Analyzing How Literature Draws on Themes from the Bible and World Religions: The Golden Rule (Chapter 3) | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G8:M2A:U1:L12

Analyzing How Literature Draws on Themes from the Bible and World Religions: The Golden Rule (Chapter 3)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (RL.8.1)
  • I can analyze the extent to which a filmed version of a story stays faithful to or departs from the text, evaluating the choices made by actors or directors. (RL.8.7)
  • I can analyze the connections between modern fiction and myths, traditional stories, or religious works (themes, patterns of events, character types). (RL.8.9)
  • I can use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words or phrases. (L.8.4)

Supporting Targets

  • I can deepen my understanding of key words in To Kill a Mockingbird by using a vocabulary square.
  • I can support my inferences about Chapter 3 of To Kill a Mockingbird with the strongest evidence from the text.
  • I can evaluate the similarities and differences between the novel and the film version of To Kill a Mockingbird.
  • I can analyze how the author draws on the theme of the Golden Rule in Chapter 3.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Structured notes, Chapter 3 (from homework)
  • Vocabulary square
  • Golden Rule Note-catcher
  • Text to Film Comparison Note-catcher

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

 A. Engaging the Reader and Review Learning Targets: Vocabulary Square (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Gallery Walk: Golden Rule in World Religions (15 minutes)

B. Text to Film Comparison: Walking around in Another Person's Skin (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

 A. Debrief Learning Targets and Preview Homework (5 minutes)

4. Homework

 A. Complete a first read of Chapter 4. Take notes using the Structured Notes graphic organizer.

  • In advance: Review the Gallery Walk protocol (Appendix 1). Prepare the quotes for the Gallery Walk around the room.
  • This lesson introduces an important theme in the novel, the Golden Rule. The Gallery Walk introduction of this theme incorporates a wide variety of worldviews, philosophies, and religions.
  • Students also view a short segment of the film version of To Kill a Mockingbird. Viewing film clips serves two purposes. First, it helps struggling readers make sense of this complex text. The interplay of reading, rereading, and viewing is an engaging way to present this material. (Note: Do not play the entire film for students. Strategically designed lessons incorporate film at critical junctures in student learning.) For this first purpose, the film is a supplement; working with the text is the goal. The second purpose for using the film clips is to directly address RL.7.9. Students compare the film version of certain scenes to the novel. Students begin to use the new Text to Film Comparison Note-catcher. Note that Work Time Part B includes time to ensure that students understand two phrases that are crucial academic vocabulary related to RL.8.9: "stays faithful to" and "departs from." Continue to reinforce these phrases across the unit. Note also that RL.8.9 requires students not only to notice similarities and differences, but specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of the changes made by the director and actors.
  • Students analyze the types of shots the director uses in this scene. A resource with stills from the film of the various shot types and camera angles can be found at the following website: http://www.frankwbaker.com/camerashots.htm
  • In advance: Decide which Discussion Appointment to use today.
  • Preview: To Kill a Mockingbird film clip, 39:00-41:55.

Vocabulary

evaluate, stay faithful, depart; erratic (32), tranquility (32), contemptuous (36), compromise (41), concessions 41)

Materials

  • Vocabulary square (one per student)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird Structured Notes graphic organizer, Chapter 3 (from Lesson 11)
  • "Golden Rule" quotes written on chart paper for use in Gallery Walk (new; teacher-created; see quotes in supporting materials)
  • "Golden Rule" Note-catcher (one per student and one for display)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird (book; one per student)
  • Timer
  • Document camera
  • DVD of To Kill a Mockingbird film (segment where Atticus and Scout discuss walking around in another's skin, 39:00-41:55)
  • Technology to view scenes from the film
  • Text to Film Comparison Note-catcher, To Kill a Mockingbird Part 1 (one per student)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird Structured Notes graphic organizer, Chapter 4 (one per student)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird Supported Structured Notes Graphic Organizer, Chapter 4 (optional for students needing more support)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader and Review Learning Target: Vocabulary Square (5 minutes)

  • Have learning targets posted for students to read.
  • Students should sit with their selected Discussion Appointment partner. Be sure that they have their structured notes from their homework and distribute a vocabulary square to each student. Invite students to work with their partner to choose a word they defined from the homework and complete the vocabulary square like the one modeled in the previous lesson. Students may work together, but they should each complete their own square. Circulate and monitor students as they work. Collect the vocabulary squares as a formative assessment. Consider displaying exemplars of each word from the chapter.
  • Direct students' attention to the learning targets. Read the first two aloud:

* "I can deepen my understanding of key words in To Kill a Mockingbird by using a vocabulary square."

* "I can support my inferences about Chapter 3 of To Kill a Mockingbird with the strongest evidence from 
 the text."

  • Remind students that they have already been working with these targets. Today they will also work with two new learning targets. Read the next target:

* "I can evaluate the similarities and differences between the novel and the film version of To Kill a Mockingbird."

  • Explain that this new target will involve watching scenes from the movie and comparing and contrasting the film and novel. They will also be asked to evaluate the changes the director or actors made. This means they will judge or determine whether or not those changes were effective and why or why not.
  • Focus on the last target:

* "I can analyze how the author draws on the theme of the Golden Rule in Chapter 3."

  • Explain that they will revisit this target throughout the novel, as this is another important theme.
  • Return the student summaries of Chapter 2. Invite students to look at the feedback and note what their strengths are for the next time they write a summary.
  • ELLs may be unfamiliar with more vocabulary words than are mentioned in this lesson. Check for comprehension of general words that most students would know.
  • ELLs and readers who struggle will benefit from the optional supported structured notes, which provide a summary of the chapter and the vocabulary words defined.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Gallery Walk: Golden Rule in World Religions (15 minutes)

  • Display and distribute the Golden Rule Note-catcher and explain the process for the Gallery Walk protocol:
  • Tell students that in a moment, they will get to examine several quotes for the Gallery Walk that are posted throughout the room (or along the hallway outside the classroom).
  • At each quote, they should pause and think about how it is similar or different from the others, but they do not have to write anything while they are walking around. They should identify the one they find the most interesting, which they should write down.
  • Tell students they will have just 30-40 seconds at each quote.
  • You might need to coach your students about your expectations for safe movement and for quiet voices during this work period. (Ex: "As you move from quote to quote, there is no need to engage in side conversations. I expect 'zero' voice levels during this time. Also, please move carefully, taking care not to bump into one another.")
  • Ask them to begin. Use a timer set to 5 minutes to keep students focused on the gallery.
  • As students complete this activity, circulate to observe and support as needed.
  • Once students have observed the gallery for 4 minutes, ask them to return to their seats and complete the same and different chart on their Note-catcher.
  • Ask students:

* "What do all of these quotes have in common?"

  • Invite students to turn and talk about this question. Circulate around the room while they discuss. Cold call on student pairs to share their thinking. Listen for students to identify that the quotes are all about how to treat others.
  • Ask:

* "What were some of the differences?"

  • Cold call on several students to share what they identified as differences. The key difference is that some are framed in negative terms (don't do to others what you wouldn't want done to you) and some are positive (treat others like yourself).
  • Direct students to the next task on the Note-catcher, which is putting the idea of the Golden Rule into their own words. 
  • Invite students to Think-Write-Pair-Share. Cold call on students to share their response. Chose a response to use as a model on the displayed copy.
  • Finally, direct students to the last part of the Note-catcher, identifying examples in the novel and explaining how the scenes illustrate the Golden Rule. Ask students to take a few moments to identify a scene from Chapter 3 and explain how that scene illustrates the Golden Rule.
  • Then invite students to turn and talk about their thinking. Circulate and listen for them to mention Scout bringing Walter home for lunch, Calpurnia telling Scout that anyone who sets foot in the house is company and deserves to be treated as such, Little Chuck trying to help Miss Caroline, and Atticus explaining to Scout that she should consider things from another person's point of view.
  • Cold call on students to share their thinking. Probe for thorough explanations of how scenes throughout the chapter illustrate the idea of the Golden Rule. Possible probing questions might include: "Why does Scout invite Walter home for lunch?" "How does Calpurnia explain the idea of treating others the way you would want to be treated to Scout?" "How is Little Chuck a 'born gentleman'?" "How does this reflect the Golden Rule?" and "How is climbing in someone else's skin an example of the Golden Rule?"

B. Text to Film Comparison: Walking around in Another Person's Skin (20 minutes)

  • Be sure students have their novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Ask students to turn to the scene in the novel where Scout explains to Atticus that she doesn't want to go to school anymore. Remind students that they should read and follow along in their heads while they hear the novel being read out loud.
  • Read aloud from "Something wrong, Scout?" (39) to "I never went to school" (42). This should be a true read-aloud--smooth, fluent, and with appropriate feeling.
  • Distribute and display the Text to Film Comparison Note-catcher To Kill a Mockingbird Part 1 using the document camera. Remind students that the third learning target was about comparing and contrasting the text with the film.
  • Tell students that before they watch the film segment or actually work with this new Note-catcher, you will just orient them to the columns of the Note-catcher. Focus students on the second column and cold call on a student to read the questions in that column aloud:

*   "What is the same? How does the film version stay faithful to the novel?"

  • Ask students to think and then talk with a partner: 

*   "What do you think stay faithful means?"

  • Cold call on a student to respond. Students may connect staying faithful to their religious faith or remaining faithful to a friend. Clarify as needed: Be sure students understand that in this context, to stay faithful means to stay the same, to stick to the original.
  • Focus students on the third column and cold call on a student volunteer to read the questions in that column aloud:

* "What is different? How does the film version depart from the novel?"

    • Ask:

      * "What do you think depart means?"

    • Call on a student volunteer to explain that to depart means to change or go away from.
    • Read the question in the last column:

*"Evaluation: Do the choices of the director or actors effectively convey the central message of the text? Why or why not?"

  • Remind students that when we read, we often get an idea in our minds of what characters look like or how they are supposed to act. We imagine scenes and settings. Directors, actors, and even the screenwriter make decisions about how a novel is going to be portrayed on screen, including changing things dramatically on occasion. The director also uses camera angles, lighting, music, and different types of shots to tell the story. After identifying what is the same and different, they will have to determine if the film stays true to the central message of the scene and evaluate the choices of the director or actors in conveying the scene.
  • Show the DVD of To Kill a Mockingbird (beginning at 39:00 and ending at 41:55).
  • Have students jot down their answers in the first two columns. Invite them to turn and talk with their Discussion Appointment partner.
  • Then cold call on students to share details. On the displayed Note-catcher, model adding these notes on the "same" column. Details include: takes place on the porch, sitting on the swing, and some similar dialogue.
  • Call on students for details to add to the "different" column on the teacher model. Details include that the two scenes--Walter eating lunch and Atticus and Scout talking--did not happen one right before the other in the novel, during much of the film scene the camera is on Atticus, Atticus does not lecture Scout on why she must go to school, Atticus doesn't talk about Mr. Ewell hunting out of season, Scout doesn't attempt to spit in her hand to "seal the bargain."
  • Tell students that before they finish the Note-catcher, they will watch the film clip again, focusing on the camera angles, lighting, types of shots, music, or the movements of the actors. Students will evaluate the choices made by the director or actors and the impact those choices have on the viewer or the scene.
  • Ask:

*   "Do the choices effectively convey the central message of the text? Why or why not?"

  • Explain that in this scene, the director makes use of close-ups--where the camera is focused on the actors' faces. Ask:

*   Why might a director want to use a close-up? What do you think it shows the viewer?"

*   Cold call on students to provide answers such as it lets the viewer feel like they are close, it shows intimacy or closeness between characters, it allows the viewer to understand a characters emotions because you are looking at their face.

*   Ask students to pay special attention to those close ups as they watch the scene again.

*   Show the same film clip again. Invite students to respond to the final question on their Note-catcher. Then have students share with their partner.

  • Circulate around the room and probe with individuals or pairs to be sure they are actually evaluating. Probing questions might include:

*   "What do we learn from Atticus's lecture?" (background information on the Ewells, when it's OK to bend the law and when it isn't)

*   "Does the scene provide necessary information for the viewer?"

*   "What does the reader learn from the rest of Scout's first day of school?" (the Ewells have no respect for school, they are dirty, Little Chuck is a gentleman)

*   "Is it necessary information or do we still understand what is going on?"

*   "What do those close-ups of Atticus and Scout show the viewer? (The viewer witnesses Atticus's kindness up close, from Scout's perspective; seeing both characters together helps the viewer understand the closeness of their characters--they have a special bond)

*   Remind students that choices directors or actors make can be positive (they help the viewer understand the scene), negative (they make the scene less clear than in the text), or neutral (they are neither better nor worse).

*   Answers will vary, but students should see that the film does stay true to the central ideas of the scene in the text because the lecture about why Scout needs to attend school is unnecessary. However, students might point out that skipping what happened at school after lunch results in the loss of details about some of the people living in Maycomb. Student explanations must be logical and based on the film and text. Use the same probing questions listed above to try to elicit evaluation of the changes made.

  • Hearing a complex text read slowly, fluently, and without interruption or explanation promotes fluency for students. This strategy also supports students' comprehension by allowing them to make initial meaning without working so hard to read the text. Be sure to set clear expectations that students read along silently in their heads as you read the text aloud.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Debrief Learning Targets and Preview Homework (5 minutes)

  • Cold call on students to read each learning target and ask students to self-assess using Fist to Five.
  • Distribute the Homework: To Kill a Mockingbird Structured Notes, Chapter 4 or Homework: To Kill a Mockingbird Supported Structured Notes, Chapter 4 and briefly preview the homework.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Complete a first read of Chapter 4, using structured notes. Answer the focus question: "Atticus says, 'You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view ... until you climb into his skin and walk around in it' (Ch. 3, pg. 30). How is this advice taken or ignored in this chapter?" Use the strongest evidence from the novel in your answer.

Note: Be sure to test the TED Talk clip needed for Lesson 13, 
http://www.ted.com/talks/karen_armstrong_let_s_revive_the_golden_rule.html

  • Provide struggling learners with the supported structured notes for additional scaffolding as they read the novel.

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