Analyzing the Central Claim and Supporting Claims: “The Shakespeare Shakedown” | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M2B:U1:L4

Analyzing the Central Claim and Supporting Claims: “The Shakespeare Shakedown”

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can analyze the development of a central idea throughout the text (including its relationship to supporting ideas). (RI.8.2)
  • I can objectively summarize informational text. (RI.8.2)
  • I can identify the argument and specific claims in a text. (RI.8.8)
  • I can evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text (assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims). (RI.8.8)

Supporting Targets

  • I can identify Simon Schama's argument in "The Shakespeare Shakedown."
  • I can identify specific supporting claims that Simon Schama makes in "The Shakespeare Shakedown."
  • I can evaluate evidence that backs a supporting claim in "The Shakespeare Shakedown."
  • I can objectively summarize "The Shakespeare Shakedown."

Ongoing Assessment

  • Lesson 3 Homework: Vocabulary in "The Shakespeare Shakedown" (one per student)
  • Highlighting in student copies of "The Shakespeare Shakedown"
  • Evaluating Evidence note-catcher

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Engaging the Reader: Vocabulary in "The Shakespeare Shakedown" (10 minutes)

     B.  Reviewing Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2.  Work Time

     A.  Jigsaw, Part 1: Evaluating Evidence-based Supporting Claims (10 minutes)

     B.  Jigsaw, Part 2: Sharing Analysis of Evidence-based Supporting Claims (10 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A.  Summarizing "The Shakespeare Shakedown" (13 minutes)

4.  Homework

     A.  Using the Summary Writing graphic organizer, write a paragraph summarizing the article. 

  • In this lesson, students engage in a jigsaw on the evidence-based claims in Schama's article.
  • The Summary Writing graphic organizer, included in the supporting materials of this lesson, was first introduced in Module 1, Unit 2, Lesson 5.
  • In advance: Prepare index cards for Jigsaw, Part 1. Write one of the three supporting claims on each index card and make sure you have an equal number of index cards with each claim. Create one index card per pair of students. (For instance, if you have 24 students in your class, you need four index cards of each supporting claim, for a total of 12 index cards.) Supporting claims are listed as A, B, and C to make regrouping for the Jigsaw easier.

-   Supporting Claim A: Shakespeare's family roots do not disprove the authenticity of his authorship.

-   Supporting Claim B: Shakespeare's education prepared him to write the works attributed to him.

-   Supporting Claim C: Shakespeare knew enough about royalty to write plays about them and perform plays for them.

  • Review: Quiz-Quiz-Trade and Jigsaw protocols (see Appendix).
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

evaluate

Materials

  • "The Shakespeare Shakedown" (from Lesson 2; one per student and one to display, with sections marked)
  • Blank strips of paper (one per student)
  • Dictionaries
  • Document camera
  • Index cards with supporting claims from "The Shakespeare Shakedown" (one card per pair; see Teaching Note)
  • Highlighters (one per student)
  • Evaluating Evidence note-catcher (one per student and one to display)
  • Summary Writing graphic organizer (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Vocabulary in "The Shakespeare Shakedown" (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to take out their "The Shakespeare Shakedown" article. While they are doing this, distribute blank strips of paper and dictionaries.
  • Ask students to find their Lesson 3 homework. Remind them that they wrote down words in the article that they did not know, and inferred the definition from the context.
  • Ask them to find a word that they think is important. Have them write it on one side of their strip of paper.
  • On the other side of their strip of paper, ask students to write what they thought the word meant. Then they should check it with a dictionary and revise the definition if needed. 
  • Let students know that they will be doing a protocol called Quiz-Quiz-Trade. Give directions:
  1. Find a partner and show that person the vocabulary word on your strip of paper.
  2. Your partner will try to infer the meaning of the word.
  3. Then the process repeats for the other partner.
  4. After each person has tried to infer the meaning of the words, turn the strips over to find the correct definitions, then trade papers and find new partners.
  • Clarify directions if needed and invite students to begin. As they work, circulate to listen in and gauge how well they understand the words and to continue to coach them on the protocol.
  • Once students have partnered up twice, they should return to their seats. 
  • Discussion Appointments are a way for students to work with different classmates, leading to mixed-ability groupings. Mixed-ability groupings of students for regular discussion and close reading exercises provide a collaborative and supportive structure for reading complex texts.

B. Reviewing Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Cold call a student to read the learning targets aloud:

-   "I can identify Simon Schama's argument in 'The Shakespeare Shakedown.'"

-   "I can identify specific supporting claims that Simon Schama makes in 'The Shakespeare Shakedown.'"

-   "I can evaluate evidence that backs a supporting claim in 'The Shakespeare Shakedown.'"

-   "I can objectively summarize 'The Shakespeare Shakedown.'"

  • Ask students to locate the word evaluate and try to figure out what it means in that learning target. Ask them to give you a thumbs-up when they think they know.
  • Once students have their thumbs up, cold call one or two to define evaluate. Listen for them to say: "It means to judge" or "It means to figure out what evidence is strong." 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Jigsaw, Part 1: Evaluating Evidence-based Supporting Claims (10 minutes)

  • Display a copy of "The Shakespeare Shakedown,"with paragraphs marked, on a document camera.
  • Remind students that Schama's article lists several reasons or supporting claims as he defends his central claim: the authenticity of Shakespeare's authorship.
  • On the displayed copy, model analyzing Schama's supporting claim that those who deny Shakespeare's authorship lack imagination. Tell students that to prove this, Schama uses evidence to back up the claim.

-   Highlight "The greatness of Shakespeare is precisely that he did not conform to the social type ..." (Paragraph F) and tell students that this explains the idea that it is hard for some to believe that Shakespeare was as brilliant as he was because he doesn't fit a traditional picture of what an accomplished author should look like.

-   Highlight "It is precisely this quicksilver, protean quality that of course stirs the craving in our flat-footed celeb culture to some more fully fleshed-out Author" and tell students that this explains the idea that our culture is "flat-footed" or unimaginative and searches for an Author with a capital A, meaning someone with more of a divine and cultured background.

  • Ask students to meet with their Buffalo Discussion Appointment partner. Distribute one index card per pair and one highlighter per student.
  • Invite pairs to reread the text and highlight the evidence they find that backs up the supporting claim on their index card. Be sure students know that later in the lesson, they will be accountable for sharing what they learn with peers who worked on other claims.
  • As pairs are working, circulate and check their understanding. Make sure students can explain how the evidence they highlight backs up the supporting claim on their index card. Highlighted evidence should include:

-   Supporting Claim A: Shakespeare's family roots do not disprove the authenticity of his authorship.

    • Evidence: John Shakespeare, William Shakespeare's father, was illiterate, but William was not.
    • Evidence: There are "no fewer than six surviving signatures in Shakespeare's own flowing hand."

-   Supporting Claim B: Shakespeare's education prepared him to write the works attributed to him.

    • Evidence: The school that Shakespeare would have attended was "a cradle of serious classical learning in Elizabethan England." 
    • Evidence: "By the time he was 13 or so, Shakespeare would have read (in Latin) works by Terence, Plautus, Virgil, Erasmus, Cicero, and probably Plutarch and Livy too."

-   Supporting Claim C: Shakespeare knew enough about royalty to write plays about them and perform plays for them.

    • Evidence: Shakespeare wrote and performed "nearly a hundred performances before Elizabeth and James."
    • Evidence: "His plays were published in quarto from 1598 with his name on the page."

B. Jigsaw, Part 2: Sharing Analysis of Evidence-based Supporting Claims (10 minutes)

  • After about 10 minutes, refocus the class. Let students know that in a moment, they will transition to work with classmates who focused on different supporting claims and discuss three claims that Schama makes to support his main claim in the article.
  • Distribute the Evaluating Evidence note-catcher and display a copy using the document camera.
  • Help students prepare for their sharing. Let them know that in their groups, they will share the supporting claim they focused on. When they are not sharing their supporting claim, their job is to discuss their group mates' ideas and to be sure they understand them before writing anything on their note-catchers.
  • Form new triads, so that each triad has one student who focused on each supporting claim (A, B, and C). It is fine to have groups of four if needed.
  • Invite students to begin sharing in their new triads.
  • As triads are discussing, circulate and listen in for them to identify relevant evidence and justify their evaluation well.
  • If there's time, cold call triads to share the answers to what they wrote on the note-catcher. 
  • Struggling students or ELLs may benefit from being in a group of four, so they can participate in the "triad" sharing alongside a partner who focused on the same claim.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Summarizing "The Shakespeare Shakedown" (13 minutes)

  • Distribute the Summary Writing graphic organizer. Remind students that they used this graphic organizer in Module 1 to summarize "Refugees: Who, Where, Why." Review the steps to complete the graphic organizer and to write a summary.
  • Let students know that their homework will be to complete the Summary Writing graphic organizer and write a summary of Schama's article.
  • Invite students to start the graphic organizer with the time left in class. Circulate to clarify directions and support as needed.
  • Consider providing struggling writers with additional sentence stems to scaffold their summary writing. 

Homework

Homework
  • Complete the Summary Writing graphic organizer and write paragraph summarizing Simon Schama's article "The Shakespeare Shakedown."

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