Text Comparisons: Comparing Text Structures and Text Types (Chapter 9) | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M2A:U1:L17

Text Comparisons: Comparing Text Structures and Text Types (Chapter 9)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (RL.8.1)
  • I can compare and contrast the structure of multiple texts. (RL.8.5)
  • I can analyze how different structures impact meaning and style of a text. (RL.8.5)
  • I can analyze the extent to which a filmed version of a story stays faithful to or departs from the text, evaluating the choices made by actors or directors. (RL.8.7)

Supporting Targets

  • I can compare and contrast the structure of Chapter 8 of To Kill a Mockingbird and "Incident."
  • I can analyze how the structures of Chapter 8 of To Kill a Mockingbird and "Incident" affect meaning.
  • I can evaluate the similarities and differences between the novel and the film version of To Kill a Mockingbird.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Comparing and Contrasting Text Structures Note-catcher
  • Text to Film Comparison Note-catcher
  • Written Conversation Note-catcher

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

A.  Engaging the Reader and Reviewing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2.  Work Time

A.  Comparing and Contrasting Text Structures (15 minutes)

B.   Text to Film Comparison: Atticus Explains Defending Tom (10 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

A.  Written Conversation (10 minutes)

B.  Adding to Taking a Stand Anchor Chart (5 minutes)

4.  Homework

A.  Complete a first read of Chapter 10. Take notes using the Structured Notes graphic organizer. 

  • In this lesson, students will practice the comparing and contrasting that they have learned in this unit: comparing and contrasting text structures, as well as comparing and contrasting the text and film versions of To Kill a Mockingbird. Feel free to point out where the skills are similar, even though the application of the skills is in different contexts. Generalizing critical thinking skills will help students master them in multiple contexts.
  • The lesson begins with an analysis of the narrative structure of Chapter 8 and then compares it with the text structure of "Incident," which students analyzed in the previous lesson.
  • For the Text to Film Comparison, the Note-catcher is chunked into several paragraphs because the excerpt includes a conversation between Scout and Atticus. Each time the speaker changes, it is counted as a new paragraph.
  • A probing question included in this section is "Why do you think the director then chooses a close up on Atticus when Scout says 'nigger'?" It is important to point out Atticus's reaction to Scout's use of that word.
  • In advance: Decide which Discussion Appointment to use today.
  • Review: Written Conversation protocol (see Appendix 1).
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

compare, contrast, faithful, depart, evaluate/evaluation (review), connotation, denotation; inordinately (101), ingenuous (103), wary (103), innate (104), obstreperous (113), "Maycomb's usual disease" (117)

Materials

  • To Kill a Mockingbird (book; one per student)
  • Narrative Structure, Chapter 8 Graphic Organizer (one per student)
  • Comparing and Contrasting Text Structures (one per student and one for teacher modeling)
  • Text to Film Comparison Note-catcher (one per student and one for display)
  • Document camera
  • To Kill a Mockingbird DVD (beginning at 51:36 and ending at 54:10)
  • Written Conversation Note-catcher (one per student and one for display)
  • Taking a Stand anchor chart (from Lesson 11)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird Structured Notes graphic organizer, Chapter 10 (one per student)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird Supported Structured Notes graphic organizer, Chapter 10 (optional for students needing more support)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader and Reviewing Learning Targets: Vocabulary (5 minutes)

  • Distribute the Narrative Structure graphic organizer, Chapter 8 and ask students to fill it out for Chapter 8, using their Reader's Notes and copy of To Kill a Mockingbird.
  • Note: Point out that this graphic organizer is not for Chapter 9 (which they read for homework). They will focus on Chapter 8 in the second half of the lesson.
  • Read aloud the first two learning targets with students, and share with them that today they will be comparing the structure of Chapter 8 with the poem "Incident."
  • Read aloud the second learning target, and share with students that in the second part of the lesson they will be making a text to film comparison.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. They also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.
  • Graphic organizers and recording forms engage students more actively and provide scaffolding that is especially critical for learners with lower levels of language proficiency and/or learning.

Work Time

Work Time

A. Comparing and Contrasting Text Structure (15 minutes)

  • Let students know that today they will be using their skills to compare (think about similarities) and contrast (think about differences). Emphasize that this ability to compare and contrast across texts or mediums is a crucial skill now that they are in eighth grade.
  • Tell students that first, they will compare and contrast the text structures of "Incident," the Countee Cullen poem they analyzed in Lesson 16, and Chapter 8 of To Kill a Mockingbird. Then, they will compare and contrast a scene from the film version of To Kill a Mockingbird with part of Chapter 9.
  • Ask students to meet with their selected Discussion Appointment partner. Invite the partners to compare their Narrative Structure Chapter 8 graphic organizers and revise if necessary.
  • After 2 minutes, distribute the Comparing and Contrasting Text Structures Note-catcher. Point out that this Note-catcher asks students to think about how each text ("Incident" and Chapter 8 of To Kill a Mockingbird) uses text structure to help communicate something about the Golden Rule.
  • Ask pairs to work together to complete the Note-catcher, just as they did in Lesson 14 with Chapter 6.
  • After about 8 minutes, display a blank Comparing and Contrasting Text Structures Note-catcher using the document camera. Cold call pairs to share their thinking and add it to the displayed Note-catcher. Ask students to fill out their Note-catchers as you do. When students' answers don't make sense, push them to cite evidence from the text.

B. Text to Film Comparison: Atticus Explains Defending Tom (10 minutes)

  • Ask students to turn to the beginning of Chapter 9. Invite them to read along silently in their heads as you read aloud Paragraphs 1-20 (through '"Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to try to win,' Atticus said").
  • Distribute and display the Text to Film Comparison Note-catcher.
  • Remind students that the third learning target was about comparing and contrasting the text with the film. Cold call a student to read the question in the second column:

*   "What is the same? How does the film version stay faithful to the novel?"

  • Remind students that in Lesson 11, the class defined faithful. It means "to stay the same; to stick to the original."
  • Cold call a student to read the questions in the third column:

*   "What is different? How does the film version depart from the novel?"

  • Remind students that in Lesson 11, the class defined depart. It means "to change or go away from."
  • Read the question in the last column:

*   "Evaluation: Do the choices of the director or actors effectively convey the central message of the text? Why or why not? Provide evidence from the film to support your answer."

  • Remind students that when we read, we often get an idea in our minds of what characters look like or how they are supposed to act. We imagine scenes and settings. Directors, actors, and even the screenwriter, make decisions about how a novel is going to be portrayed on screen, including changing things dramatically on occasion. After identifying what is the same and different, they will have evaluate the choices made by the director or actors and the impact those choices have on the viewer or the scene. Remind them that to evaluate means to judge.
  • Show the DVD of To Kill a Mockingbird beginning at 51:36 and ending at 54:10.
  • When the clip is finished, have students jot down their answers in the first two columns. Invite them to turn and talk with their Discussion Appointment partner. Then cold call students to share details. On the displayed Note-catcher, model adding these notes to the "same" column. Details will mostly include some of the same dialogue. 
    • Call on students for details to add to the "different" column on the teacher model. These may include Scout fighting Cecil in the film, and some details and dialogue left out.
    • Tell students that before they finish the Note-catcher, they will watch the film clip again, focusing on the camera angles, lighting, types of shots, music, or the movements of the actors. Students will evaluate the choices made by the director or actors and the impact those choices have on the viewer or the scene. Ask: Tell students that first, they will compare and contrast the text structures of "Incident," the Countee Cullen poem they analyzed in Lesson 16, and Chapter 8 of To Kill a Mockingbird. Then, they will compare and contrast a scene from the film version of To Kill a Mockingbird with part of Chapter 9.

    *   "Do the choices effectively convey the central message of the text? Why or why not?"

    • Explain that this scene uses close-ups, just like the scene students watched in lesson 12. This scene includes a wide shot at the beginning--where the camera takes in a big view of what is going on. Ask students to think about why the director might choose to use that type of shot.
    • This scene also makes use of the medium shot--a shot that shows most of the body and is often used to show personal relationships or connections. Ask students to think about what characters are in the medium shot and why.
    • Watch the clip again, paying attention to how the choices of the director or actors impact the scene or the viewer.
    • Circulate around the room and probe with individuals or pairs to be sure they are actually evaluating. Probing questions might include:

    *   "Why do you think the director chose to use the wide shot at the beginning of the scene on the playground?" (It shows us the setting, and some action while the narrator talks so her explanation makes sense.)

    *   "Why do you think the director then chooses a close up on Atticus when Scout says 'nigger'?" (It allows the viewer to see Atticus's reaction to Scout's use of a word that he thinks is "common"--his line from the novel that was cut; it shows he does not like that word, and it shows that this is a tough conversation for him to have.)

    • "What does the medium shot that shows Scout and Atticus on the porch show us? (Reinforces Scout and Atticus's relationship)
    • Remind students that choices directors or actors make can be positive (they help the viewer understand the scene), negative (they make the scene less clear than in the text), or neutral (they are neither better nor worse).
    • Answers will vary, but student explanations must be logical and based on the film and text.
    • Be sure to focus especially on the fact that the film did not include Atticus's line: "Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to try to win." Ideally, students will say that the choice to leave that out didn't stay true to the central idea of the scene in the text because it is an important moment for the reader to understand why Atticus defends Tom Robinson. If students think it was a good choice to leave out this line, you will need to revisit the line in the text and explain it in terms of the Golden Rule and what the line tells us about Atticus's values.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Written Conversation (10 minutes)

  • Distribute and display the Written Conversation Note-catcher. Explain that in a written conversation, students will write simultaneous notes to their partner about the reading selection, swapping them every 2 minutes for a total of two exchanges, and keeping quiet along the way. They are to write for the whole time allotted for each note. They may put down words, phrases, questions, connections, ideas, wonderings--anything related to the passage or responding to what their partner has said, just as they would in an out-loud conversation. Spelling and grammar do not count; these are just notes.
  • Display the prompt for the written conversation:

*   "Scout ends the chapter, 'It was not until many years later that I realized he (Atticus) wanted me to hear every word he said.' Re-read pages 115-117. Why might Atticus want her to hear every word? What makes you think as you do?"

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Complete a first read of Chapter 10, using structured notes. Answer the focus question: Atticus says, "Remember it's a sin to kill a mockingbird." Put this statement in your own words. What does Atticus really mean? Use the strongest evidence from the novel in your answer.
  • Provide struggling learners with the supported structured notes for additional scaffolding as they read the novel.

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