Forming a Research-Based Claim: Comparing Cascading Consequences | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G7:M4A:U2:L14

Forming a Research-Based Claim: Comparing Cascading Consequences

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (W.7.1)
  • I can select evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (W.7.9)
  • I can use effective speaking techniques (appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation). (SL.7.4)

Supporting Targets

  • I can create a Comparing Risks and Benefits chart based on teenagers and screen time, using my Cascading Consequences chart and researcher's notebook.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Cascading Consequences chart for teens on screens (from homework)
  • Comparing Risks and Benefits chart

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Triad Talk: Revisiting Homework and Coding Consequences (15 minutes)

B. Reviewing Learning Target; Introducing Comparing Risks and Benefits Chart (3 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Modeling Comparing Risk and Benefits Chart (10 minutes)

B. Creating the Comparing Risk and Benefits Chart (10 minutes)

C. Adding to the Comparing Risks and Benefits Chart: Partner Work (5 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Debrief (2 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Complete the Comparing Risks and Benefits for Teens on Screens chart.
Continue independent reading (at least 20 minutes). 

  • This lesson continues to help students prepare their research for both a Fishbowl discussion (in Lesson 16) and the eventual position paper/essay in Unit 3, in which they will answer this prompt: "Should the AAP raise the recommended daily entertainment screen time from two hours to four hours?"
  • As noted in the module overview, this module focuses on just two of the steps in the SCDM process. In this lesson, students return to the Triad Talk speaking protocol begun in Lesson 1 to continue to work on their Cascading Consequences charts. Then they use these as a basis for a chart that asks them to compare risks to benefits.
  • The Comparing Risks and Benefits chart is an adapted Stakeholders chart from the SCDM process. In the typical decision-making process, students identify and compare stakeholders after they have completed a Cascading Consequences chart, but in this case, because students must spend a lot of time weighing potential risks and benefits for one stakeholder, this process has been adapted. Students will more successfully argue a position if they have had adequate time to directly weigh benefits and risks for one major stakeholder: an adolescent.
  • This lesson follows a similar format to Lesson 13. Since this is the first time students work with this type of chart, their work is highly scaffolded, with you modeling using the Cascading Consequences chart begun in Lesson 13. Be sure to read through the detailed think aloud  and to try the activity yourself first to get an idea of the thinking involved.
  • Encourage students to return to their original texts at any point for any clarification they require. Returning to the text consistently is a "habit of mind" that should be emphasized.
  • As noted in Lesson 13, the lessons on cascading consequences are among the most challenging of this unit. Feel free to modify and differentiate the lessons according to your professional judgment so that all students may reach the learning targets. If time permits, consider breaking the activities in Lessons 13 and 14 into three days of instruction.
  • In advance:

-   Familiarize yourself with the SCDM process. See Unit 2 overview and Module overview for more information.

-   Read the details of  Work Time A and fill in a Comparing Risks and Benefits chart to better understand the thought process.

  • Post: Learning target.

Vocabulary

intended, unintended

Materials

  • Colored pencils (two different colors for each student)
  • Sample Comparing Risks and Benefits chart for an after-school job (one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Position Paper Prompt anchor chart (from Lesson1)
  • Comparing Risks and Benefits chart for teens on screens (one per student and one to display)
  • Sample Comparing Risks and Benefits chart for teens on screens (for teacher reference)
  • Model Comparing Risks and Benefits Chart Think-Aloud (for teacher reference)
  • Researcher's notebook (begun in Lesson 4; one per student)
  • "Learning to Make Decisions Systematically" article (optional; see Homework, Meeting Students' Needs column)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Triad Talk: Revisiting Homework and Coding Consequences(15 minutes)

  • Greet students and arrange them in triads.
  • Ask students to take out their homework, the Cascading Consequences chart for teens on screens.
  • Invite them to take turns answering these questions:

*   "What is your strongest cascading consequence--the one you feel you understand the most clearly?"

*   "Do you have any questions about what you wrote last night?"

  • Students should copy their partners' strongest cascading consequence onto their own chart. They should also attempt to clarify any questions their partners came across while doing the homework. Circulate during this discussion and provide answers if needed. You may also wish to give feedback toward SL.7.4 at this time.
  • After 8 minutes, distribute two different colored pencils to each student.
  • Explain that they will now code their consequences. If a consequence is positive, they should code it in one color. If it is negative, they should code it in the other color. If it is neutral, they should leave it as is. Encourage them to ask each other for help.
  • After a few minutes, invite students to take turns answering these prompts:

*   "What is your strongest negative cascading consequence--the one you feel you understand most clearly?"

*   "What is your strongest positive cascading consequence--the one you feel you understand most clearly?"

  • When possible, have students who need physical activity take on the active roles of managing and writing on charts or handing out materials.
  • Consider selecting students ahead of time for cold calls. Those who need practice in oral response or extended processing time can be told the prompt before class begins to prepare for their participation. This also allows for a public experience of academic success for students who may struggle with on-demand questioning, or for struggling students in general.
  • For all vocabulary, consider drawing or posting small pictures next to each word on anchor charts to activate as many sensory means of comprehension as possible. Consider having your artistically talented or motivated students take on this responsibility.

B. Reviewing Learning Target; Introducing Comparing Risks and Benefits Chart (3 minutes)

  • Read the learning target aloud:

*   "I can create a Comparing Risks and Benefits chart based on teenagers and screen time, using my Cascading Consequences chart and researcher's notebook."

  • Circle the words risk and benefit on the posted learning target. Ask students to define the words. Point out that "negative consequence" is a risk and "positive consequence" is a benefit.

Display the sample Comparing Risks and Benefits chart for an after-school job using the document camera.

  • Invite students to discuss with their partner:

*   "What do you notice about this chart?"

*   "What do you wonder?"

  • Listen for: "It shows how teens are affected by this decision," "It asks you to balance out the positives and the negatives," and "It asks you to rank the benefits and risks."
  • Explain that creating a chart that compares the benefits to the risks is the second piece of the research process that they have already begun. Refer to the posted Position Paper Prompt anchor chart:

*   "After examining both the potential benefits and risks of entertainment screen time, particularly to the development of teenagers, make a recommendation. Should the AAP raise the recommended daily entertainment screen time from two hours to four hours?"

  • Reiterate that the class is using a structured decision-making process so that each student decides how to best answer this question based on the evidence from class reading and on his or her additional research, rather than basing the decision on emotions or gut feelings.
  • Explain that to answer this prompt, it is important to weigh risks and benefits against each other and decide which one is more important. Reiterate that this should not be about what is most important to them personally. This is a position paper in which they try to be as objective as possible about the risks and benefits.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Modeling Comparing Risks and Benefits (10 minutes)

  • Distribute and display the Comparing Risks and Benefits chart for teens on screens under the document camera. Tell students you will now model how to use the chart.
  • Refer students to the chain of cascading consequences you added to the Cascading Consequences chart from "Is Google Making Us Stupid?" in Lesson 13, Work Time A.
  • Begin to think aloud about how to turn these consequences into entries on the Comparing Risks and Benefits chart, referring as needed to the sample Comparing Risks and Benefits chart for teens on screens (for teacher reference). Use the Model Comparing Risks and Benefits Chart Think-Aloud as needed.

 

  • After stretches of intensive reading and writing during which physical movement is not built into the instruction, consider having students stand up for a quick "brain break" or a physical stretch at natural breaks in the work time (between Work Times A and B, for example). Research indicates that these breaks are important for neurological growth, especially for boys. Their cognitive processing requires more "rest times" away from the subject matter before re-engaging in learning.
  • Consider reinforcing the idea of intendedunintended, and not applicable through pictures for ELLs or students with emerging literacy

B. Creating the Comparing Risks and Benefits Chart (1o minutes)

  • Remind students of the steps you have just taken to build the chart (consider posting these):
  1. Read the Cascading Consequences chart for teens on screens, looking for negative and positive consequences.
  2. Use the sentence stem to articulate the consequences.
  3. Decide whether a consequence is unintended or intended.
  4. Rank how serious a consequence it is.
  5. Refer to the researcher's notebook if necessary for clarification or ideas.
  • Invite students to work with their partner to add to the chart. Be sure to indicate that they can use all parts of their notes, not just the one you modeled.
  • As students work, circulate to observe and assist. Ask them about each column; in particular, have them articulate the reasoning behind their ranking.
  • After 6 minutes, invite one partnership to explain what they added to their chart. Make these additions to the display chart as they speak. During the explanation, cold call other students to answer these questions:

*   "Did you identify the same consequences as the presenting partnership? Why or why not?"

*   "Would you make any changes to this? What would you change? Why?"

  • After discussing the presenting partnership's additions to the chart, ask students to work with their own partner to revise their Comparing Risks and Benefits chart.
  • Cold call two or three students to explain how they revised their chart and why.

 

 

 

  • Keep in mind that this lesson requires visual comparison and written transferal of information. If students are visually or physically challenged, this process might be modified for them ahead of time so they are not unnecessarily impeded in categorizing and analyzing the evidence. Possible modifications include partially filled-in Comparing Risks and Benefits charts; creating a chart on chart paper and/or lined paper; or giving them items from the research notes on sticky notes to physically sort on the charts.
  • The lesson hinges on the accurate and full completion of the Cascading Consequences charts. Think ahead to whether any previous modifications to these materials for students with special needs should be replicated here. Also, if a student struggles with gathering information on the Cascading Consequences charts, consider pairing him or her with a proficient student or giving examples from the text on sticky notes.

C. Adding to the Comparing Risks and Benefits Chart: Partner Work (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to continue to work with their partner on the chart.
  • Circulate to offer individual assistance.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Debrief (2 minutes)

  • Refocus whole class and review the learning target:

*   "I can create a Comparing Risks and Benefits chart based on teenagers and screen time, using my Cascading Consequences chart and researcher's notebook."

  • Using the Fist to Five Checking for Understanding technique, ask students to assess themselves on the target.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Finish the Comparing Risks and Benefits chart using your Cascading Consequences chart and researcher's notebook as resources. Your goal is to compare at least six consequences.
  • Continue independent reading (at least 20 minutes).
  • This homework is detailed and challenging. Depending on the effort and abilities of your students, consider differentiating the homework according to demonstrated level of need. Students who complete the chart in class may be given the "Learning to Make Decisions Systematically" article for further reading, for example (see Teaching Notes; this article can be found as a part of the module overview). Other students may be sent home with a specified manageable amount of rows to develop on their chart or given a specific Stakeholder category to develop.

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