Forming a Research-Based Claim: Analyzing Risks and Benefits for Stakeholder | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G7:M4A:U2:L15

Forming a Research-Based Claim: Analyzing Risks and Benefits for Stakeholder

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (W.7.1)
  • I can select evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (W.7.9)
  • I can use my experience and knowledge of language and logic to address problems and advocate persuasively. (RI.7.9a, SL.7.2a)
  • I can use effective speaking techniques (appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation). (SL.7.4)

Supporting Targets

  • I can analyze the risks and benefits of entertainment screen time for adolescents.
  • I can use my knowledge of the effects of screen time on the development of teenagers to argue persuasively about how much to limit screen time.
  • I can practice the skills and expectations of a Fishbowl discussion.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Students' discussion during World Cafe

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Entry Task: Thinking Log (5 minutes)

B. Previewing the Cascading Consequences in Writing (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Position Power-Talk: World Cafe (22 minutes)

B. Debrief (3 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Starting the Fishbowl Graphic Organizer (10 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Finish the Fishbowl graphic organizer.

  • In this lesson,, students complete the series of lessons that have helped them prepare their research for both a Fishbowl discussion (in Lesson 16) and the eventual position paper/essay in Unit 3, in which they will answer this prompt: "Should the AAP raise the recommended daily entertainment screen time from two hours to four hours?" If you have not done so already, preview Unit 3 and the Final Performance Task (in Module overview documents) in order to be more oriented to this culminating task.
  • To begin, students preview the writing they will do in Unit 3. In Opening B, you will show them how the intellectual work they have done on cascading and comparing consequences will appear in a sample body paragraph. Be sure to emphasize that all their thinking and discussing now will lead to much better work in Unit 3. Students can only argue well about a position they know deeply, and these activities will give them a chance to develop this knowledge.
  • This lesson centers on comparing the risks and benefits of entertainment screen time, and a large portion is devoted to this cognitive task. In Work Time A, students grapple with the risks and benefits as they practice the speaking and listening skills they will be assessed on in the upcoming Fishbowl.
  • Students should be familiar with and move fairly quickly through the World Cafe protocol; however, based on the needs of your students, this lesson may take more than 45 minutes. Consider breaking the lesson across two days (splitting it between Rounds II and III of the World Cafe protocol) or reducing the number of rounds.
  • Encourage students to return to their original texts at any point for any clarification they require. Returning to the text consistently is a "habit of mind" that should be emphasized.
  • In advance:

-    Divide the class into groups of four.

-    Set up the classroom and materials for the World Cafe.

-    Create Recording Charts on chart paper; one per group of four, labeled Recording Chart 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., depending on the number of groups you have.

-    Review the World Cafe protocol (see Appendix).

  • Post: Learning targets.

Materials

  • Thinking Logs (from Unit 1, Lesson 2; one per student)
  • Cascading Consequences in Action (one per student and one to display)
  • Position Power-Talk: Source Checklist (one per student)
  • Comparing Risks and Benefits charts for teens on screens (from Lesson 14)
  • Position Paper prompt anchor chart (from Lesson 1)
  • Blank chart paper(one piece per group of four)
  • Markers (one per group of four)
  • Table cards (one per group of four)
  • Discussion protocols (one per group of four)
  • World Cafe protocol directions (one to display; see Appendix)
  • Document camera
  • Teens and Screens Fishbowl graphic organizer, Parts I and II (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Entry Task: Thinking Logs (5 minutes)

  • Greet students and direct students to their Thinking Logs. Ask them to answer for Lesson 15:

*   "What have you found most personally interesting about the risks and benefits of screen time? Why?"

  • Ask them to turn and talk to a partner about what they wrote.
  • If appropriate, ask students to share with the whole class.

B. Previewing the Cascading Consequences in Writing (5 minutes)

  • Distribute and display Cascading Consequences in Action,which is a sample body paragraph. Explain that this is from the model essay they will read in depth in Unit 3. This essay is in response to a similar prompt. Read the prompt at the top of the page.
  • Tell students to follow along as you read aloud. Ask them to notice and underline any similarities they see between this body paragraph and the work they have been doing on their Cascading Consequences charts or their Comparing the Risks and Benefits for teens on screens charts.
  • Read the paragraph aloud.
  • Ask students to raise their hands when they notice a similarity. Wait for most hands to be in the air and then call on students. Listen for them to identify the "cascading consequence chain" in the second half of the paragraph. Prompt students by asking them to put their finger on any "if ... then" statements.
  • Congratulate them on doing the intellectual work of cascading consequence and risk/benefit analysis. Assure them that this will make their writing in Unit 3 richer, more interesting, more thoughtful, and ultimately more effective.
  • Whenever possible, ask students who would benefit from physical activity to help you distribute and collect materials and handouts.

 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Position Power-Talk: World Cafe (22 minutes)

  • Distribute the Position Power-Talk: Source Checklist. Make sure students have a writing utensil and their Comparing Risks and Benefits charts for teens on screens.
  • Refer them back to the Position Paper Prompt anchor chart: "After examining both the potential benefits and risks of entertainment screen time, particularly to the development of teenagers, make a recommendation. Should the AAP raise its recommended daily entertainment screen time from two hours to four hours?"
  • Let students know that they will now participate in a discussion activity that will help them examine what the answer to that question should be. They will not make their final decision today but should listen to others and continue to keep an open mind.
  • Arrange students into groups of four, with each quad sitting at a table with materials for the World Cafe: blank chart paper, a marker, a table card, and discussion protocols.
  • Students must have their charts and writing utensils with them throughout the World Cafe.
  • The four table cards will pose these four questions, one on each card:

-   What are the most compelling neurological consequences for screen time?

-   Discuss the most positive consequences listed on your Cascading Consequences chart for screen time. How could these strengthen an argument to raise the recommended time? How could this weaken an argument to keep it at two hours?

-   Discuss the most negative consequences listed on your Cascading Consequences chart for screen time. How could these strengthen an argument to limit it to two hours? How could these weaken an argument to raise it to four hours?

-   Compare the risks to the benefits of screen time. Which benefits outweigh which risks? Which risks outweigh which benefits?

  • Display the World Cafe protocol directions with the document camera or on a chart. Briefly review the protocol directions.
  • Remind students that they may have done this protocol once before, in Module 2A. Explain that it will feel fast-paced at first, because it's designed to give every student a chance to think for a bit about each question. Caution students that you will interrupt their conversations, but they will have a chance to keep working with their ideas at the end of the activity. Review the simple signal you will use to indicate when each round is done (e.g., raising hands, clapping).
  • Use of protocols (like World Cafe) allows for total participation of students. It encourages critical thinking, collaboration, mixed-level groups, and social construction of knowledge. It also helps students practice their speaking and listening skills.
  • If necessary, to accommodate the size of your classes, either eliminate or add a round to the World Cafe. Note that if you must add a round, you also need to develop an additional table card discussion question. Note also that if you eliminate a round, the other table card questions may need to be adjusted to ensure that students have an equal opportunity to discuss their charts.
  • Students may have engaged in the World Cafe protocol before, in Module 2A. If not, consider how you might need to adapt this work time to introduce the World Cafe as a new activity.
  • Note that this is also an activity in which students will practice conducting civil, respectful conversations with one another about the subject material. Refer back to the second and third learning targets:

*   "I can use my knowledge of the effects of screen time on the development of teenagers to argue persuasively about how much to limit screen time."

*   "I can practice the skills and expectations of a Fishbowl discussion."

  • Round I: Ask each quad to choose a student to be the "Recorder" for the first round. The Recorder will write down ideas from the group's conversation on the recording chart at the table. Ask all groups to have their Recorder raise his or her hand.
  • Remind students to use their Comparing Risks and Benefits chart and Cascading Consequences chart to support their discussions. They should also use the source checklist to help them remember to ground their conversation in the texts they read.
  • Focus the class on the discussion protocols. Tell them that these are the same protocols for which they will be assessed in the next lesson's Fishbowl. Ask students to read the discussion protocols aloud:

*   "Present your claim in a focused, coherent manner."

*   "Incorporate relevant facts, descriptions, details, and examples to support your claim."

*   "Present evidence in a logical and convincing manner."

*   "Use appropriate eye contact."

*   "Use adequate volume."

*   "Use clear pronunciation."

*   "Use formal English."

*   "Take notes on what your classmates are saying when it is not your turn to speak."

  • Focus groups on the question on their table card prompts. Ask them to read the question aloud and then discuss it. Ask the Recorder to take notes on the table's recording chart. Remind Recorders to make their letters about one inch high so that their writing will be visible when posted at the end of the activity.
  • After 3 minutes, use the signal to get students' attention. Explain the transition that they will do momentarily:

-   The Recorders will stay seated at the table where they have been working.

-   The other students in each quad will stand and rotate together to the table in the next section with different table card prompts.

  • Signal students to transition quickly and quietly.
  • Round II: Give specific positive praise for strong discussions--e.g., text-based, focused on the question, building on each other's ideas, asking each other questions, and following the discussion protocols.
  • Be sure that the Round I Recorder has remained at his/her original table. Tell the class the following three steps, then prompt them to begin:

-   The Round I Recorder summarizes the conversation that happened at that table during Round I.

-   Choose a new Round II Recorder from the new students at the table.

-   The new group reads the discussion protocols and the question on their table card prompt, then begins a discussion about the question.

  • Remind students to use their charts to support their discussions. Prompt the Round II Recorder to take notes on the table's recording chart. Remind Recorders to make their letters about one inch high so that their writing will be visible when posted at the end of the activity.
  • After 3 minutes, use the signal to get students' attention. Remind them of the transition:

-   Round II Recorders will stay seated at the table where they have been working.

-   The other students in each quad will stand and rotate together to the table in the next section with a different table card prompt.

  • Signal the transition to Round III.
  • Round III: Give specific positive praise for strong discussions--e.g., text-based, focused on the question, building on each other's ideas, asking each other questions, and following the discussion protocols.
  • Repeat the process from Round II.
  • Be sure that the Round II Recorder has remained at his or her Round II table. Review the three steps, then prompt them to begin:

-   The Round II Recorder summarizes the conversation that happened at that table during Round II.

-   Choose a new Round III Recorder from the new students at the table.

-   The new group reads the question on their table card prompt and then begins a discussion about the question.

  • Remind them to use their charts to support their discussions. Prompt the new Recorder to take notes on the table's recording chart. Remind Recorders to make their letters about one inch high so that their writing will be visible when posted at the end of the activity.
  • After 3 minutes, use the signal to get students' attention. Remind them of the transition:

-   Round III Recorders will stay seated at the table where they have been working.

-   The other students in each quad will stand and rotate together to the table in the next section with different table card prompts.

  • Signal the transition to Round IV.
  • Round IV: Give specific positive praise for strong discussions--e.g., text-based, focused on the question, building on each other's ideas, asking each other questions, and following the discussion protocols.
  • Repeat the process from Round III.
  • Be sure that the Round III Recorder has remained at his or her Round III table. Review the three steps, and then prompt them to begin:

-   The Round III Recorder summarizes the conversation that happened at that table during Round III.

-   Choose a new Round IV Recorder from the new students at the table.

-   The new group reads the discussion protocols and the question on their table card prompt and then begins a discussion about the question.

  • After 3 minutes, use the signal to get students' attention. At this point, they should have discussed each of the questions on the table card prompts. Thank them for their participation and collaboration during the World Cafe. Point out several specific things you noticed about how they used the protocol more effectively this time than the first time.
  • Ask all Round IV Recorders to bring their recording charts to the front of the room and post them so that they are visible to all.
  • Use of protocols (like World Cafe) allows for total participation of students. It encourages critical thinking, collaboration, mixed-level groups, and social construction of knowledge. It also helps students practice their speaking and listening skills.
  • If necessary, to accommodate the size of your classes, either eliminate or add a round to the World Cafe. Note that if you must add a round, you also need to develop an additional table card discussion question. Note also that if you eliminate a round, the other table card questions may need to be adjusted to ensure that students have an equal opportunity to discuss their charts.
  • Students may have engaged in the World Cafe protocol before, in Module 2A. If not, consider how you might need to adapt this work time to introduce the World Cafe as a new activity.

B. Debrief (3 minutes)

  • Refer students to the learning targets:

*   I can analyze the risks and benefits of entertainment screen time for adolescents.

*   I can use my knowledge of the effects of screen time on the development of teenagers to argue persuasively about how much to limit screen time.

*   I can practice the skills and expectations of a Fishbowl discussion.

  • Ask students to think of one thing they saw or heard today that helped make discussions effective. When they have thought of one, they should raise their hands. When more than half the class has a hand up, cold call several students to share their thinking.
  • Have students do a Heads-Down, Hands-Up closing activity. Ask them to put their heads down on their desks and raise their hands when you say the sentence that best applies to them:

-   "I am ready for the Fishbowl discussion."

-   "I am going to need to review my notes and discussion skills a bit before the Fishbowl discussion."

-   "I need some significant practice at home before the Fishbowl discussion."

  • Consider selecting students ahead of time for cold calls. Those who need practice in oral response or extended processing time can be told the prompt before class begins to prepare for their participation. This also allows for a public experience of academic success for students who may struggle with on-demand questioning, or for struggling students in general.

 

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Starting the Fishbowl Graphic Organizer (10 minutes)

  • Distribute the Teens and Screens Fishbowl graphic organizer, Parts I and II.Tell students that they should take all of their charts and the researcher's notebook home tonight to help them complete the graphic organizer.
  • Remind students that during the Fishbowl in the next lesson, they will be arguing for one side or the other, but they will not get to choose. Therefore, they should be prepared for both sides of the graphic organizer.
  • Encourage them to get started and to work quietly on their own.

Homework

Homework
  • Complete the Fishbowl graphic organizer.

Note: Before Lesson 16, assign each student to one of two groups: those arguing that the recommended screen time should be four hours and those arguing to keep the recommendation at two hours. Do not inform students ahead of time which group they have been assigned to. They are expected to complete activities and homework relating to both recommendations.

Also see Lesson 16's Teaching Notes and Work Time A to prepare accordingly to model the speaking techniques students will be asked to use during the Fishbowl discussion.

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