Making Inferences: The Golden Rule and the Radleys’ Melancholy Little Drama (C | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M2A:U1:L13

Making Inferences: The Golden Rule and the Radleys’ Melancholy Little Drama (C

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (RL.8.1)
  • I can objectively summarize literary text. (RL.8.2)
  • I can analyze the connections between modern fiction and myths, traditional stories, or religious works (themes, patterns of events, character types). (RL.8.9)
  • I can use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words or phrases. (L.8.3)

Supporting Targets

  • I can support my inferences about Chapter 4 of To Kill a Mockingbird with the strongest evidence from the text.
  • I can summarize Chapter 4 of To Kill a Mockingbird.
  • I can analyze how the author draws on the theme of the Golden Rule in Chapter 4.
  • I can use context clues to determine the meaning of phrases in Chapter 4 of To Kill a Mockingbird.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Structured notes, Chapter 4 (from homework)
  • Chapter 4 summary
  • Golden Rule Note-catcher
  • Networking Sessions Note-catcher

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

 A. Engaging the Reader and Review Learning Targets: Summarizing (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

 A. Listening to a TED Talk: The Golden Rule (15 minutes)

 B. Understanding the Radleys' Melancholy Little Drama: Networking Sessions (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

 A. Reflecting on Atticus's Character (5 minutes)

4. Homework

 A. Complete a first read of Chapter 5. Take notes using the Structured Notes graphic organizer. 

  • In this lesson, students practice writing a summary of a literary work. These summaries are useful formative assessment data. Review student writing, provide meaningful feedback, and inform instruction on summary writing in future lessons.
  • Students will further develop their understanding of the Golden Rule by listening to part of a TED Talk by Karen Armstrong, a religion historian. This activity gives students an opportunity to explore further how To Kill a Mockingbird makes connections to a theme from religious works throughout the world.
  • Students also will learn a new protocol, Networking Sessions, for discussing text. This protocol is similar to Think-Pair-Share, but it allows for movement and a chance to hear from a variety of partners.
  • The closing of this lesson is an opportunity for students to add to their Atticus Note-catchers. For this, student answers will vary. Accept any logical, text-supported additions.
  • In advance: Preview the first two minutes of Karen Armstrong's TED Talk, http://www.ted.com/talks/karen_armstrong_let_s_revive_the_golden_rule.html.
  • Preview the Chapter 4 Close Reading Guide (for Teacher Reference; see supporting materials). Use this to guide 
    Work Time Part B.
  • Decide which Discussion Ap

Vocabulary

compassion, transcend, ethical culture (47), scuppernongs (47), melancholy (52)

Materials

  • To Kill a Mockingbird Structured Notes, Chapter 4 (from Lesson 12)
  • Narrative Structure Note-catcher, Chapter 4 (one per student)
  • "Golden Rule" in Karen Armstrong's TED Talk Note-Catcher (one per student)
  • Discussion Appointments (from Lesson 3)
  • Technology to show TED Talk clip
  • Document camera or overhead projector
  • To Kill a Mockingbird (book; one per student)
  • Networking Sessions Note-catcher, Chapter 4 (one per student and one for display).
  • Chapter 4 of To Kill a Mockingbird Close Reading Guide (for Teacher Reference)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird Structured Notes, Chapter 5 (one per student)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird Supported Structured Notes, Chapter 5 (optional for students needing more support)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader and Review Learning Targets: Summarizing (10 minutes)

  • Have learning targets posted for students to read. Students should sit with their selected Discussion Appointment partner. Be sure that students have their structured notes from their homework and a Narrative Structure Note-catcher.
  • Invite students to share their gist statements and then complete the Narrative Structure Note-catcher with their partner. Circulate and monitor completion of the Note-catcher to ensure that students are including "key details" rather than irrelevant details.
  • Once students are done, ask them to compose a well-written summary paragraph on their own.
  • Collect the summaries to read, provide feedback, and plan for further instruction.
  • Once students turn in their summaries, direct students' attention to the learning targets. Remind students that these are learning targets they have worked with before. Ask students to follow along while you read each target aloud:

*   "I can support my inferences about Chapter 4 of To Kill a Mockingbird with the strongest evidence from the text."

*   "I can summarize Chapter 4 of To Kill a Mockingbird."

*   "I can analyze how the author draws on the theme of the Golden Rule in Chapter 4."

*   "I can use context clues to determine the meaning of phrases in Chapter 4 of To Kill a Mockingbird."

  • ELLs and readers who struggle will benefit from the optional supported structured notes, which provide a summary of the chapter and the vocabulary words defined.
  • Sometimes students have difficulty creating a focus sentence for a summary. A possible focus sentence for students struggling to get started could be the following: "In this chapter, the children continue their deep interest in the Radleys."

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Listening to a TED Talk: The Golden Rule (15 minutes)

  • Distribute and display the Golden Rule Note-catcher (for Karen Armstrong TED Talk). Ask students to silently read through the questions before viewing the clip. Tell students that they will just watch the first two minutes, discuss, and answer some questions. They will then watch the clip again before answering the last questions. Emphasize that just as with rereading, it is often important to view media more than once in order to understand it fully.
  • Using appropriate technology, watch the first 2 minutes of Karen Armstrong's TED Talk on the Golden Rule.
  • Ask students to turn and talk with their partner to answer the first question:

*   "What does Karen Armstrong say is central to all of the world's religions?"

  • Cold call on students to share their thinking. Armstrong says that compassion is central to all the world's religions and each religion has its own version of the Golden Rule. Encourage students to revise or add to their answer while you model on the displayed Note-catcher. Ask students to turn and talk with their partner:

*   "What do you think compassion is?"

  • Then cold call on students to provide a definition, such as: "deep sympathy for the suffering of others with a desire to help" or "understanding the pain of others and a desire to help." The latter part--the desire to help or relieve suffering--is key to understanding compassion and the Golden Rule. If students provide only the first half of the definition--feeling sympathy or understanding the pain of others--ask probing questions such as: "Is it enough to only 'feel sympathy' or 'feel bad' for others? Or is there more to compassion?" "What sort of person do you think of as having compassion?" and "How is compassion different from sympathy?"
  • Once students have defined compassion, write a consensus definition in the Note-catcher. Then direct their attention to the next question. Ask

*   "According to Armstrong, how are compassion and the Golden Rule related?"

  • Invite students to turn and talk with their neighbor and jot down their answer.
  • Then cold call on students to share their thinking. Armstrong connects the two by suggesting that the Golden Rule and compassion are really the same thing.
  • Read the third question:

*   "What evidence from Armstrong's speech suggests that she might agree with Atticus's advice to Scout? 'You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view--[...] until you climb into his skin and walk around in it' (30)."

  • Remind students that this quote comes from Chapter 3 and was a focus of the scene from the film they watched in the previous lesson. It was also the focus of last night's homework. Ask students to Think-Pair-Share what Atticus's statement means in their own words. Cold call on students to share their thinking.
  • Explain that you will play the video a second time so students can find the strongest evidence to answer the question. Once the clip is over, invite students to turn and talk with their neighbor. Cold call on students to share their thinking. Probe for the strongest evidence. Armstrong states that once people "live" the Golden Rule all day, every day, "You dethrone yourself from the center of your world, put another there, and you transcend yourself ... something that goes beyond what we know ..."
  • Point out that Armstrong uses the word transcend at the end of the clip to describe what happens when people follow the Golden Rule. Ask:

     *   "Based on how Armstrong uses the word, what do you think transcend means?"

  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner.
  • Cold call on students to share their thinking. To transcend means to go beyond the limits or to be greater than. When we "transcend ourselves," we do for others--maybe even sacrificing something to make things better for other people, such as giving up allowance for a fund drive for a family in need. Explain that this quote is about the practice of no longer thinking of oneself and really thinking of others first, which allows a person to truly do for others.
  • Direct students' attention to the final question.
  • Ask:

*   "How does the "ethical culture" (35) of Jem and Scout illustrate the idea of treating others the way you want to be treated? Why is 'finders keepers' different with money?"

  • Remind students that ethical was a vocabulary word from the homework. Cold call on a student to share the definition. Ask students to turn to page 35 and follow along while listening to the paragraph beginning "Finders were keepers ..." and ending with "but money was different" read out loud. Explain that scuppernongs are a type of grape that grows in the South.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with their partner about the questions and jot down their answer. Cold call on students to share their thinking. Listen for answers such as: "'Finders keepers' only counts for things of little value, not money--because Jem and Scout wouldn't steal someone's money from their hiding place" or "Plucking flowers or fruit is harmless and is not the same as taking money. Jem says, 'These are somebody's, I know that. See how they've been slicked up? They've been saved' (35). Jem is not thinking of himself--he is thinking of whoever saved the money."
  • For some students, this assessment may require more than the 40 minutes allotted. Consider providing students time over multiple days if necessary.
  • For some students, this assessment may require more than the 40 minutes allotted. Consider providing students time over multiple days if necessary.

B. Understanding the Radleys' Melancholy Little Drama: Networking Sessions (15 minutes)

  • Be sure students have their novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Ask students to focus on Chapter 3, page 51. Remind them to follow along in their heads as they listen to the text read aloud. Read out loud beginning at Jem, "I know what we're going to play ..." (51) through the end of the chapter, page 42. This should be a true read-aloud, read fluently, slowly, and with appropriate feeling.
  • Distribute and display the Networking Sessions Note-catcher. Explain that today students will have an opportunity to discuss the novel with students they might not regularly work with--this will be a "mix-up" version of Think-Pair-Share.
  • Give directions:

* After you hear the question read aloud, take one minute to think about your answer, locating evidence in the novel to support your thinking. Jot down ideas or page numbers on your note sheet.

* When given the signal, find someone you do not have a Discussion Appointment with or have not worked with before and write his/her initials on your paper. Both partners take turns sharing their thinking, using evidence from the text for 1 minute total.

  • Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for the remaining prompts.
  • As students work, use Chapter 4 Close Reading Guide (teacher reference) (see supporting materials) to support students.
  • Once students have completed all three prompts, cold call on students to share their thinking, characters and theme.
  • Text-dependent questions can be answered only by referring explicitly to the text being read. This encourages students to reread the text for further analysis and allows for a deeper understanding.
  • Some students may benefit from having access to "hint cards": small slips of paper or index cards that they turn over for hints about how/where to find the answers to text-dependent questions. For example, a hint card might say, "Check back in the third paragraph on page 7."

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Reflecting on Atticus's Character (5 minutes)

  • Ask students to get out their Atticus Note-catcher, structured notes on Chapters 2-4, and copies of To Kill a Mockingbird. Invite them to work with their elbow partner and add to their Atticus Note-catchers from those chapters.
  • Distribute the Homework: To Kill a Mockingbird Structured Notes, Chapter 5 or Homework: To Kill a Mockingbird Supported Structured Notes, Chapter 5 and briefly preview the homework.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Complete a first read of Chapter 5, using structured notes. Answer the focus question: "Miss Maudie says, "Atticus Finch is the same in his house as he is in public" (61). What evidence so far proves this true? 
  • Provide struggling learners with the supported structured notes for additional scaffolding as they read the novel.

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