or meaning?"

  • Cold call students to provide an explanation, such as:

* "The person or thing being acted upon becomes the subject, almost more important than the person or thing completing the action."

  • Read the second example aloud to the class:

* "For three days, the Japanese bombed and strafed the atoll" (52).

  • Cold call a student to identify the technique: active voice. Write the answer on the displayed note-catcher while students complete theirs.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner about the question in the third column:

* "How does this technique contribute to tone or meaning?"

  • Cold call a student to provide an explanation for how active voice contributes to tone or meaning, such as: "Active voice is easier to comprehend; the subject is completing the action."
  • Explain that students will add to this note-catcher as they read the book, so they should hold on to it for future lessons.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. They also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.

C. Return Mid-Unit 1 Fishbowl Note-catcher (5 minutes)

  • Return students' Mid-Unit 1: Fishbowl note-catchers from Lesson 10. Invite students to review your feedback and begin any necessary revisions for the Fishbowl discussion in the next lesson.
  • This is also an opportunity for students to ask clarifying questions. Remind them to complete revisions for homework so they will be prepared for the End of Unit 1 Assessment, the Fishbowl discussions.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Debrief Learning Targets (3 minutes)

  • Direct students' attention to the learning targets. Read the first target aloud to the class:

* "I can cite the strongest evidence to support my analysis of Unbroken."

  • Ask students to self-assess using the Fist to Five checking for understanding technique.
  • Repeat this process for the second and third learning targets.

Homework

Homework
  • Revise your Mid-Unit 1 Fishbowl note-catcher to prepare for the Fishbowl discussion.

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